Al kutub al-sittah wikipedia

Uploaded on


More in: Spiritual
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. ContentsArticles Al-Kutub al-Sittah 1 History of hadith 2 Muhammad al-Bukhari 7 Sahih Muslim 10 Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nishapuri 12 Al-Sunan al-Sughra 14 Al-Nasai 15 Sunan Abu Dawood 17 Abu Dawood 18 Sunan al-Tirmidhi 19 Tirmidhi 21 Sunan ibn Majah 22 Ibn Majah 23 Muwatta Imam Malik 25 Malik ibn Anas 28 Sunan al-Darimi 31 Al-Darimi 31 Sahih al-Bukhari 33 Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 36 Ahmad ibn Hanbal 37 Shamaail Tirmidhi 41 Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah 42 Ibn Khuzaymah 43 Sahifah Hammam ibn Munabbih 44 Hammam ibn Munabbih 45 Musannaf ibn Jurayj 46 Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq 46 ‘Abd ar-Razzaq as-San‘ani 47 Sahih Ibn Hibbaan 48 Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain 49 Hakim al-Nishaburi 51 A Great Collection of Fabricated Traditions 53 Abul-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi 54 Tahdhib al-Athar 60
  • 2. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari 61 Riyadh as-Saaliheen 66 Al-Nawawi 68 Masabih al-Sunnah 72 Al-Baghawi 73 Majma al-Zawaid 74 Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Haythami 75 Bulugh al-Maram 77 Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani 79 Kanz al-Ummal 81 Ali ibn Abd-al-Malik al-Hindi 83 Minhaj us Sawi 83 Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri 85 Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen 98 Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah ibn Baaz 102 Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani 107 Ibn Taymiyyah 110 Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya 118 Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab 123 Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh 130 Abd ar-Rahman ibn Nasir as-Sadi 132 Ibn Jurayj 134 Al-Dhahabi 136 Yusuf al-Qaradawi 138 Rashid Rida 155 Muhammad Abduh 157 Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani 160 Al-Suyuti 165References Article Sources and Contributors 169 Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 173Article Licenses License 174
  • 3. Al-Kutub al-Sittah 1 Al-Kutub al-Sittah The six major hadith collections (Arabic: ‫ ;ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻪ‬Al-Kutub Al-Sittah) are collections of hadith by Islamic scholars who, approximately 200 years after Muhammads death and by their own initiative, collected "hadith" attributed to Muhammad. They are sometimes referred to as Al-Sihah al-Sittah, which translates to "The Authentic Six". Significance Sunni Muslims view the six major hadith collections as their most important. They are, in order of authenticity:[1] 1. Sahih Bukhari, collected by Imam Bukhari (d. 870), includes 7275 ahadith 2. Sahih Muslim, collected by Muslim b. al-Hajjaj (d. 875), includes 9200 ahadith 3. Sunan al-Sughra, collected by al-Nasai (d. 915) 4. Sunan Abu Dawood, collected by Abu Dawood (d. 888) 5. Jami al-Tirmidhi, collected by al-Tirmidhi (d. 892) 6. Sunan ibn Majah, collected by Ibn Majah (d. 887) The first two, commonly referred to as the Two Sahihs as an indication of their authenticity, contain approximately seven thousand ahadith altogether if repetitions are not counted, according to Ibn Hajar.[2] The authors According to the Cambridge History of Iran:[3] "After this period commences the age of the authors of the six canonical collections of Sunni hadith, all of whom were Persian. The authors of the six collections are as follows: 1. Muhammad b. Ismail al-Bukhari, the author of the Sahih Bukhari, which he composed over a period of sixteen years. Traditional sources quote Bukhari as saying that he did not record any hadith before performing ablution and praying. Bukhari died near Samarqand in 256/869-70. 2. Muslim b. Hajjaj al-Naishapuri, who died in Nishapur in 261/ 874-5 and whose Sahih Muslim is second in authenticity only to that of Bukhari. 3. Abu Dawood Sulaiman b. Ashath al-Sijistani, a Persian but of Arab descent, who died in 275/888-9. 4. Muhammad b. Isa al-Tirmidhi, the author of the well-known as Sunan al-Tirmidhi, who was a student of Bukhari and died in 279/892-3. 5. Abu Abd al-Rahman al-Nasai, who was from Khurasan and died in 303/915-16. 6. Ibn Majah al-Qazwini, who died in 273/886-7." References [1] "Various Issues About Hadiths" (http:/ / www. abc. se/ ~m9783/ n/ vih_e. html). . Retrieved 2010-06-26. [2] al-Nukat Ala Kitab ibn al-Salah, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, vol. 1, pg. 153, Maktabah al-Furqan, Ajman, U.A.E., second edition, 2003. [3] S. H. Nasr(1975), “The religious sciences”, in R.N. Frye, the Cambridge History of Iran, Cambridge University Press
  • 4. History of hadith 2 History of hadith Traditions regarding the life of Muhammad and the early history of Islam were passed down both orally and written for more than a hundred years after the death of Muhammad in 632. According to Muslims, the collection of hadith or sayings by or about the prophet Muhammad was a meticulous and thorough process that began right at the time of Muhammad. Needless to say hadith collection (even in the written form) began very early on – from the time of Muhammad and continued through the centuries that followed.[1] Thus, Muslims reject any collections that are not robust in withstanding the tests of authenticity per the standards of hadith studies. This article goes through the historical evolution of the hadith literature from its beginning in the 7th century to present day. Writing in the Pre-Islamic Period Prior to the advent of Islam, memorization was the primary means of conveyance of information amongst the Arabs.[2] There were, however, some instances of writing present at that time, including promissory notes, personal letter, tribal agreements and some religious literature.[3] There were very few Arabs that could read or write in the beginning of Muhammads era: The majority were unlettered, and according to Sunni traditions, so was Muhammad.[4] Prophetic Period According to Ibn Hajar, “During the Prophet’s lifetime and into the time of the Companions and older Followers, the narrations of the Prophet were not transcribed in a systematic manner. This was due to two reasons. The first, was that early on they had been prohibited from doing so, as has been established in Sahih Muslim,[5] lest the hadith become confused with the Quran. The second was due to expansive capability of their ability to memorize and because the majority of them were unable to write.”[6] A possible explanation of aforementioned hadith is that “the majority of the companions were illiterate with only a few individuals from them able to write. If they were to write, it was unrefined, not conforming to the written alphabet. Thus, the prohibition was due to the fear of erring while writing.”[7] Another is that “the prohibition was of writing the Quran with other than it in one place so as to avoid the two from becoming mixed up confusing the one reading it. As for writing in its entirety having been prohibited, then this was not the case as we see from another hadith, Convey what I say. Present within the command to convey is permission to write and record.”[8] Writing of hadith Despite this, there are a number of hadith that indicate the permissibility if not encouragement to write down hadith. From them: • The hadith of Abd Allah ibn ‘Amr who said, “I used write everything I heard from the Prophet wanting to preserve it. The Quraysh then prohibited me from doing so, saying, ‘Do you write down everything? And the Prophet is human who speaks while angry and pleased?’ So I refrained from writing and then mentioned this to the Prophet. He gestured to his mouth and said, ‘Write, by the one in whose hand is my soul! Nothing emanates from this except the truth.’”[9] • Among the prisoners of war taken at the Battle of Badr those who were literate were released after each taught ten Muslims how to read and write.[4][10] Sahih Bukhari states that Abd-Allah ibn Amr wrote down his hadith.[11] • A man came to Muhammad and complained about his memory, saying: ‘O Messenger of Allah: We hear many things from you. But most of them slip our minds because we cannot memorize them’. Muhammad replied: Ask your right hand for help.[12] Muhammad meant that he should write down what he heard.
