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Personalization vs. Differentiation vs. Individualization Report-v3

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The Personalization vs. Differentiation vs Individualization Chart (PDI) Report version 3 provides a clear explanation of the PDI chart. The report explains the difference of the three terms through questions and taking the chart apart.

Published in: Education

Personalization vs. Differentiation vs. Individualization Report-v3

  1. 1. Mid-­‐Pacific  Institute  Learners  with  1:1  iPad  program           Personalization  vs.  Differentiation  vs.  Individualization  Report    (PDI)  v3     By  Barbara  Bray  and  Kathleen  McClaskey   Co-­‐Founders  of  Personalize  Learning,  LLC   www.personalizelearning.com  
  2. 2. Barbara  Bray  &  Kathleen  McClaskey  •    4  Arrow  Lane  •  Amherst,  NH  03031  •    617.444.9268                    Email:  personalizelearn@gmail.com      •        www.personalizelearning.com 2 The PDI Chart Explained The positive feedback along with requests for the chart led to a report about the details of the chart. The report included the following questions with answers that help clarify the elements of the PDI chart and provide teachers, administrators, schools and organizations with background information and resources to support discussions around the PDI chart. ♦ What does teaching and learning look like as they relate to these terms? ♦ How do we determine the learner’s needs? ♦ How does the learner participate in their learning? ♦ How are goals and objectives determined for the learner? ♦ How do learners support their learning and each other? ♦ How do you know if learning is meaningful? ♦ How do you assess learning? What does teaching and learning look like as it relates to these terms? Personalization Differentiation Individualization The Learner… The Teacher… The Teacher… drives their own learning. provides instruction to groups of learners. provides instruction to an individual learner. In a personalized learning environment, learning starts with the learner. The learner understands how they learn best so they can become an active participant in designing their learning goals along with the teacher. The learner takes responsibility for their learning. When they own and drive their learning, they are motivated and challenged as they learn so they work harder than their teacher. When teachers differentiate instruction, learners are identified based upon their challenges in a specific content area and skill levels. The teacher uses existing differentiated curriculum or adapts instruction to meet the needs of different groups of learners and select at-risk individual learners.
  3. 3. Barbara  Bray  &  Kathleen  McClaskey  •    4  Arrow  Lane  •  Amherst,  NH  03031  •    617.444.9268                    Email:  personalizelearn@gmail.com      •        www.personalizelearning.com 3 When a teacher individualizes instruction, the teacher identifies the learner’s needs through evaluations based on their challenges or disabilities. The teacher reviews the findings and recommendations from the evaluations with other professionals to adapt materials and instruction for the individual learner who has cognitive or physical challenges. The Missing Piece In traditional classrooms, the focus is on instruction, standards, and tests. The missing piece in most of the conversations about teaching and curriculum is the learner. Consider the classroom is a puzzle and the learner is one piece of the puzzle. That piece too often gets left out of the discussions and decisions around teaching. The focus on teaching, data, and test scores tends to leave out the most important piece: the Learner. How do we determine the learner’s needs? Personalization Differentiation Individualization The Learner… The Teacher… The Teacher… connects learning with interests, talents, passions, and aspirations. adjusts learning needs for groups of learners. accommodates learning needs for the individual learner.
  4. 4. Barbara  Bray  &  Kathleen  McClaskey  •    4  Arrow  Lane  •  Amherst,  NH  03031  •    617.444.9268                    Email:  personalizelearn@gmail.com      •        www.personalizelearning.com 4 In a personalized learning environment, teachers can determine each learner’s needs and how they learn best. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) from CAST (Center for Applied Special Technology) is about understanding the variability of how each learner learns, their strengths, challenges, aptitudes, talents and aspirations. Most important for teachers is to understand how learners can best access and engage with the content and how they can best express what they know and understand. This approach provides the foundation for all learners to take responsibility for their own learning. With this information, the teacher and the learner become partners in learning. The learner has a voice in how they prefer or need to acquire information, a choice in how they express what they know and what ways they prefer to engage with the content. When learners have ownership and take responsibility for their learning, they are more motivated to learn and more engaged in the learning process. Differentiation is responsive teaching where teachers proactively plan varied approaches to what different groups of learners need to learn, how they will learn it, and how they will show what they have learned. In a differentiated classroom, the teacher is developing materials and resources to meet the needs of the different groups of learners. When a teacher designs materials for the needs of different learners and even flips the classroom with multiple resources for learners to choose from based on their needs, the teacher is working harder than they ever have before. Individualized instruction usually involves learners with special needs where they have an Individual Education Plan (IEP). These learners have been evaluated to determine their strengths and weaknesses in areas such as: reading, math, writing and other cognitive challenges. From these evaluations, a set of measurable goals is determined along with accommodations for the individual learner in an IEP. An agreement by the IEP Team is needed to implement them. Implementation can include out of classroom one-to-one instruction and tutoring plus classroom accommodations by the teacher with frequent support by an instructional aide. How does a learner participate in their learning?
