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Vodafone secondary research country profiles

  1. 1. The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies Secondary Research Document
  2. 2. Country Profiles
  3. 3. GhanaIndia
  4. 4. Ghana
  5. 5. Introduction • Ghana is a Lower Middle Income economy, well endowed with natural resources and a diverse population • It has more than twice the per capita output of the poorer countries in West Africa and remains one of the worlds top gold producers • Over half of the total labour force in the country work in agricultural and related sectors • Ghana, like most countries in Africa is a multi- ethnic, multi-religious and multi-cultural society. • Its current population, which is estimated at about twenty million, is a vast mosaic of large and small ethnic groupsThe Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 5 5
  6. 6. GeographyPeople and NumbersSociety, Culture and PoliticsEconomyInfrastructure
  7. 7. Geography Demographic Factors, Age Percentile, 2010 Source US Census Data • Population: Growth rate of 2.1 % since 1970 • Average Population Density: 107 per sq km • Urbanization • Age Structure- Socio economic impacts • Migration levels : • Internal Migration- Large movements from the North to South of Ghana • External Migration- Ghana struggles to accommodate returning nationals and foreign refugees. Source Ghana Statistical Survey The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 7
  8. 8. People and NumbersThe Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 8
  9. 9. Society, Culture and Politics
  10. 10. Culture and CommunityReligious Structure in Ghana Religion • Christianity rules the majority with a 57% overall, and more than 80% among the major cities of Accra, Ho, and Kumasi (Southern Ghana) • Ethnic religions • Islam is a minority religion in Southern regions but is more predominant in the Northern parts of Ghana EthnicitySource CIA Factbook • 4 main ethno-linguistic groups, constituting 86% of the population • Akan (49.1%), the Mole Dagbani (16.5%), the Ewe (12.7%), the Ga Adangbe (8.0%) • The Mole-Dagbani is the main ethnic group in the northern regions and most of them are religiously Muslim • The largest ethnic group in Accra are the Ga-Adangbe who are indigenous to the Accra region • Ghanaian culture, language, the arts and music Family Dynamics • Hierarchical relationshipsSource National Geographic • Diaspora: Socio-economic impacts The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 10
  11. 11. Politics The Nkrumah Regime • Under Kwame Nkrumah’s rule, the state of Ghana achieved independence from colonial powers on March 6, 1957 • Charismatic leader of the Convention People’s Party • Growth of wide-spread industry reforms under a socialist framework • Regime spirals out of control into a highly tyrannical and oppressive state (in order to secure a one party rule)India’s PM Nehru and Ghana’s liberator, Nkrumah, 1964 Chaos and Discontent • A military coup ousts the Nkrumah’s administration in 1966 • Beginning of a twenty-year period of constant regime changes and economic decline. • 1981, Jerry Rawlings seized control of Ghana established the PNDC • Economic collapse in the 1990’s • 2007- Ghana celebrates 50 years of Independence and almost 2 decades of political stability with a multiparty democracy The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 11
  12. 12. Economy 12
  13. 13. Ghanaian Economy % of GDP Composition by Sectors, 2010 Source CIA Factbook, 2010 % of Ghana’s Labour Force by Sector, 2005Real GDP reached an estimated 5.9% in 2010 andgrowth for 2011 has been projected at 12% - morethan double from the previous year. Source CIA Factbook, 2010 The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 13
  14. 14. Ghanaian EconomyFDI Growth in USD, 2010 • FDI has risen exponentially • Total Exports $7.33 billion: gold, cocoa, timber, industrial diamonds, manganese ore, tuna. • Total Imports $10.18 billion: petroleum, food, industrial raw materials, machinery, equipment • Ghana has been fairly aggressive in privatization, removing most price controls, andImport/Export from Ghana, 2010 lowering barriers to generate business. • World Bank’s ‘Doing Business’ rankings- 4th among all low middle income countries • Female labor participation rate (% of female population ages 15+) is steady at 74% Major Investors • Nigeria, China, U.S., U.K., Netherlands, Cote d’Ivoire, France, India.Source UNCTAD, 2010 The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 14
  15. 15. Agriculture • Agriculture is a major engine of economic growth • It provides employment for more than half of the country and contributes to 33.7% to the GDP of the nation • Cocoa and timber remain the primary areas for export. Cocoa cultivation is governed by the COCOBOD, which aims to reduce the monopoly of few big farmersHarvesting Cocoa Pods, Ghana • Women in Agriculture- representing 60% of agricultural productionSource: Reuterrs, FAO (Fisheries and AquacultureDepartment) • Mobile LinkagesRon Giling/Still Pictures • CocoaLink- due to cover 100,000 farmersFarming The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 15
  16. 16. Infrastructure 16
