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  1. 1. Pragmatics
  2. 2. What are pragmatics?Pragmatics studies the factors that govern our choice of language in social interaction and the effects of our choice on others
  3. 3. Pragmatic MeaningWhereas ‘pragmatics is concerned with the study of the meaning that linguistic expressions receive in use. So one task of pragmatics is to explain how participants in a dialogue such as the one above move from the decontextualized.
  4. 4. Assigning Reference in ContextThe process of assigning reference also involves the interpretation of ‘deictic expressions’. These are linguistic items that point to contextually salient referents without naming them explicitly. There are several types of deictic expressions in the dialogue: person deictics.
  5. 5. Assigning Sense in ContextSometimes the process of identifying pragmatic meanin involves interpreting ambiguous and vague linguistic expressions in order to assign them sense in context.These observations show that contextual meaning is no fully determined by the words that are used: there is gap between the meaning of the words use dy the speaker and the thought that the speaker intends to express by using those words on a particular occasion
  6. 6. Working out implicated meaningMake your conversational contribution such as is required at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged.Deriving an interpretation that satisfies the co-operative principle is effected through four maxims which the communicator is presumed to abide by:o Truthfulnesso Informativenesso Relevanceo Style
  7. 7. Explaining the impact of social factorsThe pragmalinguistic perspective focuses on the linguistic strategies that are used to convey a given pragmatic meaning whereas the sociolpragmatic perspective focuses on the socially bases assessments.A sociopragmatic perspective focuses on the social judgments associated with such a scenario, what the relationship between the participants in and the social acceptability of reaching for food in such a context.
  8. 8. The Role of ContentIn social pragmatics, its widely accepted that the following features of the situational context have a particularly crucial influence on people’s use of language:o The participant: their roles, the amount of power differential between them, the degree of distance- closeness between them, the number of people present.o The message content: how ‘costly’ or ‘beneficial’ the message is to the hearer and speakero The communicative activity influence language behavior such as right to talk or ask questions
  9. 9. Pragmatics Research: Paradigms and MethodsThere are two broad approaches to pragmatics: Cognitive-psychological approach Social-psychological approach
  10. 10. Cognitive pragmatics are primarily interested in exploring the relation between the decontextualized, linguistic meaning of utterances, what speakers mean by their utterances on given occasions and how listeners interpret those utterances on those given occasions.
  11. 11. Social pragmaticists, tend to focus on the ways in which particular communicative exchanges between individuals are embedded and constrained by social, cultural and other contextual factors.
  12. 12. The Importance for language teaching, learning and useContext is a crucial factor in pragmatic analysis it influences what people say, how they say it, and how others interpret what they say. When designing language teaching materials and language learning activities, it sis vital to clearly identify relevant contextual information such as the following:o The roles and relationshipso The number of people presento The communicative setting of the interationo What the communicative e3vent is and what the goals are
  13. 13. The Impact of Speech Act TheorySpeech act theory has had a crucial impact on foreign language teaching as it played a major role in the 1970’s and in the subsequent development of communicative language teaching.