  5. 5. Barbara  Bray  &  Kathleen  McClaskey  •    4  Arrow  Lane  •  Amherst,  NH  03031  •    617.444.9268                    Email:  personalizelearn@gmail.com      •        www.personalizelearning.com 5 Personalization Differentiation Individualization The Learner… The Teacher… The Teacher… actively participates in the design of their learning. designs instruction based on the learning needs of different groups of learners. customizes instruction based on the learning needs of the individual learner. owns and is responsible for their learning that includes their voice and choice on how and what they learn. is responsible for a variety of instruction for different groups of learners. is responsible for modifying instruction based on the needs of the individual learner. In a personalized learning environment, learners actively participate in their learning. They have a voice in what they are learning based on how they learn best. Learners have a choice in how they demonstrate what they know and provide evidence of their learning. In a learner-centered environment, learners own and co-design their learning. The teacher is their guide on their personal journey. When learners have choices to interact with the content, discuss what they watched, read, and learned, they are actively participating as learners. Encouraging learner voice and choice is the key difference to the other terms: differentiation and individualization. When learners have a voice in how they learn and a choice in how they engage with content and express what they know, they are more motivated to want to learn and own their learning. In a differentiated classroom, learners may be passive participants in their learning. Teachers may use direct instruction and other methods that they differentiated based upon the learning needs of individuals and different groups of learners in their classroom. Some teachers may set up learning stations or use multiple ways of showing the same content for different types of learners. If the teacher is designing the lesson and differentiating activities to meet the different groups of learners, the teacher is directing how learners learn and learners tend to still passively receive content and directions on what and how to learn. When you individualize instruction, learning is passive even though the instruction is based on each learner’s needs. Teachers or para-professionals deliver instruction to
  6. 6. Barbara  Bray  &  Kathleen  McClaskey  •    4  Arrow  Lane  •  Amherst,  NH  03031  •    617.444.9268                    Email:  personalizelearn@gmail.com      •        www.personalizelearning.com 6 individual learners. The learner has no voice in the design of their instruction or choice in what they learn in this environment. How are goals and objectives determined for the learner? Personalization Differentiation Individualization The Learner… The Teacher… The Teacher… identifies goals for their learning plan and benchmarks as they progress along their learning path with guidance from teacher. identifies the same objectives for different groups of learners as they do for the whole class. identifies the same objectives for all learners with specific objectives for individuals who receive one-on-one support. To personalize learning, the teacher and learner co-design objectives based on the learner’s learning goals. Goals are identified from the learner’s interests, aspirations, talents, and how they prefer and need to learn. Then the teacher works with the learner to identify different objectives that scaffold the skills they need to meet their learning goals. The learner follows these objectives, monitors their progress in meeting the objectives, and reflects on their progress. The teacher is their guide facilitating the learner’s learning process. When differentiating instruction, a teacher identifies the same objectives for different groups of learners. Teachers use and analyze data to identify and group the different learners in their classroom. From this data, they can use, adapt, or create different lessons and find resources about a concept around the same objectives they give to the whole class based on the different group of learners. When you individualize instruction, learners may have the same objectives as all the other learners in the class. However, there can be specific objectives for learners who may need one-on-one support. Teachers or para-professionals then support and provide accommodations for individual learners to meet these specific objectives.
  7. 7. Barbara  Bray  &  Kathleen  McClaskey  •    4  Arrow  Lane  •  Amherst,  NH  03031  •    617.444.9268                    Email:  personalizelearn@gmail.com      •        www.personalizelearning.com 7 How do learners support their learning and each other? Personalization Differentiation Individualization The Learner… The Teacher… The Teacher… develops the skills to select and use the appropriate technology and resources to support and enhance their learning. selects technology and resources to support the learning needs of different groups of learners. selects technology and resources to support the learning needs of the individual learner. builds a network of peers, experts, and teachers to guide and support their learning. supports groups of learners who are reliant on them for their learning. understands the individual learner is dependent on them to support their learning. In a personalized learning environment, learners have acquired the skills to access appropriate and relevant tools and resources to support their learning. They have critical thinking skills so they can self select the tools they need to support any learning task, whether at school or at home. Digital literacy is an essential skill in a personalized learning environment. As 21st century learners, they collaborate, share, and learn with their teachers, peers, experts, and other learners around the world. Being a connected learner is also an essential skill in a personalized learning environment. Each learner builds their personal learning network and connections