  • 5. History of hadith 3 • When Rafi‘ ibn Khadij asked Muhammad whether they could write what they heard from him, the answer came: Write, no harm!.[13] Another sources quotes Muhammad advising: "Record knowledge by writing."[14] • During the conquest of Mecca, Muhammad gave a sermon. A man from the Yemen, named Abu Shah, stood up and said: "O Allah’s Messenger! Please write down these [words] for me!" Muhammad ordered: "Write for Abu Shah!"[15] • Muhammad sent a letter which contained commandments about the blood money for murders and injuries and the law of retaliation to Amr ibn Hizam.[16] This letter was handed down to his great grandson, Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad.[4] Among other things, like some of his letters other head of states , some scroll transferred to Abu Rafi was handed down to Abu Bakr ibn ‘Abd Al-Rahman ibn Harith, belonging to the first generation after the Companions.[4] Ibn Hajar summarized the different ways in which scholars have sought to reconcile those hadith prohibiting the writing of hadith and those permitting it, in the first of which he said, “The reconciliation between the two is that the prohibition was particular to the time in which the Quran was being sent down so that it would not become mixed up with other than it and the permission was during other than that time."[17] Post-prophetic period During the caliphate of Abu Bakr, the Muslim nation had to deal with the rebellion of several apostates. In all likelihood, the apostates began to forge hadiths to suit their purposes. For this reason, Abu Bakr, and his successor, Umar, were very strict in their acceptance of hadiths as authentic, for fear of accepting a forged hadith.[18] Among Sunnis, Umar ibn al-Khattab is the primary locus for many accounts about hadith collection. He is portrayed by Sunnis as desiring to initiate this project but unwilling to do so, fearing that Muslims might then neglect the Quran.[19] Umar is also said by Sunnis that, due to fear and concerns, he sometimes warned people against careless narration of hadith.[4] Muslim historians say that it was the caliph Uthman (the third caliph, or successor of Muhammad, who had formerly been one of Muhammads secretarys), encouraged Muslims to write down the hadith as Muhammad (in some instances) had encouraged Muslims to do likewise during his lifetime [20][21][22][23]. Uthmans labors were cut short by his assassination, at the hands of aggrieved people who had come to the capital to seek redressal from the Caliph for the wrongs done by his secretary, Merwan ibn Hakam, on 17 June 656 A.D{[24]}.The Muslim community (ummah) then fell into a prolonged civil war, termed the Fitna by Muslim historians. After the fourth caliph, Ali ibn Abi Talib, was assassinated, control of the Islamic empire was seized by the Umayyad dynasty in 660A.D/40 A.H.{[25]} Illustrating the importance hadith in a written format had earned, Ibn Abbas left behind a camel-load of books, which mostly contain what he had heard from Muhammad and other Sahaba.[4][26] Of the many companions, Abu Hurairah taught hadith to students, one of whom was Hammam ibn Munabbih. Ibn Munabbih wrote down these hadith, the original manuscripts of which are present even to this day in the libraries of Berlin, Beirut and Damascus.[27] Starting the first Islamic civil war of the 7th century, those receiving the hadith started to question the sources of the saying, something that resulted in the development of the Isnad.[19] Muhammad ibn Sirin (d. 110/728) stated[19]: "[the traditionalists] were not used to inquiring after the isnad, but when the fitna occurred they said: Name us your informants. Thus if these were Ahl al-Sunna their traditions were accepted, but if they were heretics, their traditions were not accepted."
