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PROHABIT_OIKONET_Lisbon_Seminar

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Discussion about the interrelationships between architecture and environmental pyschology. Presentation of the PROHABIT research project at the 2nd OIKONET postgraduate seminar, ISCTE-IUL Lisbon, February 15, 2018

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PROHABIT_OIKONET_Lisbon_Seminar

  1. 1. Interdisciplinary analysis of lived space: architecture, urban planning and environmental psychology Leandro Madrazo School of Architecture La Salle Ramon Llull University, Barcelona 2nd OIKONET Postgraduate Seminar ISCTE – IUL Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Lisbon, 15 February 2018
  2. 2. PROHABIT : Multidisciplinary analysis of the lived environment to prmote the implementation of the right to the city www.prohabit.org
  3. 3. Trinitat Nova Vallcarca Plus Ultra An interdisciplinary research –encompassing architecture, urban planning and environmental psychology– to better understand the bonds between people and spaces, between social and physical structures. The research focuses on three neighbourhoods in which there is a strong involvement of residents in the on-going physical transformations
  4. 4. PROHABIT’s research focuses on three main issues: 1. Identification and description of the different uses of space: analysis of public and domestic space, as well as the transitional spaces between them, to understand the relationships between the built spaces and the people’s behaviour. 2. Understanding of the symbolization processes in which inhabitants both individually and collectively assign meanings to spaces: analysis of the territorial uses of space, identification of the symbolic landmarks, and involvement of the neighbours in the processes to give meaning to spaces. 3. Understanding of the processes of formation of collective identity linked to the sense of place: identification of a sense of belonging among the neighbours, their resistance to changes that threaten the identity of the neighbourhood and the actions taken to build a sense of identity, continuity or rupture.
  5. 5. PLUS ULTRA VALLCARCATRINITAT NOVA
  6. 6. 1. THEORETICAL PREMISES Environment-Behaviour vs. Architecture – Planning 2. EDUCATION People and spaces: experiences in architectural and planning education 3. RESEARCH An interdisciplinary research project on the analysis of lived space (Prohabit)
  7. 7. 1. THEORETICAL PREMISES • Environmental Psychology • Architecture / Environmental Psychology • Space / Place • House / Home • Participation
  8. 8. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
  9. 9. ENVIRONMENT : PEOPLE
  10. 10. PEOPLEPEOPLEENVIRONMENT Environmental psychology examines the relationship between people and their environment Kopec, D. (2006) Environmental psychology for design: “The interactional theory, …….., declares that people and the environment are separate entities that are constantly interacting”
  11. 11. Which interactions? In which context? PEOPLEPEOPLEENVIRONMENT Which environment? Which people? Environmental psychology examines the relationship between people and their environment Can they be separated?
  12. 12. communities PEOPLEPEOPLEENVIRONMENT Which people? social groups individuals humans inhabitants Environmental psychology examines the relationship between people and their environment
  13. 13. ENVIRONMENT physical ecological social economic cultural political technological institutional PEOPLEPEOPLEENVIRONMENT Which environment? Churchman, A. (2002). Environmental psychology and urban planning: “The environment is understood to be an all-encompassing term, including all aspects of the world- physical, ecological, social, economic, cultural, political, institutional, technological, and individual” Environment as combination of social, cultural, biological factors Environmental psychology examines the relationship between people and their environment
  14. 14. ENVIRONMENT physical ecological social economic cultural political technological institutional PEOPLEPEOPLEENVIRONMENT Which environment? humans Environmental psychology examines the relationship between people and their environment
  15. 15. ENVIRONMENT physical ecological social economic cultural political technological institutional PEOPLEPEOPLEENVIRONMENT Which environment? users Environmental psychology examines the relationship between people and their environment
  16. 16. Which interactions? personalization feelings perceptions exploitation affordances, constraints, arousal capabilities PEOPLEPEOPLEENVIRONMENT Environmental psychology examines the relationship between people and their environment
  17. 17. ENVIRONMENT Veitch, R., & Arkkelin, D. (1995). Environmental psychology: An interdisciplinary perspective: “With the development of ecological science, organisms were no longer viewed as being separate from their environment, but were seen as integral to it.” Can they be separated? PEOPLEENVIRONMENT Ittelson, W. H. (1973). Environment and cognition.: “…the environment surrounds, enfolds, engulfs and nothing and non-one can be isolated and identified as standing outside of, and apart from it…” Environmental psychology examines the relationship between people and their environment
  18. 18. ENVIRONMENT Can they be separated? PEOPLEENVIRONMENT Proshansky, H. M., Ittelson, W. H., & Rivlin, L. G. (Eds.). (1970). Environmental psychology: Man and his physical setting: “….from a theoretical point of view there is no physical environment apart from human experience and social organization. The physical environment that man constructs is as much a social phenomenon as it is a physical one” [PHYSICAL] Environmental psychology examines the relationship between people and their environment
  19. 19. ENVIRONMENT : BEHAVIOUR
  20. 20. ENVIRONMENT Environmental psychology deals with behaviour in relation to the environment. Canter, D. (1977) The Psychology of Place: “…any act is made in relation to the context within which the individual thinks himself to be.” In whih context? PEOPLEENVIRONMENT BEHAVIOURAL SYSTEM
  21. 21. PEOPLEENVIRONMENT Environmental psychology deals with behaviour in relation to the environment. BEHAVIOURENVIRONMENT Kurt Lewin, 1936: Behaviour is a function of the person (P) and the environment (E) B= f (P, E) Proshansky, H. M., Ittelson, W. H., & Rivlin, L. G. (Eds.). (1970). Environmental psychology: Man and his physical setting: “….the relationship between behavior and the man-defined environment, and in its simplest form, that is what environmental psychology is all about”
  22. 22. “The relationships between people and their everyday environments received only sporadic attention from behavioral scientists prior to the mid-1960s. However, several circumstances converged during the late 1960s to move environment-behavior research from the background to the forefront of social science. Concerns about environmental degradation and urban violence, shortages of natural resources, and the impacts of environmental pollution on health increased sharply during this period”. Stokols, D., & Altman, I. (Eds.). (1987). Handbook of environmental psychology Why study environment-behaviour?
