What is Discourse Analysis?Life is a constant flow of discourse of language functioning in one of the many contexts that together make up a culture.The study of discourse is absolutely central to the concerns of applied lingistics, and as a language student of language teacher it is very helpful to learn to attend to the different strands of and frequent interruptions.
Not only is the formality of the vocabulary usually different between spoken and written discourse but the amount of content that the words carry also differs.Spoken discourse typically has a far lower lexical density and it is partly because of this lexical scarcity that some people believe that spoken language ‘lack contents’.
Turning-takingThe basic unit of speech is the indicidual speaker ‘turn. A turn is each occasion that a speaker speaks and a turn ends when another speaker takes a turn.In any ordinar there is hardly any overlap or interruption and only minimal silences between turns if there is any silence at all.
Variation TheoryVariation theory was developed by Labov and has make a major contribution to the analysis of discourse his description of the structure of spoken narratives. Labov argued that the ‘overall structure’of a fully formed narrative of personal experience is:o Abstracto Orientationo Complicationo Evaluationo Resolutiono Coda
Critical Discourse AnalysisCritical discourse analysis is concerned with the relationship between language, ideology and power and the relationship between discourse and sociolcultural change.This new conception of genre in critical of genre in critical discourse analysis sees genres as both social an textual categories and no longer as fixed an immutable but critical discourse anaylsis are seen not only as a reflection of social reality.
Courpus Linguistics and Variation in DiscourseCorpus linguistics sprang from a desire to be more objective bout language and to free description from subjective intuition.Corpus linguists believe that external evidence, looking at language use, is a better source for description than internal evidence or native speaker intuition.
Corpus linguistics may be performed in two ways:QuantitativeQualitative