  • 6. History of hadith 4 The beginning of systematic hadith collection The beginning of the systematic collection and compilation of hadith began during the time of the second generation of Muslims, that of the Followers. Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Ubaydullah, commonly known as ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, was a prolific and prominent hadith narrator from the Followers whom Ibn Hajar identified as a tabii.[28] According to Ibn Hajar, “Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri was the first to compile hadith at the beginning of the first century after the Migration acting on the order of Umar ibn AbdulAziz. It was after this that the compilation, then the authoring of books of hadith became commonplace, resulting in much good.”[29] Ummayad rule was interrupted by a second civil war (the Second Fitna), re-established, then ended in 758, when the Abbasid dynasty seized the caliphate, to hold it, at least in name, until 1517 (the last Caliph was Al-Mutawakkil III 1508–1517, in Cairo and not in Baghdad). Muslim historians say that hadith collection and evaluation continued during the first Fitna and the Umayyad period. However, much of this activity was presumably oral transmission from early Muslims to later collectors, or from teachers to students. The scholars of the Abbasid period were faced with a huge corpus of miscellaneous traditions, some of them flatly contradicting each other. Many of these traditions supported differing views on a variety of controversial matters. Scholars had to decide which hadith were to be trusted as authentic narrations and which had been invented for various political or theological purposes. For this purpose, they used a number of techniques in hadith studies. In AH 134 (751/752), paper was introduced into the Muslim world.[30] Generally, Umar II is credited with having ordered the first collection of hadith material in an official manner, fearing that some of it might be lost. Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm and Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, are among those who compiled hadiths at `Umar II’s behest.[19] Early written hadith collections List of collections of hadith, in chronological order: 1. Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri 2. Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm 3. Musannaf of ibn Jurayj — ?-? CE 4. Musannaf of Ma`mar bin Rashid — ?-? CE 5. Sahifah Hammam ibn Munabbih — 670–720 CE 6. Musannaf of `Abd al-Razzaq al-San`ani — c. 700 CE 7. Muwatta of Malik bin Anas — 760–795 CE 8. Sufyan al-Thawri Canonical texts The efforts culminated with the six canonical collections after having received impetus from the establishment of the sunna as the second source of law in Islam, particularly through the efforts of the famous jurist Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafii.[19] The method of criticism and the conclusions it has reached have not changed significantly since the ninth century. Even much of modern Muslim scholarship, while continuing to debate the validity or authenticity of individual hadiths or perhaps the hadiths of a particular transmitter, employs the same methods and biographical materials.[19] The classification of Hadith into sahih (sound), hasan (good) and daif (weak) was firmly established by Ali ibn al-Madini (d. 234 AH).[31] Later, al-Madinis student Muhammad al-Bukhari authored a collection that he stated contained only sahih hadith.[31] al-Tirmidhi was the first traditionist to base his book on al-Madinis classification.[31]
  • 7. History of hadith 5 Contemporary Analysis In 1848, Gustav Weil, noted that Muhammad al-Bukhari deemed only 4,000 of his original 300,000 hadiths to be authentic.He was soon followed by Aloys Sprenger, who also suggests that many of the hadiths cannot be considered authentic.[19] However, this demonstrates a limited understanding by Non Muslims, of Bukharis criterion for his Sahih. This is clarified by other statements of Bukhari in which he made it clear that he considered all of the hadith in his authentic, but not all authentic hadith are included in his Sahih. Al-Dhahabi quoted Bukhari as saying, "I have memorized one hundred thousand authentic hadith and two hundred thousand that are not authentic.[32] Ignaz Goldziher was a large contributor of innovative theories to the West. The subsequent direction the Western debate took, a direction which has focussed on the role of hadiths in the origin and development of early Muslim jurisprudence, is largely due to the work of Joseph Schacht.[19] The Common-Link Theory, invented by Joseph Schacht and widely accepted in modern scholarship, argues that hadith authorities knowingly and purposefully placed traditions in circulation with little care to support these hadiths with satisfactory isnads (chains of transmitters). G. H. A. Juynboll, Michael Cook and other Schachtians subsequently embraced and elaborated upon this theory. In 2006, Fahad A. Alhomoudi in his thesis “On the Common-Link Theory”[33] challenges the accuracy of Schacht’s founding theory. Because of the interconnectedness of Schacht’s many theses about hadith and Islamic law, the findings of Alhomoudi’s thesis did not only challenge the significant Common-Link Theory in legal hadith studies, but also open the door for scholars to question other important theories held by Schacht and his followers with regard to larger issues in Islamic legal history. The Turkish governments Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı has commissioned a team of scholars at Ankara University to draft a new compilation of hadith that would omit numerous hadith considered historically inauthentic by these scholars.[34] References [1] Refuting The Argument From Hadith In Which The Prophet Says "Do Not Write Down Anything From Me Except Quran" (http:/ / www. call-to-monotheism. com/ refuting_the_argument_from_hadith_in_which_the_prophet_says__do_not_write_down_anything_from_me_except_qur_an__) [2] Abridged from al-Hadith wa al-Muhaddithoon, pg. 39. [3] Studies in Early Hadith Literature, al-Athami, pg. 2. [4] "When where the traditions recorded?" (http:/ / www. islamanswers. net/ sunna/ when. htm). . Retrieved 2010-03-21. [5] Sahih Muslim, 42:7147 (http:/ / www. cmje. org/ religious-texts/ hadith/ muslim/ 042-smt. php#042. 7147). Other sources for the hadith: • Musnad Ahmad, vol. 3, pgs. 12, 21, 39 and 56 • Sunan al-Darimi, vol. 1, pgs. 130 and 450 • Sahih Muslim, vol. 2, pg. 1366, no. 3004 • al-Nasai in Al-Sunan al-Kubraa, vol. 2, pg. 1240, no. 7954 and elsewhere. [6] Hadi al-Sari, 1:6 according to the page numbering of the Maktabah al-Salafiyah edition. [7] Ibn Qutaibah in Mukhtalif al-Hadith, pg. 412. [8] al-Baghawi in Sharh al-Sunnah, vol. 1, pg. 295, al-Maktab al-Islami, Beirut. [9] Collected in the Musnad of Ahmad (1015-6 6510 and also nos. 6930, 7017 and 1720), Sunan Abu Dawud (Mukhtasar Sunan Abi Dawud (52463499) and elsewhere. [10] Ibn Sad, Tabaqat, 2.22. [11] Bukhari, “‘Ilm,” 39. [12] Tirmidhi, “‘Ilm,” 12. [13] Hindi, Kanz al-‘Ummal, 10.232. [14] Darimi, “Muqaddima,” 43. [15] Abu Dawud, “‘Ilm,” 3; al-Tirmidhi, “‘Ilm,” 12. [16] Darimi, “Diyat,” 12. [17] Fath al-Bari, vol. 1, pg. 208). [18] Siddiqi, Muhammad (1993). Hadith Literature. 32: The Islamic Texts Society. pp. 32. ISBN 0-946621-38-1. [19] "PAR246 Hadith Criticism" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070311144448/ http:/ / people. uncw. edu/ bergh/ par246/ L21RHadithCriticism. htm). Archived from the original (http:/ / people. uncw. edu/ bergh/ par246/ L21RHadithCriticism.