  23. 23. PEOPLEENVIRONMENT Environmental psychology deals with behaviour in relation to the environment. BEHAVIOURENVIRONMENT The goal is to achieve a stage of equilibrium, a harmonious relationship between both; a dynamic equilibrium achieved through adaptation and adjustment. individuals adapt to the environment ACTION Veitch, R., & Arkkelin, D. (1995): “When environmental-stimulus properties change to the extent that they have exceeded the AL [adaptation level] boundaries, the individual experiences “unpleasantness”, and the influence of the environment is no longer steady-state. It is only at this point that changes in the normative modes of behavior can be expected, that the regularized, routinized behavioral-setting influence begins to break down.” A system is in a steady state if the state variables which define its behaviour are unchanging in time
  24. 24. Environmental psychology deals with behaviour in relation to the environment. BEHAVIOURENVIRONMENT environment is adjusted to suit the needs of individuals REACTION Gifford, R., Steg, L., & Reser, J. P. (2011). Environmental psychology.. “Environmental psychology is the study of transactions between individuals and their physical settings (Gifford, 2007a). In these transactions, individuals change their environments, and their behavior and experiences are changed by their environments. It includes theory, research, and practice aimed at making the built environment more humane and improving human relations with the natural environment.” Communication theory: action, interaction, transaction ACTION individuals adapt to the environment TRANSACTION The goal is to achieve a stage of equilibrium, a harmonious relationship between both; a dynamic equilibrium achieved through adaptation and adjustment.
  25. 25. PEOPLEENVIRONMENT Environmental psychology deals with behaviour in relation to the environment. BEHAVIOURENVIRONMENT individuals adapt to the environment Piaget’s theory cognitive development Assimilation / Accommodation environment is adjusted to suit the needs of individuals ACCOMODATIONASSIMILATION equilibrium disequilibrium Self-regulated mechanisms (feed-back loop) Experiences are assimilated to what it has been previously understood Pre-existing schemas are modified to fir with new information
  26. 26. PEOPLEENVIRONMENT Veitch, R., & Arkkelin, D. (1995): ”...we have become aware of the delicate balance between the quality of the environment and the quality of human life, and we have come to realize that this balance can be easily upset by human actions.” Keeping a balance between environment and people ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY PROBLEMS Humans’ influence on the environment Environment’s influence on humans D. Kopec, 2012: “The human-environment relationship is a symbiotic in that the environment influences our behaviors and we in turn influence the environment”
  27. 27. PEOPLEENVIRONMENT Environmental psychology deals with behaviour in relation to the environment. BEHAVIOURENVIRONMENT Veitch, R., & Arkkelin, D. (1995): “Typically we arrive at a place with considerable information about that place and with a plan in mind of what we will do there. We have certain expectations regarding the cultural purpose of the place, who will be there, the kind and degree of affect that will be elicited, the opportunities that will be afforded, as well as the constraints that will be placed upon us” ?
  28. 28. PEOPLEENVIRONMENT Environmental psychology deals with behaviour in relation to the environment. BEHAVIOURENVIRONMENT The reaction depends on the image that the person has of the environment; the expectations s/he has with regard to the actions to take place IMAGE OF THE ENVIRONMENT Goals, expectations Golledge, R. G. (1987). Environmental Cognition: “…. arrival at a particular place is usually accompanied by some a priori expectations about the type of behaviour that could take place in such a place and some a priori notion of what behaviour at will be followed while occupying that place.” Abelson, R., Schank, R. (1975) Scripts, plans, and knowledge
  29. 29. “Between 1970 and 1980, several coherent paradigms of environment-behavior research emerged, focusing on topics such as personal space, crowding and territoriality; environmental attitudes and assessment; spatial cognition, resource conservation, and behavior settings analysis; individuals’ reactions to environmental stressors; small group ecology; and the influence of urban and cultural factors on the vitality of neighborhoods and community groups” Stokols, D., & Altman, I. (Eds.). (1987). Handbook of environmental psychology
  30. 30. ENVIRONMENT AS SYSTEM
  31. 31. groups individuals communities buildings streets commerce green areas internet energy sources climate neighbourhoods housing square Proshansky, H. M., Ittelson, W. H., & Rivlin, L. G. (Eds.). (1970).: [“loss of privacy” in an urban ghetto] “It is also a socio-psychological, economic, sociological, and architectural-design phenomenon related to the organization of groups, institutional practices, and structural and substantive properties of physical settings” ENVIRONMENT AS SYSTEM
  32. 32. groups individuals communities buildings streets commerce green areas internet energy sources climate neighbourhoods housing square crowding INCREASED DENSITY economic development loss of privacy Proshansky, H. M., Ittelson, W. H., & Rivlin, L. G. (Eds.). (1970): [“loss of privacy” in an urban ghetto] “It is also a socio-psychological, economic, sociological, and architectural-design phenomenon related to the organization of groups, institutional practices, and structural and substantive properties of physical settings” ENVIRONMENT AS SYSTEM
  33. 33. groups individuals communities ENVIRONMENT AS SYSTEM buildings streets commerce green areas internet energy sources climate neighbourhoods housing square crowding INCREASED DENSITY economic development Chadwick, G. (1971). A systems view of planning: “The real world is, in fact, a complex system of both natural and man-made things; ……undergoing irreversible change through the passing of time. ..a town as a physical artefact cannot be regarded meaningfully as a system…..it is only when the buildings are occupied by people’s activities; when the spaces and channels are filled with flows and movements of people and goods and information; …….– only then is a town usefully to be seen as a system.” loss of privacy
  34. 34. groups individuals communities buildings streets commerce green areas internet energy sources climate neighbourhoods square OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS [researcher as external observer of environmental transactions] Proshansky, H. M., Ittelson, W. H., & Rivlin, L. G. (Eds.). (1970): “….. the individual, as a component of the total environmental process, is investigated in order to provide us with a greater understanding of this process. The scientist, as the observer, stands outside the environment and gathers data on the persons who participate in it with this objective in mind. ” housing EXPERT
  35. 35. groups individuals communities buildings streets commerce green areas internet energy sources climate neighbourhoods housing square EXPERT Proshansky, H. M., Ittelson, W. H., & Rivlin, L. G. (Eds.). (1970): “….. the individual, as a component of the total environmental process, is investigated in order to provide us with a greater understanding of this process. The scientist, as the observer, stands outside the environment and gathers data on the persons who participate in it with this objective in mind. ” Susan Saegert: “The person is conceptualized as always simultaneously embedded in the environment and actively defining and giving form to it””
  36. 36. groups individual communities buildings streets commerce green areas internet energy sources climate neighbourhood housing square Conceptualization of inhabitant’s perception of the environment s/he is part of PHENOMENOLOGICAL [process participant] Saegert, S. (1987). Environmental psychology and social change: “Thus the environment exists in the psychological experience of the individual, in the social relationships of people, and in the physical environment of time, space, and matter.“
  37. 37. INTERDISCIPLINARITY
  38. 38. BEHAVIOURENVIRONMENT social individual cognitive physical ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY buildings spaces infrastructures nature ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Proshansky, H. M., Ittelson, W. H., & Rivlin, L. G. (Eds.). (1970): “Environmental psychology can only be understood and defined, however, in the context of the environmental sciences in general- the larger body of studies concerned with the consequences of man’s manipulation of his environment.”
