CCS - The Future, Jon Gibbins and Ciara O'Connor, CCPilot100+ Conference, 23-24 April 2014, University of Leeds


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This presentation, on the future of CCS, was delivered by Jon Gibbins, Director, UKCCSRC and Ciara O'Connor, Network Manager, UKCCSRC on Day 2 of the CCPilot100+ Conference at the University of Leeds.

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CCS - The Future, Jon Gibbins and Ciara O'Connor, CCPilot100+ Conference, 23-24 April 2014, University of Leeds

  1. 1. The UKCCSRC is supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council as part of the Research Councils UK Energy Programme CCS – the future Jon Gibbins & Ciara O’Connor UK CCS Research Centre CCPilot100+ Conference, Lecture Theatre C, Engineering Building, University of Leeds 23-24 April 2014
  2. 2. About the UKCCSRC The UK Carbon Capture and Storage Research Centre (UKCCSRC) leads and coordinates a programme of underpinning research on all aspects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in support of basic science and UK government efforts on energy and climate change. The Centre brings together nearly 200 of the UK’s world-class CCS academics and provides a national focal point for CCS research and development. Initial core funding for the UKCCSRC is provided by £10M from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) as part of the RCUK Energy Programme. This is complemented by £3M in additional funding from the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) to help establish new open-access national pilot-scale facilities ( Partner institutions have contributed £2.5M.
  3. 3. Energy Choices Conference Electrical power generation Estimated decline in UK nuclear/energy technical capacity Year
  4. 4. UK Annual Public Sector RD&D Budgets (£m, 2012 money) 10 YEAR GAP
  5. 5. UK Annual Public Sector RD&D Budgets (£m, 2012 money)
  6. 6. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) • April 2014: IPCC Working Group 3 report ‘Mitigation of Climate Change’ released. This fifth Assessment Report (AR5) cycle will conclude in October 2014. • Report calls for: – Carbon Dioxide Removal technologies (carbon negative solutions) – Conventional CCS on power and industrial applications AND CCS with sustainable biomass (Bio-CCS or BECCS)
  7. 7. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) • Specifically and significantly the report states that Bio-CCS will be needed in sectors where emissions reductions is more expensive as well as to compensate for a ‘temporary overshoot’ of the 2 degree target or 450 parts per million scenario; “Many models could not achieve atmospheric concentration levels of about 450 ppm CO2eq by 2100 if additional mitigation is considerably delayed or under limited availability of key technologies, such as bioenergy, CCS, and their combination (BECCS).”
  8. 8. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) • COP 17, Durban, 2011: Durban Platform for Enhanced Action – resulted in a mandate “to develop a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties, which is to be completed no later than 2015 in order for it to be adopted at the twenty-first session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) and for it to come into effect and be implemented from 2020.”
  9. 9. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) • So….at COP 21, Paris, 2015 all countries are expected to sign up to a climate agreement which will come into effect in 2020. • What progress has been made since Durban? – Progress slow – Major geopolitics at play – Climate negotiations like trade negotiations; reluctance by countries to deviate from their national position – Developing countries vs. Developed countries; Equity and Loss and Damage significant and contentious issues
  10. 10. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) • Where does CCS fit in? – As per the most recent IPCC report CCS has a major part to play in climate change mitigation – Potential to significantly reduce emissions but exponential increase in deployment needed – Will a climate agreement at COP 21 provide policy certainty to facilitate this?
  11. 11. The Keeling Curve A Daily Record of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide from Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego
  12. 12. Fraction of C stored must rise from zero to 100% Myles R. Allen, David J. Frame & Charles F. Mason, The case for mandatory sequestration, Nature Geoscience 2, 813 - 814 (2009), doi:10.1038/ngeo709 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Emissions (billion tonnes of C) Fractionoffossilfuelemissions capturedandstored The prime climate objective is not to end the use of fossil fuels. The prime objective is to develop and deploy 100% CCS in time to cap cumulative emissions of carbon at a safe level. CO2 EOR should be seen as a stage in a path from zero CO2 capture to 100% CCS. It is a move in the right direction from where we are now – emitting 100% of fossil carbon to atmosphere. The technologies that CO2 EOR helps to develop can readily be adapted to get higher fractions of CO2 stored.
  13. 13. Academic R&D involved in all stages of technology innovation and deployment
  14. 14. UK CCS Research PACT Facilities Pilot-Scale Advanced Capture Technology Amine Post Combustion Capture Plant (150 KW) Coal S B C G Control Units & System Integration Oxygen Coal Biomass AIR Natural Gas Gas Turbine APU & Turbec 150Kw Oxy/air- Solid Fuels CTF with EGR 250KW Coal – Biomass blend Fuels 50KW Coal – Biomass Air/Oxy FB Reactor 150KW Gas Mixer Facilities Up to 250 KW O L Planned IGCC Reactor (200 KW) R Gas Cleaning and Shift System Monitoring Via Internet R E E M A E E
  15. 15. Example of need to avoid technology lock-in: post-combustion capture is not just amines!
  16. 16. Post-combustion capture is not just amines!
  17. 17. • Oxy-Coal/Biomass Combustion Test Facilities • Air-Coal/Biomass Combustion Test Facilities • FGR (Wet and Dry) + Gas Mixing Facilities
  18. 18. NET Power’s Allam Cycle for coal
  19. 19. NET Power’s Allam Cycle
  20. 20. CCS deployment Capital cost reduction is the key - target of $40/tCO2 captured for EOR market - a lot of CCS plant will operate with reduced load factor Public acceptance is crucial (emissions, risks) RAMO – Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Operability crucial for utilities Future CCS academics will have many more opportunities to work with large-scale, commercial projects (the normal situation for most technologies) There is a shortage of experienced researchers – the ‘10 year gap’