  • 8. History of hadith 6 htm) on 2007-03-11. . Retrieved 2010-03-21. [20] ^ Tirmidhi, “‘Ilm,” 12. [21] ^ Hindi, Kanz al-‘Ummal, 10.232. [22] ^ Darimi, “Muqaddima,” 43. [23] ^ Abu Dawud, “‘Ilm,” 3; al-Tirmidhi, “‘Ilm,” 12. [24] Ameer Ali Syed, A Short History of Saracens [25] Tabari, vol.ii, p4; cf. Masudi, vol. v, p.14 [26] M. ‘Ajjaj al-Khatib, op. cit. 352. [27] An Introduction to the Conservation of Hadith – In the light of the Sahifah of Hammam ibn Munabbih by Dr Muhammad Hamidullah, IBT publishers, 2003 [28] Taqrib al-Tahthib, pg. 440, no. 6296, Muassasah al-Risalah, Beirut, first edition, 1999. [29] Fath al-Bari, vol. 1, pg. 208. [30] Mit-Ejmes (http:/ / web. mit. edu/ CIS/ www/ mitejmes/ issues/ 200310/ br_lane. htm) [31] "Imaam Tirmidhis Contribution – Chapter Four" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070626193607/ http:/ / www. jamiat. org. za/ isinfo/ tirmidhi04. html). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. jamiat. org. za/ isinfo/ tirmidhi04. html) on 2007-06-26. . Retrieved 2010-03-21. [32] Tathkirah al-Huffath, vol. 2, pg. 556. [33] On the Common-Link Theory, Fahad A. Alhomoudi, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada,Copyright 2006 All rights reserved. [34] Pigott, Robert (2008-02-26). "Europe | Turkey in radical revision of Islamic texts" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 7264903. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved 2010-03-21. Further reading • Islamic Awareness, Issues Concerning Hadith ( • Musa, A. Y. Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam. Palgrave, 2008; ISBN 0-230-60535-4 Notes
  • 9. Muhammad al-Bukhari 7 Muhammad al-Bukhari Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari Born [1] 194 AH Bukhara Died 256 AH Khartank, near Samarqand Ethnicity [2] Persian or Tajik School tradition Ijtihad Influences Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ali ibn al-Madini Yahya ibn Main [3] Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh Influenced Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Ibn Abi Asim Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardizbah al-Bukhari (Persian: ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﺳﻤﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ ,)ﺍﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻐﻴﺮﻩ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺮﺩﺯﺑﻪ ﺑﺨﺎﺭﯼ‬popularly known as Bukhari or Imam Bukhari, (196-256AH / 810-870AD), was a Sunni Islamic scholar of Persia.[4][5] He authored the hadith collection named Sahih Bukhari, a collection which Sunni Muslims regard as the most authentic of all hadith compilations. Biography Early life He was born in 810/194 in the city of Bukhara in Khorasan (now in Uzbekistan). His father, Ismail Ibn Ibrahim, was a known hadith scholar who died while he was young The historian al-Dhahabi described his early academic life: He began studying hadith in the year 205 (A.H.). He memorized the works of [‘Abdullah] ibn al-Mubaarak while still a child. He was raised by his mother because his father died when he was an infant. He traveled with his mother and brother in the year 210 after having heard the narrations of his region. He began authoring books and narrating hadith while still an adolescent. He said, “When I turned eighteen years old, I began writing about the Companions and the Followers and their statements. This was during the time of ‘Ubaid Allah ibn Musa (one of his teachers). At that time I also authored a book of history at the grave of the Prophet at night during a full moon.[6]
  • 10. Muhammad al-Bukhari 8 Travels At age of sixteen, he, together with his brother and widowed mother made the pilgrimage to Makkah. From there he made a series of travels in order to increase his knowledge of hadith. He went through all the important centres of Islamic learning of his time, talked to scholars and exchanged information on hadith. It is said that he heard from over 1,000 men, and learned over 700,000 traditions. After sixteen years absence he returned to Bukhara, and there drew up his al-Jami as-Sahih, a collection of 7,275 tested traditions, arranged in chapters so as to afford bases for a complete system of jurisprudence without the use of speculative law. His book is highly regarded among Sunni Muslims, and considered the most authentic collection of hadith (a minority of Sunni scholars consider Sahih Muslim, compiled by Bukharis student Imam Muslim, more authentic). Most Sunni scholars consider it second only to the Quran in terms of authenticity. He also composed other books, including al-Adab al-Mufrad, which is a collection of hadiths on ethics and manners, as well as two books containing biographies of hadith narrators (see isnad). Last years In the year 864/250, he settled in Nishapur. It was in Neyshābūr that he met Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. He would be considered his student, and eventually collector and organiser of hadith collection Sahih Muslim which is considered second only to that of al-Bukhari. Political problems led him to move to Khartank, a village near Samarkand where he died in the year 870/256 Muhammad al-Bukhari mausoleum near Samarkand, Uzbekistan Writings Below is a summary of the discussion of Bukharis available works in Fihrist Muṣannafāt al-Bukhāri by Umm Abdullāh bint Maḥrūs, Muḥammad ibn Ḥamza and Maḥmūd ibn Muḥammad.[7] Works describing narrators of hadith Bukhari wrote three works discussing narrators of hadith with respect to their ability in conveying their material: the "brief compendium of hadith narrators," "the medium compendium" and the "large compendium" (al-Tarikh al-Kabīr, al-Tarīkh al-Ṣaghīr, and al-Tarīkh al-Awsaţ). The large compendium is published and well-identified. The medium compendium was thought to be the brief collection and was published as such. The brief compendium has yet to be found.[8] Another work, al-Kunā, is on patronymics: identifying people who are commonly known as "Father of so-and-so". Then there is a brief work on weak narrators: al-Ḍuafā al-Ṣaghīr.