  39. 39. Proshansky, H. M., Ittelson, W. H., & Rivlin, L. G. (Eds.). (1970): “….environmental psychology is an emergent discipline that must evolve as an interdisciplinary superstructure of theoretical constructs and principles rooted in the basic formulations and empirical findings of many separate disciplines. Second this superstructure can emerge only from the cooperative theoretical and empirical endeavors of the researchers representing these various disciplines.” sociology geography architecture ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY [AS SUPERSTRUCTURE] Links created by researchers from the various disciplines Veitch, R., & Arkkelin, D. (1995):: “Environmental psychology constitutes an area of inquiry that is rooted in numerous disciplines”.
  40. 40. BEHAVIOURENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES biology psychology geography sociology architecture phylosophy economy Veitch, R., & Arkkelin, D. (1995): “On the one hand, the interdisciplinary nature of environmental psychology is laudable in that various perspectives are brought to bear on a single phenomenon, …….. On the other hand, it is this very multiplicity that leads to difficulties in the systematic application of knowledge and in the development of well-articulated unifying theories.”
  41. 41. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING PSYCHOPHYSICS, SOCIOPHYSICS Sound, colour, and light effects on peoples’ feelings and behaviour PEOPLEBUILT ENVIRONMENT
  42. 42. Density Crowding Proshansky, H. M., Ittelson, W. H., & Rivlin, L. G. (Eds.). (1970): “We do not yet know how to handle problems whose solutions require knowledge that can only be gleaned from the empty interstices between disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of the environmental sciences represents both one of their chief identifying features and one of their major challenges.” ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING
  43. 43. Thompson Klein, Julie. 1990. Interdisciplinarity. History, Theory and Practice. Multidisciplinarity: bringing together various disciplines, while respecting the boundaries of each one Interdisciplinarity: creating links between disciplines, harmonizing them in a coherent whole Transdisciplinarity: subsuming disciplines under a new conceptual framework, superseding the disciplinary boundaries
  44. 44. ARCHITECTURE ENV. PYSCHOLOGY
  45. 45. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY infrastructures nature BEHAVIOURBUILT ENVIRONMENT buildings spaces ARCHITECTURAL PSYCHOLOGY social Individual cognitive physical D. Appleyard, 1969. Why Buildings Are Known D. Canter, 1974. Psychology for Architects
  46. 46. - An awareness that design problems had become too complex to be solved intuitively by designers -> design methods movement, influenced by systems analysis and operations research Alexander: “…today more and more design problems are reaching insoluble levels of complexity. ….too complex to grasp intuitively” In architecture, from 1940s to 1960s, there was: - A criticism of the functional reductionism of the modern movement: it was no longer clear who the user of the “functional” architecture would be, nor of the meaning of “function” -> turning to psychology to know who the user is, what the user needs, how the user behaves Smithsons: “Our hierarchy of associations is woven into a modulated continuum representing the true complexity of human association”
  47. 47. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING Saegert, S. (1987). Environmental psychology and social change: “…design theory said much about sculptural form and aesthetic traditions but little about the everyday experience of using design spaces. Planning theory combined elements of economics, political science, geography and sociology but mainly overlooked the psychological level of analysis.” Groat, L. N., & Després, C. (1991). The significance of architectural theory for environmental design research: “Theoretical discourses in the architectural literature have tended to focus strictly on the formal or structural aspects of architecture, neglecting or ignoring people’s relationships to the built environment” form vs. people
  48. 48. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING Churchman, A. (2002). Environmental psychology and urban planning: “….in the list of planning skills ……there is no subclassification of knowledge about people, their needs, and their preferences.” Churchman, A. (2002). Environmental psychology and urban planning: “We in environmental psychology are interested in environmental perception and cognition, in feelings, beliefs, and attitudes, in personality and the environment, in concepts such as personal space, territoriality, privacy, and crowding …….all focused on the individual and his or her experience, and none intuitively or obviously relevant to urban planners” Environmental psychology is interested in people; architecture is not (crowding vs. density)
  49. 49. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING prescriptive or normative; it tells how thinks should be explanatory; it explains observable phenomena through abstract principles How things should be concerning what: quality of life, people’s behaviour, economic benefit? Which are the observable phenomena? People’s feelings, actions and attitudes within a particular environment? DESIGN SCIENCE Bell, G., Greene, C. , Fisher, & Baum (2001). Environmental Psychology: “Designers need to consider how buildings affect the people using them by understanding both how design influences people and how we can modify the design to facilitate the function for which the setting is intended”. prescriptive vs. explanatory
  50. 50. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING PRESENT FUTUREPAST Churchman, A. (2002). Environmental psychology and urban planning: “There is a difference also in the time frame being dealt with: Planning’s mandate is to focus on the future, whereas environmental psychology studies the past and the present and only sometimes is willing to hazard a guess as to what this means for the future.” Past/present vs. future
  51. 51. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY L. Groat, c. Depres, 1991: “Very few environment-behaviour researchers have explicitly built upon architectural theory to define their research designs. In particular, only a few environment-behaviour researchers have explicitly used any of the five categories of physical attributed identified in the architectural literature” L. Groat, c. Depres, 1991: “Many of the design principles described in architectural discourse constitute implicit hypothesis” ARCHITECTURE/PLANNING Formal properties of built environment: style, composition, type, morphology, place How are they perceived by people? Churchman, A. (2002). Environmental psychology and urban planning: “Environmental psychologists need to undertake research that links the physical aspects of the context to the subjective ones and describes the physical variables in terms that are relevant to planners. We need to understand the variables that planners deal with and the levels at which they can affect decisions and to focus research on these levels, too. Working with planners forces us to learn about the planning and governmental system and to expand our concept of context to include these aspects.”
