Biophilic Design by Antonio Caperna

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“Wilson and other Biophilia theorists assert that human beings not only derive specific aesthetic benefits from
interacting with nature, but that the human species has an instinctive, genetically determined need to deeply affiliate with natural setting and life-forms.”
and life-forms.”

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Biophilic Design by Antonio Caperna

  1. 1. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013: NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE ANDBIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN By Dr. Antonio Caperna, PhD www.biourbanism.org antonio caperna@biourbanism organtonio.caperna@biourbanism.org BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  2. 2. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013: NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING CONTENTS  Biophilia Biophilia  Biophilia and Biourbanism  Biophilic Design  Biophilic Design dimensions Biophilic Design dimensions - Naturalistic - Structural - CognitiveCognitive BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  3. 3. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING BIOPHILIA is the innately emotional affiliation ofis the innately emotional affiliation of human beings to other living organisms “Wilson and other Biophilia theorists assert that human beings not only derive specific aesthetic benefits from interacting with nature but that theinteracting with nature, but that the human species has an instinctive, genetically determined need togenetically determined need to deeply affiliate with natural setting and life-forms.” (Besthorn& Saleeby, 2003) BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  4. 4. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013: NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Picking up a word coined by Edward Wilson, we define biophilic architecture is thebiophilic architecture is the one capable of supplying our inborn need of a connection to life and to vital processes.p BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  5. 5. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Biophilia and biourbanism “For human survival and mental health and fulfillment, we need the natural setting in which the human mind almost i l l d d i hi h l h d l dcertainly evolved and in which culture has developed over these millions of years of evolution.”  An intersection between psychology and biology the connection is genetic – it resides in the common parts of ourg p DNA BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  6. 6. Bi hili d Bi b i ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Biophilia and Biourbanism Putting the human body at the center of social (built) relations  Why do many buildings from the past follow formal “bio”-laws?  What types of built forms correspond more closely to biological prototypes?yp p y g p yp and why human beings like and feel comfortable with these types of forms?  Are human beings naturally predisposed to built such types of forms?  Is it worthwhile mimicking biological forms in what we build?  Where delight and psycho-physiological benefits come from, when we face an environment capturing the essence of a biological structure?  How some artificial forms can “contradict” biological forms, and harm life?  Do we really understand biological structure well enough to mimic anything other than its superficial appearance? BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  7. 7. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING …why the underlying processes of nature and t diti l hit ttraditional architecture are able to create harmony and beautyharmony and beauty without effort, while the processes of modernprocesses of modern urban construction are not able to do so…not able to do so… (scientific question)(scientific question) BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  8. 8. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING The biophilic space is an environment that strengthens life and supports the sociological and psychological components or is able to support:components, or is able to support: • our cognitive system (in collecting and recognising more information in the quickest and most efficient way);o at o t e qu c est a d ost e c e t ay); • our sensorial system (neuro-motorial influence) avoiding both depressive and too exciting effects; • and reinforce emotive and neurobiological equilibrium; • the neuro-endocryne and immunological system, especially in people suffering of poor physical conditionin people suffering of poor physical condition. (Serafini, 2009; Caperna, 2010) BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  9. 9. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING BIOPHILIC DESIGN  create an environment usable by all people and that reflect the inherent human affinity for naturethat reflect the inherent human affinity for nature nourish our biological, physiological and psychological systemspsychological systems  respect the “genetic structure” of the site, create a coherent geometric wholecoherent geometric whole (Caperna, 2011) BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  10. 10. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Biophilic design features: • a naturalistic dimension;• a naturalistic dimension; • wholeness, or “the basic/genetic structure of the place” ; • “geometric coherency”.geo et c co e e cy HOW space-syntax structured along: • Patterns• Patterns • life sciences laws • Cognitive responseg p BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  11. 11. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Addressing cities as real structures with  relevant intentionality to liferelevant intentionality to life • Cities are not just environment, they have aCities are not just environment, they have a structure • Such a structure is not neutral. It affects social interactions, feeds back city’s identity and metabolism, and responds to physical laws. • Structure is physical, but it has cultural effects, and cultural causes. It’s at the intersection of h thuman nature. BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  12. 12. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING So, what is sustainability? Design must deal with g energy‐ and environment‐ saving technical solutions,  but also with functional  and restorative  connections to the humanconnections to the human  neurophysiological system.  BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  13. 13. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING BIOPHILIC DESIGN NATURALISTIC DIMENSIONNATURALISTIC DIMENSION BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  14. 14. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING naturalistic dimension of biophilic design, defined as shapes and forms in the built environment that directly, indirectly or symbolically reflect the inherent humanindirectly, or symbolically reflect the inherent human affinity for nature. The components of human settlement (building–human– nature) Source. “Biophilic and Bioclimatic Architecture” BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  15. 15. Views with less visual richness such ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Views with less visual richness, such as a blank wall, are processed in the small forward portion of the visual cortex and trigger far fewer of the muco e a d gge a e e o e u receptors, triggering less pleasurable mental reactions (Biederman & Vessel, 2006).( ) Neuroscientists have found that views of complex, dynamic natural scenes is literally a pleasurable experience. BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  16. 16. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Physiological effects of walking through forest (on average compared with those who walked through urban areas)through urban areas) - salivary cortisol (a stress hormone) was 13.4-15.8% lower,, - pulse rate was reduced by 3.9-6.0%, - systolic blood pressure was lower in individuals who walked through theg forest,. Most impressive, overall parasympathetic activity — which occurs when we feel relaxed — increased by 56.1%, whereas sympathetic activity — which occurs h f l d d d bwhen we feel stressed — decreased by 19.4% in subjects who walked through the forest (Park, 2010). BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  17. 17. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Nature is critical in children’s formative yearsNature is critical in children’s formative years. Studies show that nature provides children with a buffer against life’s stresses, and enables them to form social bonds. A study of day-lighting in schools also showed that children learn 20-26% faster in natural daylight. Wells & Evans, 2003; Heschong, 2003.
  18. 18. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING • Communities with higher- quality environments revealq y more positive valuations of nature, superior quality of lif i hb lilife, greater neighborliness, and a stronger sense of place than communities ofplace than communities of lower environmental quality. These findings also occur ing poor urban as well as more affluent and suburban i hb h dneighborhoods. BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  19. 19. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING • Contact with nature has been found to enhance healing and recoveryg y from illness and major surgical procedures, including direct contact ( l li h i i )(e.g., natural lighting, vegetation), as well as representational and symbolic depictions of nature (e g pictures)depictions of nature (e.g., pictures). Photos courtesy of Legacy Health System
  20. 20. f ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING The Economics of Biophilia 10% of Employee absence can be attributed to architecture no connection to natureto architecture no connection to nature
  21. 21. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING  Stress (Ulrich, 1993)  heart rate, blood pressure, relax muscle tension, increase alpha waves th t i t d ith l ti (Ul i hthat associated with relaxation. (Ulrich et al., 1991)  immune system functioning (Parsons, 1991)1991)  anxiety, fear, anger, aggression and increased feelings of well begin are common responses to natural settingscommon responses to natural settings (Ulrich, 1979, Hartig, Mang, & Evans, 1991)  Interaction in natural environments Interaction in natural environments also increase problem solving, creativity, capacity to concentrate and focus (Ulrich, 1993, Katcher& Wilkins,focus (Ulrich, 1993, Katcher& Wilkins, 1993)  Enhances feelings of awe, mystery, spiritual transcendence (Besthorn&p ( Saleeby, 2003) BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  22. 22. f ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING The Economics of Biophilia NATURAL VIEWS REDUCE LENGTH OF HOSPITAL STAY (AND SAVE MONEY)(AND SAVE MONEY) Reducing the average length of stay i h it l b 0 41 d tin hospitals by 0.41 days can amount to $ 93 million in reduced hospital costs every year. According to scientific studies, adequate access to daylighting and other biophilic elements can impactp p the health of patients in such a positive way that they can achieve and possibly go beyond theseand possibly go beyond these estimated savings. BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  23. 23. f ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING The Economics of Biophilia One in four people in the U S A suffers from stress and theOne in four people in the U.S.A. suffers from stress, and the associated annual cost to society is estimated to be $300 billion Source. R.Z. Goetzel et al., “The Relationship between Modifiable Health Risks and Health Care Expenditures,” Journal of Occupational and environmental Medicine, 40 (1998) pp. 213–222.