  17. 17. Education • With 83% of its children in school, Ghana currently has one of the highest school enrolment . rates in West Africa • The adult literacy rate in Ghana was 66% in 2009, with males at 71.7% and females at 60.3% • However, location and poverty still remain important barriers to school attendance, particularly at secondary school level • In low income regions, as families struggle to survive, children are increasingly forced to leaveLiteracy Rates, 2009 school and enter the workforce • Children in Northern and Upper West Regions are especially vulnerable to poor infrastructural facilities The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 17
  18. 18. Health • Regional Variations- There is a wide disparity between the urban and rural centres. • National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS)- introduced in 2007 has increased the number of patients to hospitals and clinic in rural areas. • Doctor Patient Ratio: 0.085/1000 for Ghana Problems • High premiums on healthcare • Lack of knowledge of facilities • Lack of good doctors A patient in rural Ghana receiving healthcare services M-Health platformsPhysicians (per 1000 people) • Pilot projects for future health systems 0.2 developed over the mobile ecosystem • Offer services such as monitoring, support India – 1 aids, generating records, addressing US – 3 Germany - 4 emergencies and transport 0.1 0.085 0 The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 18
  19. 19. Enabling Infrastructure Ghana: • 11 Airports • Total Railways: 947 km • Total Roadways: 62,221 km • Major Portways: Takoradi, Tema Electricity • Akosombo dam on Lake Volta (the largest man made lake in the world) generated most of the electricity for the country • encourage the establishment of newAkosombo Dam, Lake Volta industries, stimulate agricultural development, • provide opportunities for fishing and increased water transportation. Transport • Ghanas transportation and communications networks are centered in the southern regions, especially the areas in which gold, cocoa, and timber are produced. • Northern and central regions are connected through a major road system; some areas, however, remain relatively isolated The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 19
  20. 20. MediaDaily newspapers 258 Internet Penetration(per 100), 2009Radio Stations 89 6FM Radio Stations 86 5Television Receivers 1.73 million 4 3Television Stations 7 (2007) 2Telephone lines 267389 (2009) 1Mobile cellular 19,199,137 (2011) 0subscriptionsInternet Users 1.297 million people (2009) India Ghana Source World BankTraditional Media- Radio, TV, Print Access• Popular • Nearly one third of Ghanaians have access to• Large viewership the internet• However, no uniform spread over country • Mobile telephones are becoming a significant source of news. [Source: BBC] • Reliable internet connections are out of reach for most citizens The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 20
  21. 21. Mobile TelecomMobile Subscriber Base growth - Ghana Background • 1992- the government of Ghana opened doors to private operators to enter the nation • 1996- Ghana Telecom company leads the market with 105,064 subscribers among 6 other competitors • After 2002 subscriber base increases manifold and nears 20 Million subscribers in 2010, a substantial number considering the population is 24 Million Source National Communications Authority The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 21
  22. 22. Market ShareMarket Share, June 2011 Market Share • Scancom, leads the market with half the total subscriber base followed by Milicom and Vodafone. • Airtel has expanded its market share to 9.8% with the buyout of Zain in 2010. • Mobile phones and Income generationSource National Communications Authority The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 22
  23. 23. India
  24. 24. Introduction • With a population of just over 1.2 billion, India is the world’s largest democracy • In the past decade, the country has witnessed accelerated economic growth, emerged as a global player as the world’s fourth largest economy in purchasing power parity terms, and made progress on most of the Millennium Development Goals • India is moving onto a much faster growth trajectory than previously expected and is set to surpass the size of the US economy by 2050 • Though progress has been made, there still exists a large urban-rural disparity that needs to be addressed for balanced growth as a nation • Education and Health care initiatives have sprung up rapidly to address the cause, but the huge population still needs more such initiatives to make real progressThe Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 24 24
  25. 25. GeographyPeople and NumbersSociety, Culture and PoliticsEconomyInfrastructure
  26. 26. Geography
  27. 27. Geography Demographic Factors Age Percentile, 2010 Source US Census Data • Population • Average Population Density- 382 per sq km • Age Structure : Socio-Economic Impact • Median Age: 25.3 years • Bihar: 52.5 % working age population • Tamil Nadu: 64.8% working age population • Migration • Internal - Interstate migration has risen by 53.6% • ExternalThe Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 27
  28. 28. Tamil Nadu and Bihar - Political Map The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 28
  29. 29. Tamil Nadu and Bihar - Physical Map The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 29
  30. 30. People and Numbers 30
  31. 31. Tamil NaduThe Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 31
  32. 32. BiharThe Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 32
  33. 33. Society, Culture and Politics 33