  52. 52. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING BEHAVIOURENVIRONMENT Churchman, A. (2002). Environmental psychology and urban planning: “The environment behavior approach focuses on different groups of people and the degree to which the environment ‘fits’ their needs. This is a people-centered field that relates to people and their needs concretely, whereas planning relates to people in general and in the abstract. “ FIT
  53. 53. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING “Part of the world over which we have control, and which we decide to shape while leaving the rest of the world as it is.”. “Part of the world which puts demands on this form; anything in the world that makes demands of the form is context” “Fitness is a relation of mutual acceptability between these two “ CONTEXT FORM The form is the solution to the probleThe context defines the problem Alexander, C. (1964). Notes on the Synthesis of Form: “…every design problem begins with an effort to achieve fitness between two entities: the form in question and its context.” FIT
  54. 54. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city: “[legibility] the ease with which the parts of a city can be recognized and can be organized into a coherent pattern” FIT BEHAVIOURENVIRONMENT image
  55. 55. Density Crowding Churchman, A. (2002). Environmental psychology and urban planning: “Many planners understand that physical planning must incorporate the social and individual aspects of people’s lives. However, there are two problems here: one is that there are no developed tools for how to accomplish this goal, so each planner tries to work out a strategy on his or her own” How to get the two disciplines to collaborate? ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING
  56. 56. PRUITT-IGOE Charles Jencks, 1977: "Modern architecture died in St Louis, Missouri on July 15, 1972, at 3.32pm (or thereabouts)." Minoru Yamasaki, Wendell O. Pruitt Homes and William Igoe Apartments, Sant-Louis, 1956
  57. 57. PRUITT-IGOE Yancey, W. L. (1971). Architecture, interaction, and social control: : “…..Windows, particularly those on the lower floors, are broken out. The cost of replacing glass in vacant apartments led the Housing Authority to cover many plywood. Streets and parking lots are littered with trash, bottles and tin cans. Derelict cars provide an attractive source of entertainment for children…...” “The 20 families will use the gallery: 1. As a close, safe playground for small children while mothers are doing housework, or laundry. 2. As an open air hallway 3. As a porch in spring, autumn and summer. 4. As a laundry 5. As storage for such items as bicycles, washing machines and tools.”
  58. 58. PRUITT-IGOE Minimizing “wasted space” Lack of adequate “defensible space”
  59. 59. HOUSE HOME
  60. 60. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING HOUSING HOME private, experientialpublic, physical Tognoli, J. (1987). Residential environments: “Housing is a term that defines the public rather than the private sphere. It emphasizes an ultimately knowable set of physical and spatial parameters rather than the behavior of only one individual in one house.” Fried, M., & Gleicher, P. (1961). Some sources of residential satisfaction in an urban slum: “…’home’ is not merely an apartment of a house but a local area in which some of the most meaningful aspects of life are experienced”
  61. 61. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING HOUSING HOME private, experientialpublic, physical Tall, D. (1996). Dwelling; making peace with space and place: “To say we dwell somewhere implies permanence, or at least continuity. But at root “dwell” means to pause, to linger or delay. We dwell on a subject, but eventually give it up. So what does it mean to dwell somewhere? How long do we have to stay?”
  62. 62. Alison and Peter Smithson, Small pleasure of life, Changing the Art of Inhabitation, London, 1993 Alison & Peter Smithson: “It is imposible for each man to construct his own home. It is for the architect to make it posible for the man to make the flat his house, the maisonette his habitat….that each man shall be at liberty to adapt for himself.” Veitch, R., & Arkkelin, D. (1995). Environmental psychology: “The home appears to be a critical physical mechanism for satisfying the need to establish a permanent spatial location that the individual considers as his or her private domain, and which serves as a base for regulating social interaction”. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING
  63. 63. R. Veitch, D. Arkkelin, 1995 “Territorials markers. … it is common for people to “personalize” their rooms or offices with decorations that reflect their personalities and that signify the area is uniquely theirs. In a very real sense, an individual’s personal identity depends upon the ability to occupy and mark a territory as one’s own” Alison & Peter Smithson: “The street-deck itself is articulated so that the part by the individual front doors offers itself for being taken possession of by the householder.” Allison & Peter Smithson, Robin Hood Gardens, London, 1972 [Demolished 2017] “Signs of occupancy” ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING
  64. 64. “To Alison and Peter Smithson, creating a house was not about designing a smooth machine in good working order: they wanted to construct a place, a territory. ……a structure should welcome its appropriation by inhabitants, their patterns of use, their art of inhabitation.” Dirk van den Heuvel, Max Risselada, “Just a a Few Houses,…”. In Alison and Peter Smithson – from the House of the Future to a house of today, 2004.
  65. 65. “[The transfer of the Taylors system to the household]”. “[The nerve of the apartment is the kitchen, where the main work of the housewoman takes place in the small household].” Bruno Taut, Die Neue Wohnung, 1925 [author’s translation]
  66. 66. A history of success? A history of failure? Huxtable, A. L. (1981). Le Corbusier’s Housing Project-Flexible Enough to Endure: “Pessac was supposedly finished off by the occupants' rebellious rejection of Le Corbusier's doctrinaire modernist esthetic and elitist ideas about how they should live.”
