To show the additional properties of language which various disciplines have been emphasizing as important when looking at language as a tool of communication rather than as a self-contained system
Speech event Thetypologies of the factors in speech event by Jakobson and Hymes Addressers Addressee Message form Channel Setting Topic code
Language Varieties Labov Formality of the situation and status of the participants. Register Analysis Social construct (roles, rights and obligation, stereotypes, reference groups, categories and attitudes)
Concerned not only with language itself but also with language as an integral part of all social interaction The participants in an interaction are constantly involved in making sense of what has been said (or written) in line with their knowledge, beliefs, interest, etc. At the level of connected discourse there are no precise and generally accepted rules for interpretation There is no fixed structure there waiting to be discovered and described by the sociolinguist / sociologist
GRAMMAR “Structural”Grammar Transformational-Generative Grammar Semantic Based Grammar Modality Textual Function Summary of the trends in Grammar
“Structural” Grammar Emphasizing on FORM rather than MEANING Grammatical categories should be defined not in terms of meaning but in terms of distribution Formalization the “surface structure” of a sentence by a method of analysis such as IC analysis
Transformational-Generative Grammar Generative is to specify the nature of a speaker’s knowledge about his language, but with such accuracy and in such detail that someone who does not know the language will be able to produce its forms simply by following the rules of the grammar and without having to refer to any source of information outside the grammar. Transformational grammar is one which incorporates two aspects on syntactic description, a surface structure and a more deep structure, together with a set of transformational rules relating deep and surface structure
Semantic Based Grammar Trying to account for the fact that sentences with different surface forms actually have the same logical meaning, that is, they contain the same proposition. One of the function of the language is to refer to the activities, event, processes that are going on, to be capable of expressing ‘judgments about such matters as who did it, who it happened to, and what got changed’
Modality Example: I shall stop talking now / Shall I stop talking now? You may listen to me / You must listen to me Modality leads us to question how sentences are used to performed different communicative acts Sentences can be used to perform different speech or communicative acts
Textual Function The basic unit of language in use is not a word or sentence but a ‘text’ Language is structured in such a way that by the use of suitable option a speaker or writer is enable to create continuous texts. Example What did you see yesterday? I went to a play
Summary of the Trends in Grammar Thecentral concern of the grammarians is with the structure of language and with the way in which a formal description of it may be given
One approach to linguistics description may provide important insights into the nature of language; but at the same time it may do so only by idealizing out certain features language which another approach might regard as of paramount important How to idealize Making assumption that the language system is well define Concentrates on the variability of language`
Structural/Situational Syllabusare clearly derived from the structural analyses of the grammarians together with received notions about the nature of learning from behavioral psychology. With the advent of transformational-generative grammarians and cognitive psychology, attack on the underlying theoretical basis for such syllabuses has been overwhelming
Semantic A syllabus is firmly based on grammatical principles and is essentially sentence based, as when the categories chosen as a starting point include what we have defined previously as speech The emphasis in such a notional syllabus is in teaching the expression of meaning and bringing home to the learner that many language forms can be used to express the same idea. Ideational or propositional function of language aims is to teach the means by which propositions can be expressed and also the attitude of the speaker to the proposition he makes
Textual Itshould be remembered that cohesion is a part of syntax and phonology and not dependent on the relation between form and function
ESP/EST/EAP Inpractice, syllabuses for EST, ESP, etc. have frequently been emphasizing those aspects of language which have tended to be left out of elementary structural syllabuses – namely the grammar of connected text and the relation between form and function
In the Southeast Asian region syllabuses for beginners being basically situationally-based structural ones, to be followed by a syllabus based on a re-structuring of the grammatical categories learned into a notional or speech act framework. This in turn might lead away from sentence-based material to connected language and the teaching of cohesion. The final stage would be the additional teaching or rhetorical structures or skills in interpreting the meaning behind the language forms used in connected discourse
The role of vocabulary in the syllabus in the light of the assumptions and findings of theoretical and applied linguistics A consideration of some knowledge that is assumed by lexical competence is offered as a frame of reference for the determination of objectives for vocabulary teaching and for the assessment of teaching techniques designed to realize these objectives
In Two ways In considering the role of vocabulary in the syllabus we can look to the theoretical language disciplines for a more informed understanding questions. The information will turn out to be vastly more complex than we might intuitively have supposed, yet will be tentative and inconclusive because of the changing state of knowledge and theory in the disciplines concerned. In evaluation or interpretation of results obtained. When problems or failures arise we may have to refer to a model or theory to see if it can offer explanation
The native speaker of a language continues to expand his vocabulary in adulthood, there is comparatively little development of syntax in adult life. Insyntax, the period of maximum development appears to be form about the age 2 to 12, with only minor changers according to social roles and mode of discourse taking place in adulthood, in vocabulary, there is continued development beyond the childhood year, adults constantly adding new words to their vocabulary through reading, occupations, and others activities.
Knowing the words means knowing the degree of probability encountering that word in speech or print. For many words, we also “know” the sort of words most likely to be found associated with the words. Thespeaker of a language recognizes not only the general probability of words being associated with other words
Knowing a word implies knowing the limitations imposed on the use of the word according to variations of function and situation. Register restraints : Temporal variation Geographical variation Social variation Social role Field of discourse Mode of discourse
Knowing a word means knowing the syntactic behavior associated with that word.
Knowing a word entails knowledge of the underlying form of a word and the derivation that can be made from it.
Knowing a word entails knowledge of the network of associations between that word and other words in language.
Knowing a word means knowing the semantic value of a word
Knowing a word means knowing many of the different meanings associated with the word.
The goal of vocabulary teaching must be more than simply covering a certain number of words on a word list. Teaching techniques can help us realize our concepts of what it means to know a word. Our understanding of the nature of what we are teaching, should be reflected in the way we set about teaching it. Vocabulary has for some time been one area of the syllabus where this link between approach, method and technique has been neglected.