2. What is Grammar?The best explanation of grammar is to define it as a set of rules of how we ought to speak and how we ought not to speak. This often makes overt value judgments by referring to the standards correct, or ‘good English’ and the non-standard as incorrect or ‘bad English’.
3. Which rules to describeA moment’s reflection tells us that some rules apply more consistently than others, the subject verb agreement rule admits exceptions.
4. Form and FunctionFormal grammar es concerned with the forms themselves and with how they operate within the overall system of grammar.Generative theory is based on a rationalist approach, the central assumption being that language is represented as a speaker’s mental grammar, a set of abstract rules for generating grammatical sentences.
5. In 1972, Hymes developed a functional model that focuses more on appropriate use of language on how language functions in discourse. For Hymes, communicative competence is defined as ‘the capabilities of a person’, a competence which is dependent upon both knowledge and use’ In applied linguistics, the influence of these theoretical models is evident in various areas.
6. Type versus TokenDescriptions of language will also have different outcomes depending on whether they account for types of linguistic element in the abstract, or for tokens of linguistic element as they actually occur in contexts of use.
7. Discourse GrammarCorpus studies have also led to an increased interest in analyses of ‘discourse grammar’, analyses of the functional roles of grammatical structures in discourse.Hughes and McCarthy note that the italicized past perfects seem to give a reason or justification for the main events.
8. Learning GrammarSome learners are very interested in finding out or learning grammar rules and doing lots of grammar exercises. We can alsoo Be aware of gramar.o Read English bookso Concentrate on the aspects of grammaro Learn common words