  67. 67. Huxtable, A. L. (1981): “The scale and relationship of the houses to each other and to the gardens was excellent; the shapes and proportions of the buildings were unusually strong and good. There was a feeling of a cohesive whole. Even with the loss of key elements of the Corbusian style - the precise repetition of open and closed geometries, the visual sense of the thin concrete, the painterly abstraction of the original colored facades - the settlement retained an impressive and recognizable integrity. Pessac was a very pleasant place to be. And these houses were clearly survivors.” A history of success
  68. 68. HOME : IDENTITY : PLACE three intertwined concepts, one idea: the bond between person and space
  69. 69. SPACES PLACES
  70. 70. Space as extension Space as existence ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING
  71. 71. “Philosophers and psychologists have argued about the nature of space for centuries. They have debated whether it is an empirical concept derived from perception of from images, whether it is innate to thought and consciouness, or whether it is operational in character, and so on. Surely here if anywhere is cause for resorting to experimental psychology, since only the actual data of mental evaluation can reveal the true factors operative in the development of the notion of space” J. Piaget, B. Inhelder, 1956, Child's Conception of Space
  72. 72. ENVIRONMENT PEOPLEENVIRONMENT SPACE ENVIRONMENTAL COGNITION Piaget: The concept of space is acquired as a result of the interaction with the environment
  73. 73. ENVIRONMENT PEOPLEENVIRONMENT SPACE EXISTENTIALIST PHILOSOPHY We exist in space, the being cannot be separated from space; space is not an abstract container of activities separated from the subject. spaces buildings Heidegger: “Das Dasein ist räumlich”- We exist in space
  74. 74. “The term 'place', as opposed to space, implies a strong emotional tie, temporary or more longlasting, between a person and a particular physical location.“ J. D. Sime (1986) Creating places or designing spaces?
  75. 75. “Are architects less preoccupied with creating places than designing spaces? Is it possible for architects to 'create places' as opposed to 'design spaces' for building users? What general implications does the concept of place have for architectural design and research in environmental psychology?” J. D. Sime (1986) Creating places or designing spaces?
  76. 76. C. Norberg-Schulz (1971), Existence, Space and Architecture “Whereas ‘space’ denotes the three-dimensional organization of the elements which make up a place, “character” denotes the general ‘atmosphere’ which is the most comprehensive property of any place.”
  77. 77. “Whereas ‘space’ denotes the three-dimensional organization of the elements which make up a place, “character” denotes the general ‘atmosphere’ which is the most comprehensive property of any place.” “Place is evidently an integral part of existence. What, then, do we man with the word “place”? Obviously we mean something more than abstract location. We mean a totality made up of concrete things having material substance, shape, texture, and colour. Together these things determine and ‘environmental character’, which is the essence of place.” C. Norberg-Schulz (1971), Existence, Space and Architecture
  78. 78. BEHAVIOURENVIRONMENT PLACE Groat, L. N., & Després, C. (1991). The significance of architectural theory for environmental design research.: “The concept of place represents an important and especially significant confluence of the environment-behaviour literature and architectural theory” SOCIOPHYSICAL SPACE ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING
  79. 79. Canter, D. (1977). The psychology of place: “…a place is the result of relationships between actions, conceptions and physical attributes” J. D. Sime (1986) Creating places or designing spaces? “Unfortunately, although identifying psychological factors important in understanding the relationship of people to physical environments, there is limited attention to people's actions (as in Relph's book) and almost none at all to the objective physical environment which architects have to manipulate”
  80. 80. Tschumi Architects: “Architecture is not simply about space and form, but also about event, action, and what happens in space.” Tschumi Architects, The Manhattan Transcripts, 1976-1981 FORM ACTION EVENT
  81. 81. M. Fried & P. Gleicher: “We are primarily concerned with the way in which space is organized or structured in defining the usable environment and in providing restrictions to or freedom for mobility in space N.J. Habraken: “Territorial depth is measured by the number of boundary crossings needed to move from the outer space to the innermost territory” Kris Scheerlinck, (2010), Depth Configurations. Proximity, Permeability And Territorial ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING
  82. 82. Lee, T. (1968). Urban neighbourhood as a socio-spatial schema: “The major difficulty for the social scientist seems to be the elusiveness of neighbourhood. He cannot capture it whole in the net of a single concept. If he isolates it as a piece of territory, he often finds little or no correspondence with human behavior; if he concentrates instead on social relationships he finds that these do not synchronize with geography. “ PHYSICAL SOCIAL Elusiveness of neighbourhood’s boundaries: what is a neighbourhood? ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING
  83. 83. PHYSICAL SOCIAL planner resident knows where the neighbourhood begins and ends Is aware of what neighbourhood means Mann, 1965 (In Lee, 1968): “Attempts to define the boundaries of the physical neighbourhoods may be sterile in that they bear so little relation to social relationships. It is more useful to consider the social relationships themselves rather than to worry about where neighbourhoods begin and end”. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING
  84. 84. territorial unit territorial cluster territorial complex D. Stea, 1970. Space, Territory and Human Movements. Gifford, R., Steg, L., & Reser, J. P. (2011). Environmental psychology: “Territoriality in humans is a pattern of behavior and experience related to the control, usually by nonviolent means such as occupation, law, custom, and personalization, of physical space, objects, and ideas” Hillier, B. (2007). Space is the machine: “Space is more than a neutral framework for social and cultural forms. It is built into those very forms. Human behaviour does not simply happen in space. It has its own spatial forms. Encountering, congregating, avoiding, interacting, dwelling, teaching, eating, conferring are not just activities that happen in space. In themselves they constitute spatial patterns” ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING
  85. 85. “Space Syntax provides a trusted, evidence-based approach to the analysis and design of spatial layout and land use patterns. We help people to see, in clear and straightforward terms, how buildings and urban places can be designed to optimise their functional performance” The spatial layout of buildings and urban places exerts a powerful influence on human behaviour. The way that places are connected is directly related to the way that people move, interact and transact. DESIGN ANALYSES http://www.spacesyntax.com/ ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING
  86. 86. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY PEOPLEBUILDINGS BUILT ENVIRONMENT (sociophysical space) space structuring Proshansky et al. 1970: “The physical environment that man constructs is as much a social phenomenon as it is a physical one”
  87. 87. groups individuals communities MULTIDIMENSIONAL ENVIRONMENT buildings streets commerce green areas internet energy sources climate neighbourhoods BUILDING square PHYSICAL IMPACT SOCIAL IMPACT ECONOMIC IMPACT Hillier, B. (2007). Space is the machine: “At the very least then, a building is both a physical and a spatial transformation of the situation that existed before the building was built. Each aspect of this transformation, the physical and the spatial, already has, as we shall see, a social value, …”
  88. 88. 1. Perceived space (Spatial practice): "The spatial practice of a society secretes that society's space; it propounds and presupposes it, in a dialectical interaction; it produces it slowly and surely as it masters and appropriates it." (p. 38) 2. Conceived space (Representations of space): "Conceptualized space, the space of scientists, planners, urbanists, technocratic subdividers and social engineers, as of a certain type of artist with a scientific bent - all of whom identify what is lived and what is perceived with what is conceived." (p. 38) 3. Lived space (Representational spaces): "Space as directly lived through its associated images and symbols, and hence the space of ‘inhabitants’ and ‘users’." (39) Henri Lefebvre, The Production of Space, 1981 (1974)
  89. 89. PHYSICAL SPACE MENTAL SPACESOCIAL SPACE
  90. 90. PHYSICAL SPACE MENTAL SPACESOCIAL SPACE Do inhabitants perceive the space as it was designed?