  34. 34. Culture and CommunityReligious Structure in India • India has been home to several ancient civilisations and empires, some dating back to more than 2,000 BC • Domestic as well as foreign influences have ebbed and flowed Religion • Intermingling of various religions has led to a unique cultural fabric Bihar • The majority of people are Hindu • Muslims and Christians comprise a vast minority • Surprisingly, Bihari Sikhs, in the land that gave the tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, are very few in number • Bodh gaya - one of the most important and sacred Buddhist pilgrimage centers in the world Tamil Nadu • Majority of Hindu’s, followed by Christians, Muslims • Within Islam: 97% Sunni Muslims • Not very large numbers of other religious community members Source CIA Factbook The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 34
  35. 35. Culture and CommunityLinguistic distribution in India Social Structure Bihar & Tamil Nadu: • Tribal & Non Tribal (Castes, Sects) divisions • Caste - Pervasive social inequality, based on birth, occupational specialization • Kinship ties • Endogamous/ exogamous marriage rituals Ethno-Linguistic Bihar • Hindi is by far the most common language of the state, understood by all • There is a significant number of Bengali speaking people also • In addition people speak many dialects in different regions. The major dialects are: Bhojpuri, Magahi and Maithili Tamil Nadu • Tamil is the official language • Tamil is spoken by most of the people while around 10% of the people residing in Tamil Nadu speak Telugu Source CIA Factbook The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 35
  36. 36. PoliticsIndia • Last two decades: Karunanidhi and Jayalalitha• Nehruvian ‘Tryst with Destiny’’ alternate political leadership roles• Congress Party remains dominant till the 1980’s (with a brief hiatus during the 1977 BJP rule) Populist politics in both scenarios• 1991- Economic reform by PM Narasimha Rao• Governments: NDA head to head with the UPA Politics of Language• 2007-First female President BiharPolitics of Power • Regional languages relegated to the backseat to bring in Hindi as the state languageBihar • Maithili community demands a separate state but• Laloo Prasad Yadav ruled for 15 years- riddled this was rejected by the State Reorganization with high levels of corruption ,low economic Committee and the political leaders of the region growth, and casteist politics (for the upliftment gladly accepted the dominance of Hindi in the of the lower castes) affairs of the state.• 2005- rise of the NDA rule under Nitish Kumer, the current Chief Minister has brought in Tamil Nadu changes for the upliftment of the entire state • The anti-Hindi movement gained momentum in Madras after IndependenceTamil Nadu • This was also one of the main reasons DMK took• 3 Phases over the Congress’ 20 year rule• Congress rules state for 2 decades till 1967• Factionalism: DK splits into DMK which further split into AIADMK in 1972 under MG Ramachandran The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 36
  37. 37. Economy 37
  38. 38. Indian EconomyIndia’s GDP growth, in $USD % of GDP Composition by Sectors, 2010 Source CIA Factbook, 2010 % of India’s Labour Force by Sector, 2005 Indias nominal GDP for 2010 was US$1.538 trillion and its estimated GDP for 2011 is US$1.7 trillion, making it the tenth-largest economy in the world. Source CIA Factbook, 2010 The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 36
  39. 39. Indian EconomyFDI Growth in USD, 2010 Tamil Nadu- % GDP composition by sectorsExport/Import from India, 2010 Bihar- % GDP composition by sectorsSource UNCTAD, 2010 The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 39
  40. 40. Economy of BiharGDP Growth, Bihar • Has the lowest per-capita income of Rs 17,590 in 2009-10 • One of the fastest growing states, registering a growth of 11.03% between a 5 year period of 2004-2009 • Investing in Bihar - the Bihar Aao (Come to Bihar) scheme to attract investors would be launched soon and has attracted industrial houses like Reliance Industries, IT industries and Walmart Source Census India The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 40
  41. 41. Economy of Tamil NaduGDP Growth, Tamil Nadu • The most urbanized state in India • Highest number of business enterprises • Stands second in total employment , compared to the population share of 6% • Ranked 3rd in FDI approvals with a 9% of total FDI in the country (cumulative of $5000 million), next only to Maharashtra and Delhi • Investing in Tamil Nadu- Ford, Hyundai, HM- Mitsubishi, Ashok Leyland, TAFE and TVS Motors have their manufacturing base in Tamil Nadu Sources Planning Commission The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 41
  42. 42. Agriculture • Mainstay of the Indian economy • 1/5th of the total GDP • Is 10 % of the total export earnings • 52 % of the total labor force are employed in this sector • Centrally sponsored schemes to enhance production Bihar • It is the backbone of Bihars economy with 81% of workforce employed in this sectorFarmer s harvesting sugarcane in Bihar • Generates nearly 35% of the State Domestictill Pictures Product. • The principal agricultural crops are rice, wheat, maize and oil seeds and cash crops like jute and sugarcane Tamil Nadu • Agriculture as the prime profession -10% of GDP but 56% of the people depend on agriculture and allied sectors for their livelihood • Main cash crops are cotton, oilseeds, coffee, coconut • Agricultural Export Zones to provide better opportunities for exportRice terraces in Tamil Nadu The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 42
