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CCS for Gas-Fired Power Plants presented at the MIT Carbon Sequestration Forum 16 in Cambridge, MA by Jon Gibbins

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Jon Gibbins presented on CCS for natural gas power plants at the MIT Carbon Sequestration Forum 16 in Cambridge, MA

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CCS for Gas-Fired Power Plants presented at the MIT Carbon Sequestration Forum 16 in Cambridge, MA by Jon Gibbins

  1. 1. The UKCCSRC is supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council as part of the Research Councils UK Energy Programme MIT Carbon Sequestration Forum 16 12-13 November 2014 Royal Sonesta Hotel, Cambridge, MA CCS for Gas-Fired Power Plants Jon Gibbins Director, UK CCS Research Centre Professor of Power Plant Engineering and Carbon Capture University of Edinburgh www.ukccsrc.ac.uk jon.gibbins@ed.ac.uk
  2. 2. About the UKCCSRC The UK Carbon Capture and Storage Research Centre (UKCCSRC) leads and coordinates a programme of underpinning research on all aspects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in support of basic science and UK government efforts on energy and climate change. The Centre brings together around 250 of the UK’s world-class CCS academics and provides a national focal point for CCS research and development. Initial core funding for the UKCCSRC is provided by £10M from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) as part of the RCUK Energy Programme. This is complemented by £3M in additional funding from the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) to help establish new open-access national pilot-scale facilities (www.pact.ac.uk). Partner institutions have contributed £2.5M. www.ukccsrc.ac.uk
  3. 3. Gas-FACTS: Gas - Future Advanced Capture Technology Options Jon Gibbins University of Edinburgh Mathieu Lucquiaud University of Edinburgh Hyungwoong Ahn University of Edinburgh Mohamed Pourkashanian University of Leeds Paul Fennell Imperial College London John Oakey Cranfield University Chris Wilson University of Sheffield Prashant Valluri University of Edinburgh Hannah Chalmers University of Edinburgh GasFACTSFuture Advanced Capture Technology SystemsUKCCSRC Martin Trusler Imperial College London Kevin Hughes University of Leeds Meihong Wang Cranfield University Pericles Pilidis Cranfield University Geoff Maitland Imperial College London Chemical Eng and Amparo Galindo Imperial College London George Jackson Imperial College London Claire Adjiman Imperial College London Nina Thornhill Imperial College London The Gas-FACTS project is supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council as part of the Research Councils UK Energy Programme
  4. 4. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/ccs-policy-scoping-document
  5. 5. http://s06.static-shell.com/content/dam/shell- new/local/country/gbr/downloads/pdf/peterhead-ccs-brochure.pdf Peterhead / Goldeneye Natural Gas CCS Project
  6. 6. Jeremy Carey, Technology Manager, SSE, CCS Deployment in SSE Peterhead and Beyond…, IPA / UKCCSC CCS Conference, 1st September 2011 http://www.ukccsc.co.uk/Meetings/edinburgh-sep-2011/Carey_IPA_HW11.pdf
  7. 7. Peterhead CCS Project Shell UK Limited and SSE Shell Cansolv post-combustion capture on one of three existing GT units Approximately 400MW equivalent capacity (Siemens SGT5-4000F) and 1MtCO2/yr Gas turbine and heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) http://www.shell.co.uk/gbr/environment-society/environment-tpkg/peterhead-ccs-project.html
  8. 8. http://www.slideshare.net/UKCCSRC/t-snow-gasccsmeeting25jun2014 Gas CCS in the UK - Tom Snow at the UKCCSRC Gas CCS Meeting, University of Sussex, 25 June 2014
  9. 9. In addition, the possible climate change impact of CO2 emissions from natural gas power generation has become of increasing importance with recent shale gas resource discoveries in the UK, as pointed out in evidence from the Prime Minister to a UK Parliament committee on 14 Jan 2014 [1]: “My nervousness about being too frank about the future (carbon budget review) is simply down to the issue about carbon capture and storage and the role that gas will play in future.” It is now accepted that most of UK CCS deployment, through new plants or retrofits, is likely to take place in the 2020s. http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/WrittenEvidence.svc/EvidencePdf/5219 Rt Hon David Cameron MP on natural gas and CCS Question 45 in “14 Jan 2014 - Evidence from the Prime Minister: 14 January 2014 – oral evidence
  10. 10. http://www.ccsassociation.org.uk/docs/2007/Monday%201415%20-%20Jane%20Paxman.pdf FEED announced 30 June 2005, project cancelled mid 2007 when coal CCS needed instead in response to a (predicted) dash for coal after big increases in relative gas prices
  11. 11. Despite uncertainties in reserve sizes, it is clear that if we burn all the fossil fuels, or even half of the remaining reserves, we will send the planet toward an ice-free state with sea level about 250 feet higher than today. It would take time for complete ice sheet disintegration to occur, but a chaotic situation would be created with changes occurring out of control of future generations. Oil may already be about half depleted, i.e., the world may be close to peak oil production (implying that the IPCC estimate of reserves is closer to the truth than the EIA estimate). In either case, common sense suggests that the largest oil pools will be exploited and the carbon dioxide, which is emitted mainly from tailpipes, will end up in the atmosphere. Gas, the least carbon intensive and cleanest burning fossil fuel, also surely will be exploited. The obvious conclusion is that the only practical way to avoid climate catastrophe is to terminate emissions from the largest fossil fuel source: coal, the dirtiest of the fossil fuels. If coal emissions are phased out between 2010 and 2030, global fossil fuel emissions would begin to fall rapidly as shown in the chart below. http://insideclimatenews.org/news/20090715/james-hansen-climate-tipping-points-and-political-leadership James Hansen on Climate Tipping Points and Political Leadership – 2009 and earlier InsideClimate News, Jul 15, 2009
  12. 12. 6 August, 2008 Climate Camp at Kingsnorth Power Station
  13. 13. Committee on Climate Change – Oct 2009 “In our December 2008 report, we set out a range of scenarios to meet our 80% emissions reduction target in 2050. The common theme running through these scenarios was the need for early decarbonisation of the power sector, with the application of low-carbon electricity to transport and heat. We showed therefore that the carbon intensity of power generation should decline over time, whilst at the same time electricity demand could increase.”