  91. 91. PHYSICAL SPACE MENTAL SPACESOCIAL SPACE Do architects know how inhabitants territorialize space? Gifford, R., Steg, L., & Reser, J. P. (2011). Environmental psychology: “Architects can and should incorporate knowledge about territoriality to allow building users as much control as they are capable of responsibly exercising and as the organizational context allows; territory holders then benefit from a greater sense of self-determination, identity, and even safety.”
  92. 92. PHYSICAL SPACE MENTAL SPACESOCIAL SPACE Do residents participate with designers in the construction of a shared environmental image?
  93. 93. PARTICIPATION
  94. 94. Churchman, A. (2002). Environmental psychology and urban planning: “The movement in planning toward more participatory and empowering decision-making processes is a very positive step in the direction of accommodating the needs and preferences of different groups of people. Thus, one of the meeting points between the two fields is the area of public participation in planning.“ SUSTAINABILITY PUBLIC PARTICIPATION COMMUNITY PLANNING COHOUSING LIVEABILITY CITIES FOR ALL RIGHT TO THE CITY ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING
  95. 95. SUSTAINABILITY PUBLIC PARTICIPATION COMMUNITY PLANNING COHOUSING LIVEABILITY CITIES FOR ALL RIGHT TO THE CITY Holahan, C.J., & Wandersman, A. (1987). The community psychology perspective in environmental psychology: “Central to the community perspective’s interest in social change is a concern with the habitability of the built environment, with its “livability” in social and psychological terms.” ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING
  96. 96. GENTRIFICATION
  97. 97. SENSE OF PLACE? J. D. Sime (1986) Creating places or designing spaces? : “Architects are certainly not the only ones to blame for people being victims of design schemes…..Certain forms of architecture, such as large-scale property developments (e.g. high-rise buildings), may be viewed unfavourably not only because of physical features of the building design, but as a symbolic intrusion of 'economic space' into people's 'life space‘” Photographs by Michael Wolf
  98. 98. SENSE OF PLACE? Photographs by Michael Wolf J. D. Sime (1986) Creating places or designing spaces? : “Architects are certainly not the only ones to blame for people being victims of design schemes…..Certain forms of architecture, such as large-scale property developments (e.g. high-rise buildings), may be viewed unfavourably not only because of physical features of the building design, but as a symbolic intrusion of 'economic space' into people's 'life space‘”
  99. 99. M29 Projekt, Berlin, 2015 R50 – Cohousing / ifau und Jesko Fezer + Heide & Von Beckerath Cooperativa La Borda, Barcelona COHOUSING
  100. 100. “I always attempt to understand the atmosphere that creates the local identity of a city and to make a contribution that reinforces it. ……. Every residential building should be able to contribute to create an identity reaching far beyond the individual. The architect’s duty in contemporary residential construction is to create the framework conditions for realizing and representing several different conditions of living. … our houses should be more like containers in the future in which diverse conceptions of living can be represented and realized” Dietmar Eberle, The Domestic City, In, J. L. Mateo (editor), Global Housing Projects, ACTAR, 2008 Lochau Residences at Lake Constance
  101. 101. GLOBAL DWELLING “…the ordinary person is a designer being guided, not by profound theology or philosophy, but by a basic human instinct for a sense of place.” “What is necessary is for the architect to acknowledge the potentially transformative status of the users' knowledge and to provide channels through which it might be articulated.” Peter Blundell Jones, Doina Petrescu, Jeremy Till (editors), Architecture and Participation, 2005 Tom Porter, The Architect’s Eye, 1997 USER AS CO-DESIGNER
  102. 102. “We share a vision of cities for all, referring to the equal use and enjoyment of cities and human settlements, seeking to promote inclusivity and ensure that all inhabitants, of present and future generations, without discrimination of any kind, are able to inhabit and produce just, safe, healthy, accessible, affordable, resilient and sustainable cities and human settlements to foster prosperity and quality of life for all. We note the efforts of some national and local governments to enshrine this vision, referred to as “right to the city”, in their legislation, political declarations and charters.” UN New Urban Agenda, 2017
  103. 103. “[Human settlements] are participatory, promote civic engagement, engender a sense of belonging and ownership among all their inhabitants, prioritize safe, inclusive, accessible, green and quality public spaces that are friendly for families, enhance social and intergenerational interactions, cultural expressions and political participation…..” UN New Urban Agenda, 2017
  104. 104. HOME PLACE IDENTITY PARTICIPATION SUSTAINABILITY LIVEABILITY ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING
  105. 105. Després, C., & Piché, D. (2017). Linking People-Environment Research and Design. What Is Missing?. “The result is a worrying widening gap between researchers and designers at a time when working together has never been more important.” ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYARCHITECTURE/PLANNING
  106. 106. - Environmental psychology and architecture/planning have their own background as disciplines, while the relationship between both has its own history: -> what stage are the two disciplines nowdays? -> which conditions are necessary for a productive relationship to be established? - Ideas and theories in the different disciplines are subjected to te infuence of the prevalent thinking models at each time in history. Gestalt psychology, cybernetics, systems theory, ecology,…all left their mark on both environmental psychology and architecture -> which thinking models operate both disciplines under nowadays? -> should they escape from their influence and build their own body of knowledge, autonomously?