  • 11. Muhammad al-Bukhari 9 Hadith Works Two of Bukharis hadith works have reached us: al-Adab al-mufrad ("the book devoted to matters of respect and propriety") and al-Jāmi’ al-Musnad al-Sahīh al-Mukhtaṣar min umūr Rasûl Allāh wa sunnanihi wa ayyāmihi – The abridged collection of sound reports with chains of narration going back all the way to the Prophet regarding matters pertaining to the Prophet, his practices and his times. – also known as Sahih Bukhari School of thought Bukhari was claimed by followers of the Shafii school of thought within Islamic jurisprudence as being from the Shafi school of thought,[9] though members of both the Hanbali and Zahiri schools both levy this claim as well. He is recorded as being both anti-Mutazili and anti-Rafidhi. In one of his books on creed, he wrote: “I don’t see any difference between praying Salah behind a Jahmi or a Rafidhi and a Christian or a Jew. They (Jahmiyyah/Rāfida) are not to be greeted,, nor are they to be visited, nor are they to be married, nor is their testimony to be accepted, nor are their sacrifices to be eaten abc.”.[10] References [1] S. Abdul-Maujood, "The Biography of Imam Bukharee", Maktaba Dar-us-Salam, 2005, p. 13. [2] Revival of Real Pure Islam, Distinction between Real-Pure Islam and Persian-Brand of Prevailing Islam (book) (https:/ / sites. google. com/ site/ socratesenerprise/ distinction-between-real-pure-islam-and-persian-brand-of-prevailing-islam). Page 1. [3] Ibn Rāhwayh, Isḥāq (1990), Balūshī, ʻAbd al-Ghafūr ʻAbd al-Ḥaqq Ḥusayn, ed., Musnad Isḥāq ibn Rāhwayh (1st ed.), Tawzīʻ Maktabat al-Īmān, pp. 150–165 [4] Encyclopedia of World Biography ... – Google Books (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=bpAYAAAAIAAJ& q=sahih+ bukhari+ persian+ origin& dq=sahih+ bukhari+ persian+ origin& cd=2). 2006-12-28. . Retrieved 2010-02-03. [5] A guide to Eastern literatures – Google Books (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=CsZiAAAAMAAJ& q=bukhari+ persian+ origin& dq=bukhari+ persian+ origin& cd=11). 2008-05-01. . Retrieved 2010-02-03. [6] Tathkirah al-Huffath, vol. 2, pg. 104-5, al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah edition [7] Fihris Muṣannafāt al-Bukhāri, pp. 9-61, Dār al-Āṣimah, Riyaḍ: 1410. [8] Fihris Musannafāt al-Bukhāri, pp. 28-30. [9] Imam al-Bukhari (d. 256/870; Tabaqat al-Shafiiya, 2.212-14 [6]) [10] Khalq Af’ālul-’Ibād, p.14 Further reading • Abdul-Jabbar, Ghassan. Bukhari. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2007. External links • Biography of Imam Bukhari ( • • Biography of Muhammad al-Bukhari (
  • 12. Sahih Muslim 10 Sahih Muslim Sahih Muslim (Arabic: ‫ ,ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, full title Al-Musnadu Al-Sahihu bi Naklil Adli) is one of the al-Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadiths) of the hadith in Sunni Islam. It is the second most authentic hadith collection after Sahih Al-Bukhari, and is highly acclaimed by Sunni Muslims. It was collected by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, also known as Imam Muslim. Sahih translates as authentic or correct.[1] Collection Imam Muslim (Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj) was born in 202 AH (817/18 CE) in Naysabur, Iran into a Persian family and died in 261 AH (874/75 CE) also in Nishapur. He traveled widely to gather his collection of ahadith (plural of hadith), including to Iraq, the Arabian Peninsula, Syria and Egypt. Out of 300,000 hadith which he evaluated, approximately 4,000 were extracted for inclusion into his collection based on stringent acceptance criteria. Each report in his collection was checked and the veracity of the chain of reporters was painstakingly established. Sunni Muslims consider it the second most authentic hadith collection, after Sahih Bukhari.Sahih Muslim is divided into 43 books,containing a total of 7190 narrations. However, it is important to realize that Imam Muslim never claimed to collect all authentic traditions as his goal was to collect only traditions that all Muslims should agree on about accuracy. According to Munthiri, there are a total of 2200 hadiths (without repetition) in Sahih Muslim. According to Muhammad Amin,[2] there are 1400 authentic hadiths that are reported in other books, mainly the Six major Hadith collections. Views Muslims regard this collection as the second most authentic of the Six major Hadith collections,[3] containing only sahih hadith, an honor it shares only with Sahih Bukhari, both being referred to as the Two Sahihs. Shia Muslims dismiss many parts of it as fabrications or untrustworthy Distinctive Features Amin Ahsan Islahi, the noted Islamic scholar, has summarized some unique features of Sahih Muslim[4]: • Imam Muslim recorded only such narratives as were reported by two reliable successors from two Companions which subsequently travelled through two independent unbroken isnāds consisting of sound narrators. Imām Bukhārī has not followed such a strict criterion. • Scientific arrangement of themes and chapters. The author, for example, selects a proper place for the narrative and, next to it, puts all its versions. Imām Bukhārī has not followed this method (he scatters different versions of a narrative and the related material in different chapters). Consequently, in the exercise of understanding ahādīth, Sahīh of Imām Muslim offers the best material to the students. • The Imam informs us whose wordings among the narrators he has used. For example he says: haddathanā fulān wa fulān wallafz lifulān (A and B has narrated this hadīth to us and the wording used here is by A). Similarly he mentions whether, in a particular hadīth, the narrators have differed over the wordings even over a single letter of zero semantic significance. He also informs the readers if narrators have differed over a specific quality, surname, relation or any other fact about a narrator in the chain.
  • 13. Sahih Muslim 11 Commentaries and translations 1. Siyanah Sahih Muslim by Ibn al-Salah, of which only the beginning segment remains 2. Al Minhaj Be Sharh Sahih Muslim by Yahiya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi 3. Fath al-Mulhim 4. Takmilat Fath al-Mulhim 5. Sahih Muslim (Siddiqui) translated by Islamic scholar Abd-al-Hamid Siddiqui. The text is used in the USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts 6. Summarized Sahih Muslim 7. Sharh Sahih Muslim by Allama Ghulam Rasool Saeedi References [1] islamic-dictionary (http:/ / www. islamic-dictionary. com/ index. php?word=sahih) retrieved 10:06, 26 April 2010 [2] The number of authentic hadiths (Arabic) (http:/ / www. ibnamin. com/ num_hadith. htm), Muhammad Amin, retrieved May 22, 2006 [3] Various Issues About Hadiths (http:/ / www. abc. se/ ~m9783/ n/ vih_e. html) [4] Mabadi Tadabbur-i-Hadith, Amin Ahsan Islahi, 1989 Further reading • The Canonization of Al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon (http:// by Jonathan Brown, BRILL, 2007 External links • English translation ( • English Translation of the Introduction to Sahih Muslim ( muqaddimah-sahih-muslim.html)
  • 14. Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nishapuri 12 Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nishapuri Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Born [1] 204/206 AH Nishapur, Iran Died 261 AH /c. 875 Nishapur, Iran Occupation scholar Tradition or Shafii and ijtihad movement Main interests Hadith Notable works Sahih Muslim Influences Ahmad Ibn Hanbal [2] Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh [3] Muhammad al-Bukhari Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj ibn Muslim ibn Warat al-Qushayri al-Nisaburi (Arabic: ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ ;ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺸﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﺭﻱ‬Persian: ‫ ;ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻧﯿﺸﺎﺑﻮﺭﯼ‬lived c. 206–261 AH/c.821-875 CE) was the author of the second authentic sahih collection of hadith in Sunni Islam, Sahih Muslim. Biography He was born in the town of Nishapur, in present day northeastern Iran, into the Arab tribe of Qushair. Among the authors teachers were included Harmala ibn Yahya, Said ibn Mansur, Abd-Allah ibn Maslamah al-Qanabi, al-Dhuhali, al-Bukhari, Ibn Main, Yahya ibn Yahya al-Nishaburi al-Tamimi, and others. Among his students were al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, and Ibn Khuzaymah, each of which wrote works on hadith as well. After many studies throughout the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Iraq and Syria, he settled down in his hometown of Nishapur where he first met Bukhari, with whom he would have a friendship until his death. Estimates on how many hadiths are in his books vary from 3,033 to 12,000, depending on whether duplicates are included, or whether the text only or the isnad is also counted. His Sahih is said to share about 2000 hadiths with Bukharis Sahih.[4] He died in 875 CE in Nishapur, where he was also buried. Legacy The Sunni scholar Ishaq b. Rahwayh was first to recommend Muslims work.[5] Ishaqs contemporaries did not at first accept this. Abu Zur`a al-Razi objected that Muslim had omitted too much material which Muslim himself recognised as authentic; and that he included transmitters who were weak.[6] Ibn Abi Hatim (d. 327/938) later accepted Muslim as "trustworthy, one of the hadith masters with knowledge of hadith"; but this contrasts with much more fulsome praise of Abu Zur`a and also his father Abu Hatim. It is similar with Ibn al-Nadim.[7] Muslims book gradually increased in stature such that it is considered among Sunni Muslims the most authentic collections of hadith, second only to Sahih Bukhari.
