storage (CCS) is an
approach to mitigating
global warming based
on capturing carbon
dioxide (CO2) from large
point sources such as
fossil fuel power plants
and permanently storing
Capture: Carbon capture is the separation of CO2 from
the other gases produced when fossil fuel is burnt for
power generation and in other industrial processes.
Transport: Once separated, the CO2 is compressed
and transported to a suitable site for geological
Storage: At its storage site, CO2 is injected into deep
underground rock formations, often at depths of one
kilometre or more.
Most big projects to date have got off the ground because of the need for
large quantities of CO2 to drive out the last drops of oil and gas from
exhausted reservoirs, a process called enhanced oil recovery (EOR). A few
planned projects intend to use such reservoirs for storage but without driving
out oil and gas.
The last major geological storage option is in deep saline acquifers:
Norway's Sleipner project has buried a million tonnes of CO2 a year in such a
acquifer since 1996, without problems. Many existing CCS plants, such as
Sleipner, strip unwanted CO2 from natural gas as it is drilled from reservoirs,
but fitting CCS to the plants where the gas is burned is seen as the key goal in
terms of global warming.
One Chinese CCS plant uses the CO2 for fizzy drinks.
Almost all experts say “YES”.
CCS can provide 20% of the carbon cuts needed by 2050,
according to the International Energy Agency(IEA). That
requires 3,000 CCS plants.
The IEA also predicts that 70% of the energy used between
now and 2050 will come from fossil fuels, emphasising the
importance of CCS.
Without it, renewable, energy efficiency and nuclear power
Salah CO2 Injection - Northern Africa
Sleipner CO2 Injection - Norway
Snøhvit CO2 Injection - Norway
Great Plains Synfuel Plant and Weyburn-Midale Project Canada
Shute Creek Gas Processing Facility - United States of
Enid Fertiliser - United States of America
Val Verde Natural Gas Plants (formerly Sharon Ridge) - United
States of America
Century Plant (formerly Occidental Gas Processing Plant) United States of America
Number of Installations Globally
Decision tree of possible options for fitting an existing coal-fired electricity
generating unit with carbon capture
CCS is a proven technology that could help mitigate
climate change, but at a steep cost.
reductions in the short term
Large volumes of CO reductions are economically
feasible in the near term; however, there still exists a
considerable economic gap that must be addressed.
CCS projects are large and have high up-front costs.
CCS costs are expected to decline as climate change policy drives
up the cost of emitting CO . In the future, these will intersect and
CCS will be a justifiable business investment.
In order for the full potential of CCS to be realized though,
federal and provincial governments must provide stable financial
incentives to drive CCS development.
Without government support, CCS will not become economic.
Communication must continue between industry and government
to develop the necessary regulatory and financial drivers that
make sense for CCS deployment.
Net Cost of Emission Reduction Potential from All Alternatives
(Projected costs in 2020)
Installed CO2 capture equipment
cost as function of location
Carbon capture as it currently exists requires expensive equipment and is
highly energy consumptive. The parasitic energy requirement can range
from around 25% for post-combustion capture at a high efficiency ultrasupercritical coal plant up to over 37% for a typical subcritical plant. This
has a direct impact on a plant’s net cost of generating electricity, as well
as the grid’s ability to continue to supply power and energy.
A recent report by Harvard University compiled a selection of these
studies in an effort to compare the range of estimates for various capture
technologies that can be integrated into new build power plants
The following representation are the set of relevant cost estimates from
various studies on the economics of carbon capture
India’s main industrial
clusters and its
with storage potential
Carbon capture and storage could play a part in reconciling the seemingly
dissonant goals of promoting the development hydrocarbon resources and
meeting carbon emission reduction commitment under the Kyoto Protocol.
The costs of CCS systems, currently an important obstacle to their
widespread deployment, are expected to fall over time as the technology
improves and as more experience is gained in commercial applications
around the world. Whether CCS transcends its niche applications and
emerges as an economically viable tool for mitigating carbon emissions on a
large scale depends to a significant extent on the stringency of the limits that
may be placed on greenhouse gas emissions in the coming years.
Carbon Capture and Storage: Technologies, Policies, Economics, and
Implementation Strategies, Saud M. Al-Fattah, Murad F. Barghouty, Gaelle
Bureau, Bashir O. Dabbousi, Simon Fillacier,Pierre Le Thiez, Cameron
McQuale, Gilles Munier, Jonathan Royer-Adnot.