  107. 107. - Environmental psychology and architecture are practice- oriented disciplines which are not sitting on solid theoretical grounds: -> the ways in which they can interact need to be defined in each particular application case, albeit in research or in education - To bridge the still existing gap between environmental psychology and architecture it is necessary to change architectural (and environmental psychology) education: -> more open and participatory design studios, focus on interdisciplinary and participatory practices, research oriented -> better understanding of the values that the built environment has for people
  108. 108. 2. EDUCATION People and spaces: Experiences in architectural and planning education
  109. 109. NET CITY: A Collaborative Environment to Promote the Understanding of the Contemporary City (2000-2001) Madrazo, L. (2005). NET_CITY: A collaborative Environment to promote the Understanding of the Contemporary City. Journal of Urban Technology, 12:1, 21-47, DOI: 10.1080/10630730500116586
  110. 110. NET CITY: A Collaborative Environment to Promote the Understanding of the Contemporary City (2000-2001) • What would you consider to be the most representative element of your neighborhood (a monument, a street, a square. . .. . .)? • Where would you place the limits of your urban space (a building, a street. . .. . .. . .)? • What is your personal experience of the public spaces you normally use? • What are you missing in your neighborhood that might make you move to another place to find it? • In which spaces does your social activity normally take place? • What do you think of the use that people make of the public space (how they move through it, how they stand on it)? • In your opinion, which objects stand out in the visual environment (a sign, a color, a facade. . ..)? Leafleft of the campaign carried out in the Sagrada Familia neighbourhood in Barcelona
  111. 111. NET CITY: A Collaborative Environment to Promote the Understanding of the Contemporary City (2000-2001) Structure of the web-based environment to promote collaboration between students and citizens
  112. 112. NET CITY: A Collaborative Environment to Promote the Understanding of the Contemporary City (2000-2001) Inputs from students and/or citizens
  113. 113. NET CITY: A Collaborative Environment to Promote the Understanding of the Contemporary City (2000-2001) Inputs from users organized in thematic channels
  114. 114. NET CITY: A Collaborative Environment to Promote the Understanding of the Contemporary City (2000-2001) Interface to group users’ inputs into topics
  115. 115. A map generated from the individual perceptions of the environment FIXA-T’HI. A digital territory to promote environmental education (2005-2007) Madrazo, L., Hernández, M., Agustí, J. (2008) FIXA-T’HI. A digital territory to promote environmental education, ED MEDIA, Viena.
  116. 116. An abstract machine to search for associations between images and concepts FIXA-T’HI. A digital territory to promote environmental education (2005-2007)
  117. 117. FIXA-T’HI. A digital territory to promote environmental education (2005-2007) Management area of the web-based learning environment
  118. 118. OIKODOMOS Participatory Analysis of the Living Environment: the Plus Ultra Neighborhood (2010-2011) Engaging residents in a collective analysis of the neighbourhood
  119. 119. OIKODOMOS Participatory Analysis of the Living Environment: the Plus Ultra Neighborhood (2010-2011) A neighbour drawing his home
  120. 120. OIKODOMOS Participatory Analysis of the Living Environment: the Plus Ultra Neighborhood (2010-2011) Publishing the results of the participatory analysis in a blog http://lasalle-oikodomos.blogspot.com.es/search/label/participation
  121. 121. UMVA 2014 UMVA- Unidad Móvil de Video Arquitectura, 2011-2017 Using video as a tool to analyse and represent lived space
  122. 122. UMVA- Unidad Móvil de Video Arquitectura, 2011-2017 Work plan to produce a video
  123. 123. Analysis of the neighbourhood Trinitat Nova, Barcelona. Students: Pablo Llamazares, Gemma Navarro, Nadim Osman, 2014/15, School of Architecture La Salle Activity 1: DOCUMENTING UMVA- Unidad Móvil de Video Arquitectura, 2011-2017
  124. 124. Can Cuiàs, Barcelona, 2012 Can Batlló, Barcelona, 2012 UMVA- Unidad Móvil de Video Arquitectura, 2011-2017 On-site review of the students’ analysis in the mobile unit
  125. 125. Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art, 2014 Civic Center Can Felipa, Barcelona, 2013 Art Factory Fabra i Coats, Barcelona, 2013 UMVA- Unidad Móvil de Video Arquitectura, 2011-2017 Public presentations and discussion of videos produced by students
  126. 126. “Personal stories of the El Raval neighbouhood, Barcelona”. Students: Alex Guilà, Ignasi López, 2013/14, School of Architecture La Salle Activity 3: PRODUCING UMVA- Unidad Móvil de Video Arquitectura, 2011-2017 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-RoTF3fhgP8&list=PLzaIcR6ubsylrurZ4MAHzZ7ySb2o8Ja6r
  127. 127. UMVA- Unidad Móvil de Video Arquitectura, 2011-2017 http://umvascreen.blogspot.com.es http://umvaraval.blogspot.com.es Dissemination of students’ videos in the UMVA blogs and in the Youtube channel
  128. 128. 3. RESEARCH An interdisciplinary analysis of lived space (PROHABIT)
  129. 129. With citizen participation currently in the spotlight of political and urban programmes, PROHABIT undertakes an interdisciplinary research –encompassing architecture, urban planning and environmental psychology– to better understand the bonds between people and spaces, between social and physical structures. OBJECTIVES
  130. 130. PLUS ULTRA Neighbourhood The Plus Ultra neighbourhood is a group of buildings located at the foothills of the Montjuïc mountain, in an agricultural zone adjacent to a water canal. Originally, it was a group of self-build two-storey houses whose construction began in the 1920s without any form of urban planning. Although they complied with the administrative requirements, they were not part of the city plan until 1935.