  14. 14. Jon Gibbins, Mathieu Lucquiaud, Hannah Chalmers, Adina Popa-Bosoaga and Rhodri Edwards, “Capture readiness: CCGT owners needn’t feel left out”, Modern Power Systems, Dec 2009, 17-20.
  15. 15. http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/what_we_do/uk_supply/energy_mix/ccs/ccs.aspx
  16. 16. Energy Act 2010 – CCS Levy The Queen’s Speech on November 18, 2009 included Energy Bill with funding for CCS 9 April 2010 Energy Bill receives Royal Assent Originally specified coal but Act amended to not specify fuels receiving levy support (but levy dropped after May 2010 election)
  17. 17. 14 July 2010 I believe Peterhead represents the best site in the UK for a gas CCS project and I hope that our submission to the government will be successful.” SSE chief executive Ian Marchant said: “If long-term targets for reducing emissions are to be met, CCS technology is going to have to apply as widely as possible. This means gas-fired power stations as well as coal.
  18. 18. http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/legislation/white_papers/emr_wp_2011/emr_wp_2011.aspx Electricity Market Reform (EMR) White Paper 2011 Planning Our Electric Future: A White Paper for Secure, Affordable and Low-carbon Electricity 12 July 2011 The White Paper sets out key measures to attract investment, reduce the impact on consumer bills, and create a secure mix of electricity sources including gas, new nuclear, renewables, and carbon capture and storage. “Creates a level playing field for low-carbon electricity” paid for by Feed-in Tariffs with a Contract for Difference.
  19. 19. BBC News 19 October 2011 Plans for the UK's first carbon capture project at the Longannet power station in Fife have been scrapped, the energy secretary has confirmed . Chris Huhne announced the failure to reach a "deal" with power companies to capture carbon dioxide emissions at the plant and pipe them under the sea. Mr Huhne blamed problems with the length of pipeline needed. But he said the government hoped other schemes could work, indicating interest at Peterhead in Aberdeenshire. A £1bn project to tum a Scottish power station into a world leader in climate change technology has collapsed.
  20. 20. IEAGHG (2006) ELECTRICITY COSTS FOR CAPTURE PLANTS IEAGHG (2006), CO2 capture as a factor in power station investment decisions, Report No. 2006/8, May 2006 Costs include compression to 110 bar but not storage and transport costs. These are very site-specific, but indicative aquifer storage costs of $10/tonne CO2 would increase electricity costs for natural gas plants by about 0.4 c/kWh and for coal plants by about 0.8 c/kWh Coal price US$1.5/GJ, Natural Gas price US$ 3/GJ LHV basis Natural gas plants Coal/solid fuel plants Consistent for comparison but absolute values will very . Perceived level of technical risk by Mott MacDonald in 2006 also shown
  21. 21. IEAGHG (2006), CO2 capture as a factor in power station investment decisions, Report No. 2006/8, May 2006
  22. 22. IEAGHG (2006), CO2 capture as a factor in power station investment decisions, Report No. 2006/8, May 2006 The main features of post-combustion technology for natural gas-fired CCGTs are summarised below: • Significant land footprint, with different estimates ranging between 9,000 and 40,000 square metres for the capture equipment - requirement for available space in retrofit of existing plant. • CO2 concentration in power station flue gases is typically 4% - so that large volumes of flue gases must be processed. • Uses an organic solvent (Monoethylamine, MEA, is most usual) which captures CO2 when in solution, using a scrubber tower in contact with the flue gases. • Incorporates circulation of the 'rich' solution of MEA with absorbed CO2 to a ' stripper‘ tower where it is reheated, leading to release of CO2 and production of ' lean' solvent solution for return to the scrubber. • MEA is degraded by contact with NO2 or SO2. These pollutants must therefore by reduced to low concentration level ( 1 to 20 ppm for NO2 and 1 to 10 ppm for SO2) in order to result in an acceptable life for the MEA . For gas-fired plant, only NOx levels generally require reduction. • Continual replacement of MEA is a significant operating cost. • As a result of the above two points, the power plant needs to be equipped with Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx in the process of retrofitting for CO2 capture, or during the design of new plants. • Addition of capture to a CCGT plant incurs an efficiency penalty of around 6.0- 8.2 percentage points, LHV (IEAGHG, 2004).