  24. 24. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING The most astonishing ventilation systems, however, have been developed by various species of termitesvarious species of termites. one example of sustainable architecture that uses dramatically less energy by imitating the successful strategies of indigenous natural systems. The building, the country's largest commercial and shopping complex, uses the same heating and cooling principles as a local termite mound
  25. 25. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Environmental the influence of the soil on the microclimate may be greatly modified by vegetation. The effect of forests and trees on the microclimate is very complex. CautiouslyThe effect of forests and trees on the microclimate is very complex. Cautiously positioned trees can save up to 50% of a household’s energy consumption for heating and cooling Urban ‘Heat Island’s effect BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it Urban Heat Island s effect
  26. 26. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Th f t llThe presence of trees generally - reduces the day–night variation - in summer, shading and evapotranspiration from trees can reduce surrounding air temperatures as much as 5° C and air temperatures directly under trees by up to 14°C. - increases the air humidity and decreases the wind speed;y p - plants can be used as shading as well as windbreaks to control heat gain and loss correspondingly. BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  27. 27. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Vegetable Façade • Edable fruits (e g Wine)Edable fruits (e.g. Wine) • Biomass production • Dust reduction • Heavy metal reduction • Thermal insulation • Energy savings • Noise reduction • BiodiversityBiodiversity • Evapotranspiration cooling BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  28. 28. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  29. 29. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Via verde, Rio de Janeiro BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  30. 30. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING A sensory garden: A self-contained area that concentrates a wide range of sensory experiences.sensory experiences. The Sonic Garden Lab at "Castello del Bisarno“, Firenze BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  31. 31. El t d Att ib t f Bi hili D i ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Elements and Attributes of Biophilic Design Dimensions, Elements, and Attributes of Biophilic Design by Stephen R. Kellerty p Environmental features Color Water Ai Natural patterns and processes Sensory variability I f ti i hAir Sunlight Plants Animals Information richness Transitional spaces Integration of parts to wholes D i b l d t iAnimals Natural materials Views and vistas Façade greening Dynamic balance and tension Fractals Hierarchically organized ratios and scales Façade greening Geology and landscape Habitats and ecosystems BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  32. 32. scale Biophilic design elements Biophilic Urban El t Building Green roof-top Sky gardens and green Rooftop garden Green walls Daylight interior spaces Elements across scales block Green courtyards Clustered housing around green areas Native species yards and spaces street Green street Sidewalk garden Low impact development Trees Vegetated swales and skinny streets Edible landscaping High degree of permeability Sneighbourhood Stream delighting, stream restoration Urban forests Ecology parks Community gardens Neighbourhood parks and pockets parks Greening gray fields and brown fieldsg g y community Urban creeks and riparian areas Urban ecological networks Green schools City tree canopy Community forest and community orchardsy y Greening utility corridors region River systems and floodplains Riparian system Regional green space system Greening major transport systemg j p y Source: Modified from Girling and Kellert (Beatly, 2008)
  33. 33. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Indicators of a Biophilic City  Percentage of population within 100 meters of a park or greenspace  Existence of a connected, integrated ecological network;  green urbanism from rooftop to Regiong p g  Percentage of city land area in wild or semi-wild nature  Percentage forest cover in the city (in some regions this will be less appropriate)  Extent and number of green urban features (e.g., green rooftops, green walls, trees)  Miles per capita of walking trails  Adoption of a local biodiversity action plan or strategy (S Bi hili Citi Ti th B tl )(Source. Biophilic Cities, Timothy Beatley) BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  34. 34. A hi l d i b f d d ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Architectural design can be founded on scientific principles that are analogous tog structural laws in theoretical physics and biologybiology (C. Alexander, 2004) BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  35. 35. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Nikos Salingaros,  An approach to design based upon scientific  concepts such as fractals hierarchical scalingconcepts such as fractals, hierarchical scaling,  complexity, and form languages.  Classical and traditional architectures are validated  for reasons having to do with human biology and  neurological adaptation, not simply for continuing a  tradition