based on the topic, resources, and skill level. In a personalized learning environment, everyone can be an independent and self-directed learner. To differentiate instruction, the teacher selects the tools and resources for the groups of learners based on the needs of each group and upon the activities or products that are included in the lesson or project. The teacher also considers how appropriate a tool or resource is for the different groups of learners. The learner may be able to choose content or a resource based upon their reading or skill level. To individualize instruction, tools and resources are selected by the teacher and are sometimes recommended by an evaluator, special education professional or consultant. The tools could include specialized software and hardware that supports the specific IEP (Individual Education Plan) goals agreed to by the IEP Team. In the best cases, teachers or para-professionals learn how to use theses specialized tools so that they can instruct
  8. 8. Barbara  Bray  &  Kathleen  McClaskey  •    4  Arrow  Lane  •  Amherst,  NH  03031  •    617.444.9268                    Email:  personalizelearn@gmail.com      •        www.personalizelearning.com 8 learners in the use of these tools to support their learning. If these tools are used consistently, the learner then adopts them as part of their toolkit. If the teacher works with individual learners in a Title I program, a Response to Intervention (RtI) program or a one-to-one tutoring situation, the teacher chooses the tools based on the program they are using for the task at hand. How do you know if learning is meaningful? Personalization Differentiation Individualization The Learner… The Teacher… The Teacher… demonstrates mastery of content in a competency- based system. monitors learning based on Carnegie unit (seat time) and grade level. monitors learning based on Carnegie unit (seat time) and grade level. In a personalized learning environment, learners demonstrate mastery based on a competency-based model not on seat time. In this learning environment, teachers are expected to help all learners succeed in mastering skills. Competency-based pathways are a re-engineering of our education system around learning. It is a re-engineering designed for success where failure is no longer an option. In individualized and differentiated environments, learners are awarded credit for classes based on the Carnegie unit (time-based on seat time) that plays a powerful role in managing transactions within the education system. First, it provides a unit of exchange to allow different schools and institutions to relate to each other, especially the transition from high school to college. Second, the Carnegie unit is based upon the amount of time that a teacher is in front of a classroom and the time learners are in school. It doesn’t take into account how effective the teacher is, how much time and effort the teacher contributes outside the classroom, or how much time and effort learners contribute.
  9. 9. Barbara  Bray  &  Kathleen  McClaskey  •    4  Arrow  Lane  •  Amherst,  NH  03031  •    617.444.9268                    Email:  personalizelearn@gmail.com      •        www.personalizelearning.com 9 How do you assess learning? Personalization Differentiation Individualization The Learner… The Teacher… The Teacher… becomes a self-directed, expert learner who monitors progress and reflects on learning based on mastery of content and skills. uses data and assessments to modify teaching and provides feedback for groups of learners and individual learners to advance learning uses data and assessments to measure progress of what the individual learner learned and did not learn to decide next steps in their learning. Assessment AS and FOR Learning with minimal OF Learning Assessment OF and FOR Learning Assessment OF Learning Personalization involves assessment AS learning, FOR learning, and a minimal OF learning. This is where teachers develop capacity so learners become independent learners who set goals, monitor progress, and reflect on learning and assessments based on mastery. Differentiation involves assessment FOR learning and OF learning. This is assessment that involves time-based testing where teachers provide feedback to advance learning. Individualization involves assessment OF learning. This is where summative assessment is grade-based and involves time-based testing which confirms what learners know. The teacher can involve FOR learning to indicate the next steps in instruction based on what individuals know and can do. Defining Assessment OF, FOR, and AS Learning Assessment OF Learning is summative in nature and is used to confirm what learners know and can do so teachers concentrate on ensuring that they have used assessment to provide accurate and sound statements of learners’ proficiency. Assessment FOR Learning provides information about what learners already
  10. 10. Barbara  Bray  &  Kathleen  McClaskey  •    4  Arrow  Lane  •  Amherst,  NH  03031  •    617.444.9268                    Email:  personalizelearn@gmail.com      •        www.personalizelearning.com 10 know and can do, so that teachers can design the most appropriate next steps in instruction so the teacher and peers can offer feedback to the learner throughout the learning process. Assessment AS Learning is where the learner reflects on their own learning, monitors their progress, and makes adjustments of their learning so that they achieve deeper understanding. Building a Common Language It is crucial to build a common language around Personalized Learning so everyone in a school or district has a shared meaning and understanding of Personalized Learning with conversations around a similar vision, goals, and activities. When they have a common language around Personalized Learning, they can build a community of practice that grows with experiences, stories, what worked and what didn’t work. This is about transforming an entire system that just does not happen overnight. A common language helps in creating the conversations that build and sustain a personalized learning system. The PDI chart and report were created to help you define personalized learning and for you to use to build a common language.

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