  23. 23. ~ Advanced Post Combustion Capture Gas turbine Air inlet Exhaust Gas Recycle - EGR CO2 Transfer & Recycle - CTR Gas in Low carbon electricity out Decarbonised flue gas out Decarbonised flue gas out CO2 transfer Water/steam injection Gas turbine capture systems EPSRC Gas-FACTS Project http://gow.epsrc.ac.uk/NGBOViewGrant.aspx?GrantRef=EP/J020788/1
  24. 24. UKCCSRC Pilot Advanced Capture Test (PACT) Facilities www.pact.ac.uk Additional facilities at Cranfield, Edinburgh, Nottingham
  25. 25. Gas Turbine Facilities with EGR + HAT Fuel Flexibility: NG, Biogas, Liquid Fuel, Biofuel & H2 Enriched Gas Pilot-Scale Advanced Capture Technology Facilities www.pact.ac.uk
  26. 26. http://www.ukccsrc.ac.uk/system/files/Inventys%20Howden%20UKCCSRC%20%5BMay%202013%5D.pdf
  27. 27. http://www.ukccsrc.ac.uk/system/files/Inventys%20Howden%20UKCCSRC%20%5BMay%202013%5D.pdf
  28. 28. The NET Power natural gas system 1 Fuel Combustion 2 CO2 Turbine 3 Heat Rejection 4 Water Separation 5 Compression and Pumping 7 Heat Recuperation 6 Additional Heat Input 5 1 2 3 4 7 6 5  Oxy-fuel, closed-loop, CO2 working fluid  High-pressure cycle, low pressure ratio turbine  200-400 bar; 6-12 pressure ratio  Target Efficiency 58.5% (LHV with 100% CC at 300 bar)  Addition of a simple hot compression cycle maintains efficiency and eliminates the need for ASU side heat  HP CO2 and liquid water are the only byproducts  No added costs of capture, separation or compression of CO2 Hideo Nomoto, Toshiba Corporation, Rodney Allam, NET Power, Presentation to 7th Trondheim Carbon Capture and Sequestration Conference, June 5, 2013
  29. 29. NET Power natural gas cycle Pressure (bar) Additional Heat Specific Enthalpy (kJ/kg) Turbine Fuel Input Compressor Pump Heat Exchanger Heat Exchanger 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Water Separator 5 Combustor Contains the intellectual property of 8 Rivers Capital, NET Power and Toshiba. Hideo Nomoto, Toshiba Corporation, Rodney Allam, NET Power, Presentation to 7th Trondheim Carbon Capture and Sequestration Conference, June 5, 2013 Net Power The Allam Cycle
  30. 30. NETPower Natural gas cycle target efficiencies Natural Gas Platform Target Efficiencies (100% CO2 Capture at 300 bar) Energy Components HHV LHV Gross Turbine Output 75% 83% CO2 Compressor Power -11% -12% Plant Parasitic Power (primarily ASU) -11% -12% Net Efficiency 53% 59% Hideo Nomoto, Toshiba Corporation, Rodney Allam, NET Power, Presentation to 7th Trondheim Carbon Capture and Sequestration Conference, June 5, 2013
  31. 31. Natural gas CCS – global status summary • Peterhead project working on FEED, FID late 2015/early 2016, ‘level playing field’ for low carbon electricity in UK Electricity Market Reform FiT with CfD arrangements • Mongstad cancelled – Norwegians may look at other CHP • No other gas projects in Europe/UK – a bit surprising? • Gas CCS + EOR under consideration in Mexico (and elsewhere in North America?) • 8 Rivers building NET Power's Allam Cycle prototype in Texas • US EPA say gas+CCS not as feasible as coal+CCS!
  32. 32. Gas CCS in perspective Stages in all power plant clean-up technologies: 1. ‘It’s science fiction!’ 2. ‘It’s impossibly expensive and complex!’ 3. ‘It’s a major investment but necessary.’ 4. ‘It’s obviously just a routine part of any power plant.’ Gas CCS is now somewhere between 2 and early stage 3 depending on location and we are working hard to get it to stage 4 as quickly as possible. • Gas turbine modifications or just take low CO2 concentration? • Pressurised oxyfuel capital costs vs post-com costs? • Hydrogen production and storage to give more constant CO2 flow for CCS and reduced CAPEX? • Natural Gas CCS Network https://ukccsrc.ac.uk/news-events/events/natural-gas-ccs-networking- meeting http://www.slideshare.net/UKCCSRC/john-thompson-ghgt12gasoct14 • Save the date – Oslo, Norway, 25-26 February, 2015

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