  • 15. Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nishapuri 13 Works • Sahih Muslim: his collection of authentic hadith References [1] An Insiders Guide to Islam (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=6YY2BItDIxsC& pg=PA158& dq=muslim+ bin+ hajjaj+ born+ 206& hl=en& ei=9lGXTZaxL4304QbixYSVBA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=muslim bin hajjaj born 206& f=false) Yushau Sodiq, (2010) - Page 158 [2] Ibn Rāhwayh, Isḥāq (1990), Balūshī, ʻAbd al-Ghafūr ʻAbd al-Ḥaqq Ḥusayn, ed., Musnad Isḥāq ibn Rāhwayh (1st ed.), Tawzīʻ Maktabat al-Īmān, pp. 150–165 [3] ‫( ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ‬http:/ / www. ibnamin. com/ Manhaj/ muslim. htm) [4] Lulu wal Marjan says 1900; Abi Bakr Muhammad b. Abdallah al-Jawzaqi apud Brown, 84 counted 2326. [5] mardi keh in bud; al-Hakim, Ma`rifat `ulum al-hadith, 98 apud Jonathan Brown, The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim (Brill, 2007), 86 [6] Brown, 91-2, 155 [7] Brown, 88-9 External links • Short Bio of Imam Muslim ( • Biography of Imam Muslim ( • English translation of Sahih Muslim ( • Interactive Family tree of Imam Muslim by Happy Books ( muhammad-ibn-abdullah-lineage-and-family-tree/ family-tree-diagram-of-lineage-and-relatives-of-prophets-and-companions-in-muslim-history.php?id=547) 1. Interactive diagram of teachers and students of Imam Muslim by Happy Books ( uk/muhammad-ibn-abdullah-lineage-and-family-tree/ students-sheikhs-and-teachers-of-famous-muslim-imams-and-scholars-in-muslim-history.php?id=548)
  • 16. Al-Sunan al-Sughra 14 Al-Sunan al-Sughra as-Sunan as-Sughra (Arabic: ‫ ,)ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮﻯ‬also known as Sunan an-Nasai (Arabic: ‫ )ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬is one of the Al-Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadiths), and was collected by Al-Nasai. Description Sunnis regard this collection as third in strength of their Six major Hadith collections.[1] Al-Mujtaba (English: the selected) has about 5270 hadith, including repeated narrations, which the author selected from his larger work, As-Sunan al-Kubra. Commentaries Among the who have written commentaries of this hadith collection: • Imam al-Suyuti: Published under the name Sharh al-Suyuti ala Sunan al-Nisai by Maktabah al-Matbouat in Aleppo in 1986. • al-Sindi: Published under the name Hashiyat al-Sindi ala al-Nisai by Maktabah al-Matbouat in Aleppo in 1986. References [1] Various Issues About Hadiths (http:/ / www. abc. se/ ~m9783/ n/ vih_e. html) External links • Sunan An Nasai ( - Searchable Sunan Al Sughra by Imam An Nasai
  • 17. Al-Nasai 15 Al-Nasai Al-Nasai Born 214 AH (ca. 829 AD/CE) [1] Turkmenistan Died 303 AH (915 AD/CE) Occupation scholar Nationality Persian Tradition or Sunni movement Notable works Al-Sunan al-Sughra Influences [2] Ibrahim ibn Yaqub al-Juzajani Al-Nasāī (214  – 303 AH/ ca. 829  – 915 AD/CE), full name Aḥmad ibn Shu`ayb ibn Alī ibn Sīnān Abū `Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Nasāī, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and wrote one of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, Sunan al-Sughra, or "Al-Mujtaba", which he selected from his "As-Sunan al-Kubra". As well as 15 other books, 6 dealing with the science of hadith. Biography Abu Abdurrahman Ahmed ibn Shuaib ibn Ali ibn Sinan ibn Bahr ibn Dinar Al-Khurusani was born in the year 215 A.H as the Imam clearly states himself (although some say 255 A.H or 214 A.H) in the city of Nasa, situated in Western Asia known at that time as Khurusan which was a centre for Islamic Knowledge where millions of Ulamaa were situated and Hadeeth and Fiqh was at its peak. Thus he primarily attended the gatherings and circles of knowledge (known as halqas) in his town and attained knowledge, especially Hadeeth from the Ulamaa. Thereafter his inspiration increased of traveling around the world to seek knowledge from other various scholars of different countries and cities. When he was 20 years old, he started traveling and made his first journey to Qutaibah. He covered the whole Arabian Peninsula seeking knowledge from the Ulama and Muhadditheen of Iraq, Kufa, Hijaz, Syria and Egypt . Finally he decided to stay in Egypt . Teachers and Students Hafiz Ibn Hajr Rahimahullahi Alaih says that it is impossible to name and gather all his teachers but some are: - (1) Ishaq ibn Rahweh (2) Imam Abu Daud Al-Sijistani (author of Sunan Abu Dawood) and (3) Qutaibah ibn Saeed. Although some scholars like Hafiz ibn Hajr Rahimahullah also named Imam Bukhari as his teacher but this is incorrect because Imam Bukhari never met him. However he studied under the Huffaz-e-Hadeeth from different countries and cities. After the Imam had decided to stay in Egypt he started to lecture, mostly narrating Ahadeeth to the extent that he became known by the title Hafizul Hadeeth. Many people would attend his gatherings and many scholars became his students, including: • Imam Abul Qasim Tabrani • Imam Abubakr Ahmed ibn Muhammad also known as Allamah ibn Sunni • Sheikh Ali, the son of the Muhaddith, Imam Tahawi. It is also narrated that Imam Tahawi personally narrated from this Imam.