  131. 131. PLUS ULTRA Neighbourhood After a long fight with neighbours, the city changed the master plan to maintain the urban structure and building types in 2014. The municipality expects the recovery process of the area to be slow, led by the private sector that will promote the progressive improvement of the existing buildings while preserving the character of the neighbourhood.
  132. 132. TRINITAT NOVA Neigbhourhood Trinitat Nova is an example of the so-called “vertical slums” that emerged in different parts of the periphery of the city to house the immigrant masses. It was built during the 1950s and 60s in the northern outskirts of the city of Barcelona to meet the huge demand for social housing created by the influx of immigrants who were attracted by the industrial growth of the city
  133. 133. Obra Sindical del Hogar Instituto Nacional de la Vivienda Source: ARC Engineering and Architecture La Salle TRINITAT NOVA Neigbhourhood In 1996, the neighbours’ association took the initiative to launch a Community Plan with the purpose of refurbishing or replacing the housing stock which was by then severely damaged as a result of the poor quality of the construction, Patronato Municipal de la Vivienda
  134. 134. 2- Caso de estudio: TRINITAT NOVA Renovation of semi-private spaces between blocks Source: Course SDR 16-17 – School of Architecture La Salle
  135. 135. VALLCARCA Neigbhourhood The neighbourhood of Vallcarca began to emerge in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, in Horta, on the outskirts of the old town of Gràcia, now one of the districts of the city of Barcelona. Its name comes from Latin vallis carcara, which means “narrow valley”.
  136. 136. VALLCARCA Neigbhourhood Source: http://album.observatorivallcarca.cat/ Originally, it was a settlement of summer houses – intermingled with humble self-build houses– which quickly formed a small town with orchards and gardens, built without following any urban plan
  137. 137. Appropriation of public and private spaces Source: Project PROHABIT VALLCARCA Neigbhourhood
  138. 138. 1. The identification and description of the uses of space at its different scales - analysis of the public and the domestic space, as well as the transition spaces between them, to understand the relationships between the design of the spaces and the activities that take place in them. 2. The analysis of the symbolization processes by which the inhabitants assign meanings to spaces, individually and collectively. -analysis of the territorial uses of space, identification of the symbolic landmarks, and the analysis of the different ways of participation and levels of involvement of the neighbours. 3. The formation of a collective identity linked to the sense of place. - identification of a sense of belonging among the neighbours, their resistance to changes that threaten the identity of the neighbourhood and the actions taken to support a sense of identity continuity or rupture. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
  139. 139. OBJECTIVES
  140. 140. www.prohabit.org/mapper
  141. 141. - The importance of the rigour in the language, in the formulation of concepts in any research work. The meaning of a term cannot be taken for granted; terms acquire specific signficance with the context of the research - To find a balance between information and knowledge, theory and practice. Do we first need to know all the work done earlier before we engage in our own research? Can the outcomes of our research be invalidated because we did not know all that had been done before? - We need to find a balance between intuition and method: common sense and intelligence are the best instruments to face a research problem; the rest can be solved along the way LESSONS LEARNED
  142. 142. - Research is done upon materials (data, documents, observations,…) with certain methods (case-based, action research,..), with limited resources (people, instruments) in a limited time - As for interdisciplinarity… - It can be an advantage, and a disadvantage - Its success depends on the participants’ capacity to delimit together the scope of the research and the objectives to be achieved; in their interest and understanding of each other’s discipline,...and on the researcher’s will and capacity to collaborate LESSONS LEARNED
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  144. 144. Groat, L. N., & Després, C. (1991). The significance of architectural theory for environmental design research. In Advances in environment, behavior, and design (pp. 3-52). Springer, Boston, MA. Habraken, N. J. (2000). The structure of the ordinary: form and control in the built environment. MIT press. Holahan, C.J., & Wandersman, A. (1987). The community psychology perspective in environmental psychology. In D. Stokols & I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of Environmental psychology: Vol. 1 (pp. 827-861). New York: Wiley. Huxtable, A. L. (1981). Le Corbusier’s Housing Project-Flexible Enough to Endure. The New York Times, 15. Ittelson, W. H. (1973). Environment and cognition. Seminar Press. Kopec, D. A. (2006). Environmental psychology for design. New York: Fairchild. Jones, P. B., Petrescu, D., & Till, J. (Eds.). (2013). Architecture and participation. Routledge. Lee, T. (1968). Urban neighbourhood as a socio-spatial schema. Human Relations, 21(3), 241- 267. Lefebvre, H., & Nicholson-Smith, D. (1991). The production of space (Vol. 142). Blackwell: Oxford. Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city (Vol. 11). MIT press. Norberg-Schulz, C. (1971). Existence, space & architecture. New York: Praeger. Perry, C. M. (1927). Inductive vs. Deductive Method in Social Science Research. The Southwestern Political and Social Science Quarterly, 8(1), 66-74. REFERENCES
  145. 145. Porter, T. (1997). The architect's eye: visualization and depiction of space in architecture. Taylor & Francis. Proshansky, H. M., Ittelson, W. H., & Rivlin, L. G. (Eds.). (1970). Environmental psychology: Man and his physical setting (pp. 21-26). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Sime, J. D. (1986). Creating places or designing spaces?. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 6(1), 49-63. Stokols, D., & Altman, I. (Eds.). (1987). Handbook of environmental psychology (Vol. 1, 2). Wiley. Saegert, S. (1987). Environmental psychology and social change. Handbook of environmental psychology, 1, 99-128. Tall, D. (1996). Dwelling; making peace with space and place. Rooted in the land: Essays on community and place, 104-12. Tognoli, J. (1987). Residential environments. Handbook of environmental psychology, 1, 655- 690. Veitch, R., & Arkkelin, D. (1995). Environmental psychology: An interdisciplinary perspective. Pearson College Division. Yancey, W. L. (1971). Architecture, interaction, and social control: The case of a large-scale public housing project. Environment and Behavior, 3(1), 3-21. REFERENCES
  146. 146. madrazo@salleurl.edu 2018 ARC Engineering and Architecture La Salle Ramon Llull University, Barcelona arc.salleurl.edu

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