  36. 36. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING In A Pattern Language, Alexander and hisg g , colleagues extracted 253 solutions or design "patterns" that recur in architecturep Each "pattern" represents a rule governing one working piece of a complex system BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  37. 37. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Pattern Language use a “genetic approach:Pattern Language use a genetic approach: - generate the environment indirectly, just asgenerate the environment indirectly, just as biological organisms are generated, indirectly, by a genetic codeby a genetic code - any good environment is that every part of it is extremely highly adapted to its particularitiesextremely highly adapted to its particularities BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  38. 38. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Mathematical point of view, Pattern LanguageMathematical point of view, Pattern Language arise from: - a way to understanding and possiblya way to understanding and possibly controlling a complex system; - as necessary design tools with which to buildas necessary design tools with which to build something that is functionally and structurally coherent.coherent. BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  39. 39. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Every complex system has a hierarchical structure; i.e., different i diff tprocesses are occurring on different scales or levels. Connections exist both on the same levels, and across levels (Mesarovic, Macko et al., 1970). The same is true for a patternThe same is true for a pattern language. The "language" generates a connective network by which the ordering of nodes on one level creates nodes at a higher level. This process goes on all the way up, and Drawing an analogy with biological systems, the system works because all the way down in levels systems, the system works because of the connections between subsystems (Passioura, 1979) BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  40. 40. COLLECTION OF MATERIAL ELEMENTS LIKE: PEOPLE, CARS, MOLECULES, HOUSES, WATER, ETC.PEOPLE, CARS, MOLECULES, HOUSES, WATER, ETC. SYSTEM WHEN THIS ELEMENTS WORKING SYSTEMTOGETHER OR CO- OPERATE ALEXANDER’S MODEL = TOWN AS SEMI-LATTICE CHANGES IN A PART CAN CAUSE STRESS IN OTHER PARTS BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  41. 41. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING The value of Alexander's Pattern Language is that it is not about  specific building types but about building blocks that can bespecific building types, but about building blocks that can be  combined in an infinite number of ways a more mathematical, combinatoric approach to design BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  42. 42. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING The idea that materialized in the published pattern language was first of all, of course, intended just to get a handle on some of the physical structures that make the environment nurturing for human beings And secondly it was done innurturing for human beings. And, secondly, it was done in a way that would allow this to happen on a really large scale. And, what I mean by that is that we wanted toscale. And, what I mean by that is that we wanted to generate the environment indirectly, just as biological organisms are generated, indirectly, by a genetic code (C. Alexander) BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  43. 43. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING This decision to use a genetic approach was not only because of th l bl It i t t f th b i i bthe scale problem. It was important from the beginning, because one of the characteristics of any good environment is that every part of it is extremely highly adapted to its particularities. That local adaptation can happen successfully only if people (who are locally knowledgeable) do it for themselves. In traditional society where lay people either built or laid out their own houses, their owny p p , streets, and so on, the adaptation was natural. It occurred successfully because it was in the hands of the people that were directly using the buildings and streets. So, with the help of thedirectly using the buildings and streets. So, with the help of the shared pattern languages which existed in traditional society, people were able to generate a complete living structure. (C. Alexander) BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  44. 44. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING archetypal Introduction; relationship with above patterns Main point of a problem Full Description Solution (heart of the problem)Solution (heart of the problem) Chart, components of the solution relationship with lower patterns BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  45. 45. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Combining Alexandrine patterns for generating “map” The goal is to cluster patterns into groups of about five or fewer on each level of scalefewer on each level of scale. BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  46. 46. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  47. 47. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  48. 48. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Like all languages, a PL has vocabulary, syntax, and grammar: - Vocabulary described solutions to problems in a field of interest (design patterns, such as settlements, buildings, rooms, windows, etc.) Each solution includes "syntax," that shows where the solution fits in a larger, more comprehensive or more abstract design. The solution includes "grammar" that describes how the solution solves a problem or produces a benefit. In Alexander's book, the patterns are in decreasing order by size BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  49. 49. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING … Communities and neighborhoods 12 COMMUNITY OF 7000 13 SUBCULTURE BOUNDARY 14 IDENTIFIABLE NEIGHBORHOOD 15 NEIGHBORHOOD BOUNDARY … Character of local environments 21 FOUR-STORY LIMIT 22 NINE PER CENT PARKING22 NINE PER CENT PARKING 23 PARALLEL ROADS 24 SACRED SITES 25 ACCESS TO WATER25 ACCESS TO WATER 26 LIFE CYCLE 27 MEN AND WOMEN Source: http://www.patternlanguage.com/leveltwo/patternsframegreen.htm?