  • 18. Al-Nasai 16 Memory, Piety and other Qualities He was a man full of taqwa, piety and he possessed a photographic memory too. The Sheikh Allamah Zahabi was once asked who has a better memory, Imam Muslim (author of Sahih Muslim) or this Imam he replied this Imam. Allamah Zahabi would also say that this Imam possessed more knowledge in Hadeeth than Imam Muslim, Imam Tirmidhi and Imam Abu Dawood (who was his teacher). The Scholar and Commentator of the Quran would say narrating from his teachers that this Imam was the most knowledgeable in Egypt . The Imam would put on good clothing according to the Sunnah of Muhammad and would eat poultry everyday with nabeeth acting on the Sunnah so that he could worship Allah with ease. In fact it is narrated that the man would fast every other day which is classified in the Hadeeth as Saum-u-Daoodi (the fast of Daood).he would worship Allah continuously throughout the nights and teach Hadeeth throughout the day without forgetting that to fulfill the rights of his four wives and treat his slaves like children. The Imam would also perform Hajj nearly every year and would also take part in Jihad. He was a straight forward truthful man and nothing or none could stop him from saying the truth. At the same time he was an extremely beautiful man and the beauty of his face stayed up to his death. Muqallid or Mujtahid Imam al-Nasai was a follower of the Shafi Fiqh according to Allamah Subqi, Shah Waliullah, Shah Abdulaziz and many other scholars. The leader of the Ulamaa Allamah Anwar Shah Kashmiri is to the opinion that he was a Hanbali and this has also been stated by ibn Taymiyyah but the truth is that he was a Mujtahid more inclined towards the Hanbali Fiqh but many a time would differ from the Hanbali scholars. Children As mentioned before that the Imam had four wives but the historians only mention one son whose name is Abdul Kareem, one of the narrators of the Sunan of his father. Books The Imam also left behind many beautiful and beneficial works. Many of which unfortunately are not published but we can without any doubt conclude from what we have understood that his knowledge and excellence is no less than that of Imam Bukhari and Allamah ibn Hazm. These are a few of his works: • Sunan Al-Kubra. • Sunan Al-Sugra/Al-Mujtana/Al-Mujtaba. • Amul Yawmi Wallaylah. • Kitaby Dufai wal Matrookeen • Khasais Ali. • Al-Jurhu wa Taadeel. • Sunan Al-Nisai. His book known as Sunan Al-Nisai which is taught around the globe in every Islamic institute and which possesses a virtue of being one of the Sihah Sitah (the six books generally taught in hadith). In reality when the Imam had finished compiling Sunan Al-Kubra he presented to the governor of Ramalah so the governor asked him “is it all sahih (are all the narrators 100% authentic)?” he replied in the negative, thus the governor suggested and requested that he compiles another book and gathers in there Sahih Hadeeth. So then he did this and named his book Sunan Al-Sugra (the small Sunan) and Al-Mujtaba and Al-Mujtana (both mean carefully chosen) and this is the Sunan which we know as Sunan Al-Nasai.
  • 19. Al-Nasai 17 In this book he follows the footsteps of Imam Muslim and Imam Bukhari. Overall most of the Ahadeeth are Sahih and where he narrates a weak narration he clearly clarifies the weakness. Thus it is 3rd in number in the Sihah Sittah after Bukhari and Muslim according to some Ulamaa because of its Sahih narrations. He clearly clarifies the hard words and brings different narrations for one particular Hadeeth as Imam Muslim does. Many Ulamaa have written commentaries on this work including Allamah Sindhi, Allamah Suyuti and Hadhrat Sheikhul Hadeeth Moulana Muhammad Zakaria . References [1] http:/ / www. uga. edu/ islam/ hadith. html [2] Al-Bastawī, ʻAbd al-ʻAlīm ʻAbd al-ʻAẓīm (1990). Al-Imām al-Jūzajānī wa-manhajuhu fi al-jarḥ wa-al-taʻdīl. Maktabat Dār al-Ṭaḥāwī. p. 9. Sunan Abu Dawood Sunan Abi Daawud (Arabic: ‫ )ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﺑﻲ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬is one of the Al-Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadiths), collected by Abu Dawood. Description Abu Dawood collected 500,000 hadith, but included only 4,800 in this collection. Sunnis regard this collection as fourth in strength of their Six major Hadith collections. It took him 20 years for collecting the ahadis. He made series of journeys to meet most of the foremost traditionists of his time and acquired from them the most reliable ahadis quoting sources through which it reached him. Since the author collected ahadis which no one ever assembled together, his sunan has been accepted as standard work by scholars from many parts of the Islamic world.[1]. External links English translation of Sunan Abu Dawood [2] References [1] Various Issues About Hadiths (http:/ / www. abc. se/ ~m9783/ n/ vih_e. html) [2] http:/ / www. cmje. org/ religious-texts/ hadith/ abudawud/
  • 20. Abu Dawood 18 Abu Dawood Ḥadīth scholar Abu Dawud Sulayman ibn al-Ashʿath al-Azdi al-Sijistani Title Abū Dāwūd Born 202H 817-18CE Died 275H 889CE Ethnicity Persian Maddhab Hanbali Main interests ḥadīth and (fiqh) Works Sunan Abī Dāwūd Influences [1] Ibrahim ibn Yaqub al-Juzajani Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ali ibn al-Madini Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh Yahya ibn Main Influenced Tirmidhi Al-Nasai Abu Dawud Sulaymān ibn al-Ashʿath al-Azdi as-Sijistani (Persian/Arabic: ‫,)ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺚ ﺍﻷﺯﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺴﺘﺎﻧﻲ‬ commonly known as Abu Dawud, was a noted Persian collector of prophetic hadith, and compiled the third of the six "canonical" hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, the Sunan Abī Dāwūd. Biography He was born in Sistan, in east of Iran, (then Persia) and died in 889 in Basra. Widely traveled among scholars of hadith, he went to Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Hijaz, Khurasan, Nishapur, and Marv among other places in order to collect