  43. 43. Infrastructure 43
  44. 44. EducationLiteracy Rates, 2009 • Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) • Mid Day Meal Scheme - The largest school lunch programme in the world. • Kasturba Gandhi Shiksha Yojana- A programme to establish residential schools for girls in all the districts which have a particularly low female literacy rate has been announced • Operation Blackboard-This scheme launched in 1987, is aimed at improving the school environment Bihar • Bihar Education Project (BEP) was launched in 1991 with the express purpose of bringing about quantitative and qualitative improvement in the elementary system in Bihar • Patnas Super 30 Tamil Nadu • Was one of the first states to implement the Mid Day Meal Scheme in the 1960s • Tamil Nadu is one of the most literate states in India.Source Planning Commission The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 44
  45. 45. Health Bihar: • Infant Mortality Rate: 52% in 2008 • Maternal Mortality Rate : 312/1000 • Family Planning Programs Tamil Nadu • Maternal Mortality Rate: 111/1000 • The private health sector in Tamil Nadu: Wide range of players – single doctor clinics to super- speciality hospitals; informal service providers • Partnerships with the non-government sectorA doctor in his clinic in Bihar Limitations • Health facilities for the rural community also get affected by cultural barriers like religion & caste differences• India’s Health expenditure per capita - $45 • Lack of access to ICTs adversely affects• 21% have better access to improved sanitation healthcare facilities and awareness level facilities • Long Distance and lack of transportation• The National Rural Health Mission – 63% of total facilities within the village is a challenge for Health and Family welfare budget providing healthcare facilities • Lack of technological assistance affects different areas of work of people in villages The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 45
  46. 46. Enabling Infrastructure India: • 352 Airports • Railways total: 63,974 km • In 2009- total roadways : 3,320,410 km (includes 200 km of expressways Bihar • Well connected by roads. NH 30 & 31- 29 national highways with total length of 2,910 km • Air services connect Patna with Kolkata, Ranchi, Lucknow, Kanpur, Delhi, Guwa hati, Ahmedabad, Allahabad and Kathmandu (Nepal Tamil Nadu • Capital city Chennai hasone of the busiest airports in India • State road network covers about 153 km per 100 km2 area, which is higher than the countrys average road network coverage of 103 km per 10 km2 area • 25 National highways • Tamil Nadu has a total railway track length of 5,952 km (3,698 mi) and there are 532 railway stations in the stateNational Highway in Tamil Nadu The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 46
  47. 47. MediaDaily newspapers 76599(1998) • Indian Media consist s of several different types of communications media:Radio Stations 312 TV, Radio, Cinema, Magazines, Newspapers, I nternetFM Radio Stations 91(2007)Television Receivers 63 million(2007) • In 2007, the country consumed 99 million newspaper copies – making it the secondTelevision Stations 582(2007) largest market in the world for newspapersTelephone lines 37.06 million(2007) • As of 2009, India had among the 4th largest TVMobile cellular 827 million(2011) Broadcast stations the world with nearly 1,400subscriptions stationsInternet Users 61.3 million(2009) • There were 16.18 million Internet subscribers on 31st March 2010 as compared to 13.54 million on 31st March 2009 • Besides the internet subscribers mentioned above, there are 117.87 million wireless data subscribers who are accessing internet through wireless networks (GSM and CDMA) The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 47
  48. 48. Mobile TelecomMobile Subscriber Base growth - India • Wireless subscription in Urban Areas increased from 525.17 million in February 2011 to 538.05 million at the end of March 2011 • Rural subscription increased from 266.21 million to 273.54 million • This shows higher growth in Rural Subscription (2.75%) than Urban Subscription (2.45%) • In February 2011, TRAI registered a total of 811.59 Million mobile subscriptions • While the overall teledensity of India reached 67.98, the share of urban subscribers decreased to 66.30% (from 66.30% in March) where as the share of rural subscribers increased to 33.70% (from 33.64% in March)Source TRAI The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 48
  49. 49. Telecom Market ShareMarket Share: Bihar • India is the second largest mobile market in the world with a total of 15 service providers operating in 22 circles Bihar • Mobile subscriber base of Bihar increased by 44.8% during FY2011 to reach 53.5 million • Bihar is one of the top 5 fastest growing mobile telecom market in India with the growth rate considerably higher than the national average of 38.9%. • Wireless telecom tele-density of Bihar circle is 39.1% indicating a huge untapped market in theMarket Share: Tamil Nadu telecom sector Tamil Nadu • Aircel dominates with the highest market share in Tamil Nadu and has rolled out its 3G services in Coimbatore and Tamil Nadu • BSNL has a strong presence in the state of Tamil Nadu with 12.73% of the market share at the fourth position after Airtel and Vodafone Source TRAI The Future of Mobile Services in Rural Emerging Economies 49