/leveltwo/../apl/twopanelnlb.htm BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  50. 50. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING 61 .SMALL PUBLIC SQUARES . . . this pattern forms the core which makes an ACTIVITY NODE (30): it can also help to generate a node, by its mere existence, provided that it is correctly placed along the intersection of the paths which people use most often. And it can also help to generate a PROMENADE (31), a WORK COMMUNITY (41), an IDENTIFIABLE NEIGHBORHOOD (14), through the action of the people who gather there. But it is essential,( ) g p p g in every case, that it is not too large. A town needs public squares; they are the largest, most public rooms, that the town has. But when they are too large, they look and feel deserted. Therefore: Make a public square much smaller than you would at first imagine; usually no more than 45 to 60 feet across,Make a public square much smaller than you would at first imagine; usually no more than 45 to 60 feet across, never more than 70 feet across. This applies only to its width in the short direction. In the long direction it can certainly be longer. PEDESTRIAN DENSITY (123); ACTIVITY POCKETS (124) ; POSITIVE OUTDOOR SPACE (106), BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it PEDESTRIAN DENSITY (123); ACTIVITY POCKETS (124) ; POSITIVE OUTDOOR SPACE (106), HIERARCHY OF OPEN SPACE (114), BUILDING FRONTS (122), STAIR SEATS ( 125). . . .
  51. 51. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Patterns for stairs. Alexander arguesg that stairs that merely connect two levels of a building work further to disconnect the building and tear its processes apart. In the patterns for stairs, he suggests flaring out the bottom and widening them as well as, if possible, making the stairs part of the outer perimeter of the room so the steps can be used as seats. S h tt t f t i i tSuch patterns transform stairs into social spaces where people would be naturally inclined to sit, chat or engage in other activitiesengage in other activities. (Pattern 133: ‘Staircase as a Stage’, A Pattern Language, pp. 637–40.)g g ) BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  52. 52. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  53. 53. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING MEDITERRANEAN URBAN ANDMEDITERRANEAN URBAN AND  BUILDING CODES AND SYMBOLS BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  54. 54. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING E l f ifi dExamples of specific codes The essence of the traditional system prevalent in the Mediterranean  region is found in the ethics and values related to habitatregion is found in the ethics and values related to habitat BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  55. 55. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING FINA: This is an invisible space about  1 00 1 50 t id l id ll1.00‐1.50 meters wide alongside all  exterior walls of a building which is not  attached to other walls, and primarily  alongside streets and access paths. It  extends vertically alongside the walls of  the building. The owner or tenant of the  building has certain rights and  responsibilities associated with his fina.  Maintenance of streets and private  passage ways, by keeping them clean and  safe from obstructions was also relatedsafe from obstructions, was also related  to the responsibilities associated with  using the fina.  BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  56. 56. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING FINA A street in old Tunis, Tunisia.  Note the steps for the house on the A street in Amorgos town on the island of  Amorgos, Greece. Note the steps to the houses  on the right, the balconies on the upper level, Note the steps for the house on the  right are within the fina. Windows are  above eye level, and the sabats.  Photo taken by Besim Akim in the mid‐1970s.  g , pp , and the upper level room projection are all  within the fina space of the houses. Sketch by  author after a photo in Greek Island Villages by  N F C JNorman F. Carver Jr. BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  57. 57. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Source. BesimSource. Besim Akim BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  58. 58. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING A street in Ostuni, Puglia region, Italy, near the Adriatic coast.  Note the projecting lamp is high enough for traffic below and it, and it  is within the fina of the house.  The sabat belongs to the house on the right The arch spanning theThe sabat belongs to the house on the right. The arch spanning the  street is built to reinforce the stability of the walls, implemented after  agreement between owners of the houses across the street.  Sketch by author after a photo in Italian Hilltowns by Norman F. Carver Jr. A street in Casares, Andalucia region, Spain.  Note the steps to the front doors of the houses on the right are within  the fina space of the housesthe fina space of the houses.  Source. Besim Hakim Photo courtesy: Casares BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  59. 59. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Calle Tintor, Campo S. Giacomo dall'Orio, Santa  Croce  A l h l i iAs passageways get longer, the tunnel sensation is reinforced. Calle de Mezzo, looking onto Rio del Megio, Santa Croce  Occasionally, such a passage will terminate at a canal, with or y, p g , without the benefit of water stairs.  BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  60. 60. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Abbazio S. Gregorio, Dorsoduro This sottoportego is on a  processional route one of theprocessional route, one of the  main ways to reach the Salute  church by land.  A th l i t fi d li i lAnthropologists find liminal  (threshold) moments in most  rituals, including procession.  Here we have a physical  threshold, extended beyond the  typical short span involved in  crossing a doorsill, which  thereby intensifies the  psychological effects ofpsychological effects of  participating in the ritual.  BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  61. 61. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Habitat Spaces with Thermal Role. Habitat spaces on bioclimatic concept in arid climate Gallery. This is an intermediary space surrounding the patios; it is an outside opensurrounding the patios; it is an outside open corridor with a porch used for traffic. It protects not only the doors, the windows but also external walls Loggia. is an architectural feature that refers to a gallery or corridor at ground level, sometimes higher, on the façade of a building and open to the air on one side where it is supported by columns or piercedside, where it is supported by columns or pierced openings in the wall. BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  62. 62. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Habitat Spaces with Thermal Role. Habitat spaces on bioclimatic concept in arid climate Patio (courtyard). is for the traditional dwelling theis for the traditional dwelling the outside space that creates a microclimate and the most efficient form of using the inside space ofg p house. The system’s efficiency can be amplified by supplying the place with fountains, water pools, and big leaves plantationsleaves plantations. The water pools and the vegetation get warmer during the day and keep a convenient temperature duringg cold night period Traditional Patio function in the day (Basrah, Iraq) BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  63. 63. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Habitat Spaces with Thermal Role. Habitat spaces on bioclimatic concept in arid climate Patio (courtyard). The air stays due to the difference of density in the upper part of the patio and allows a comfortable environment in the lower part of the patio Traditional Patio function in the day (Basrah, Iraq) BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  64. 64. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Habitat Spaces with Thermal Role. Habitat spaces on bioclimatic concept in arid climate Almost every mosque and traditionally all houses and buildings in areas of the Arab World contain a courtyard knownArab World contain a courtyard known as a sahn (Arabic ‫صحن‬(, which are surrounded on all sides by rooms and sometimes an arcade. Sahns usually feature a centrally positioned pool known as a howz. If a sahn is in a mosque, it is used for performing ablutions. If a sahn is in a traditional house or private courtyard, it A simple Sahn, with a howz in the middle. Notice flanking domed arcade. is used for aesthetics and to cool the summer heat. BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  65. 65. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Habitat Spaces with Thermal Role. Habitat spaces on bioclimatic concept in arid climate Courtyard from a traditional house in Damascus Syriahouse in Damascus, Syria BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  66. 66. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Calle Zambelli, Santa Croce  Here it is very clear how the tunnel was created from  an existing passage that had been open to the skyan existing passage that had been open to the sky.  Note that across the courtyard at the end of the  passage, there is another sottoportego. 8. Corte Oscura, Rio Terra dell'Isola, Santa Croce  This and the following picture show the two exits from a  small courtyard, as they go through the buildings that y y g g g surround the open space. 
  67. 67. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Anagni Cathedral BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  68. 68. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  69. 69. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Scaling over four stages in a Doric cornice. Koch curve and Gothic column compared. BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  70. 70. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING One of the numerous monumentalOne of the numerous monumental  public‐religious squares in the  Italian historical towns. The example of Moncalieri (NordThe example of Moncalieri (Nord  Italy) BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  71. 71. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Churchs and urban sapaces Padova. S. Giustina. Verona. Piazza del Duomo Verona. S. AnastasiaVerona. S, Fermo Maggiore BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  72. 72. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Enclosed space defines the character of the square The roads are generally placed in theThe roads are generally placed in the corners, so as to give continuity to the fifth of the square to the effect of perspective Verona. Piazza del Duomo BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  73. 73. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Mantova. Piazza S. Pietro.a, San Pietro; b, Palazzo ducale; e, Palazzo Vescovile, ; , BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it
  74. 74. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013. NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING Ravenna. Piazza del DuomoRavenna. Piazza del Duomo BIOPHILIC ARCHITECTURE AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN ! Antonio Caperna PhD | antonio.caperna@yahoo.it

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