hadith. He was primarily interested in jurisprudence, and as a result the collection by him focuses largely on legal hadith. Out of about 500,000 hadith, he chose 4,800 for inclusion in his work. Works He wrote some 21 books in total. Some of the most prominent are: • Sunan Abī Dāwūd, containing some 4,800 hadith, is his principal work. They are usually numbered after the edition of Muhammad Muhyi al-Din `Abd al-Hamid (Cairo: Matba`at Mustafa Muhammad, 1354/1935), where 5,274 are distinguished. Some of his hadith are not sahih, but he claimed that all hadith listed were sahih unless specifically indicated otherwise; this has been controversial among Islamic scholars, since some, such as Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani believe some of the unmarked ones to be ḍaʿīf as well. • In another work, Kitab al-Marāsīl, he lists 600 mursal hadith which, after extensive background investigation, he concludes are nonetheless sahih. • Risālat Abī Dāwūd ilā Ahli Makkah; his letter to the inhabitants of Makkah describing his Sunan Abī Dāwūd.[2] References [1] Al-Bastawī, ʻAbd al-ʻAlīm ʻAbd al-ʻAẓīm (1990). Al-Imām al-Jūzajānī wa-manhajuhu fi al-jarḥ wa-al-taʻdīl. Maktabat Dār al-Ṭaḥāwī. p. 9. [2] Translation of the Risālah by Abū Dāwūd (http:/ / www. dkh-islam. com/ Content/ Article. aspx?ATID=71)
  • 21. Sunan al-Tirmidhi 19 Sunan al-Tirmidhi Jāmi` al-Tirmidhi (Arabic: ‫ ,)ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‬popularly and mistakenly Sunan al-Tirmidhi (Arabic: ‫ ,)ﺳُـﻨَﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‬is one of the Al-Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadiths). It was collected by Abu Eesa Muhammad ibn Eesa al-Tirmidhi. Title Al-Kattani said: "The Jaami of al-Tirmithi is also named The Sunan, contrary to those thinking them to be two separate books, and [it is also named] Al-Jaami al-Kabeer.[1] Praise Al-Hafidh Abu Al-Fadl Al-Maqdisi said: "I heard Al-Imam Abu Ismail Abdullah bin Muhammad Al-Ansari in Harrah - when Abu Isa Al-Tirmidhi and his book was mentioned before him - saying: "To me, his book is more useful than the books of Al-Bukhari and that of Muslim. This is because only an expert can arrive at the benefit of the books of Al-Bukhari and Muslim, whereas in the case of the book of Abu Isa, every one of the people can attain its benefit."[2] Ibn Al-Athir said: "(It) is the best of books, having the most benefit, the best organization, with the least repetition. It contain what others do not; like mention of the different views, angles of argument, and clarifying the circumstances of the hadith as being sahih, daif, or gharib, as well as disparaging and endorsing remarks (regarding narrators). Authenticity Sunnis regard this collection as fifth in strength of their Six major Hadith collections.[3] Types of hadith included relating to their authenticity Of the four Sunan books, al-Tirmidhis alone is divided into four categories. The first, those hadith definitively classified as authentic, he is in agreement with Bukhari and Muslim. The second category are those hadith which conform to the standard of the three scholars, al-Tirmidhi, al-Nasai and Abu Dawood, at a level less than Bukhari and Muslim. Third, are the hadith collected due to a contradiction; in this case, he clarifies its flaw. And fourth, those hadith which some fiqh specialists have acted upon.[4] Examples of some Hadith found in Tirmidhi It is related by Abdullah bin Masud that Muhammad said, “A faithful believer neither attacks with his tongue nor utters a curse nor speaks ill of anyone nor calls names.” From Tirmidhi Commentaries • Aridhat al-Ahwathi bi Sharh Sunan al-Tirmidhi written Ibn al-Arabi d. 543H (1148-49 CE) • Sharh Jaami al-Tirmidhi of which only the last portion of remains - Sharh Ilal at-Tirmidhi - by Ibn Rajab • Commentary on al-Tirmidhis Hadith Collection by al-Zayn al-Iraqi • Footnotes, including explanation and verification, of approximately the first third of the Sunan by Ahmad Muhammad Shakir • al-`Urf al Shadhi Sharh Sunan Al-Tirmidhi by Anwar Shah Kashmiri • Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi Bi Sharh Jami` Al-Tirmidhi by Abd al-Rahman al-Mubarkafuri, ed. Abd al-Rahman Muhammad Uthman, 10 vols., Beirut .
  • 22. Sunan al-Tirmidhi 20 References [1] Al-Risalah al-Mustatrafah, pg. 11. [2] Shurut al-Aimmah al-Sittah, by al-Maqdisi, pg. 101. [3] Haddad, G. F. "Various Issues About Hadiths" (http:/ / www. abc. se/ ~m9783/ n/ vih_e. html). . [4] Shurut al-Aimmah al-Sittah, by al-Maqdisi, pg. 92. External links • English Translation of Sunan Al Tirmidhi ( - View and Search
  • 23. Tirmidhi 21 Tirmidhi Hadith scholar Abū ‛Īsá Muḥammad ibn ‛Īsá ibn Sawrah ibn Mūsá ibn al-Ḍaḥḥāk al-Sulamī al-Tirmidhī Title Tirmidhī Born 824 CE (209 AH) Termez, Persia Died 892 CE (13 Rajab 279 AH) Termez, Persia Ethnicity Persian Region Iranian muslim Scholar Maddhab Sunni Main interests hadith Works Sunan al-Tirmidhi or Jami at-Tirmidhi Influences [1] Ibrahim ibn Yaqub al-Juzajani Tirmidhī (Persian: ‫ ,)ﺗﺮﻣﺬﯼ‬also transliterated as Tirmizi, full name Abū ‛Īsá Muḥammad ibn ‛Īsá ibn Sawrah ibn Mūsá ibn al Ḍaḥḥāk al-Sulamī al-Sulamī al-Tirmidhī (824–892, i.e. 209 AH – 13 Rajab 279 AH) or 8 October 892 CE was a Persian[2][3] collector of hadith (sayings of the Prophet Muhammad) Biography He wrote al-Jāmi‛ al-ṣaḥīḥ, popularly called Sunan al-Tirmidhi, one of the six canonical hadith compilations used in Sunni Islam, as well as Shamāil Muḥammadiyyah, known popularly as "Shamaail Tirmidhi", a collection of ahadith on [[Muhammad] SAAW]. Tirmidhi was born and died in Bâgh (Persian meaning Garden), a suburb of Termez, Greater Khorasan (now in Uzbekistan), to a family of the widespread Banū Sulaym tribe. Starting at the age of twenty, he travelled widely, to Kufa, Basra and the Hijaz, seeking out knowledge from, among others, Qutaybah ibn Sa‛id, Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim Nishapuri and Abu Dawud. Tirmidhī was blind in the last two years of his life, said to have been the consequence of his weeping over the death of Bukhārī. Tirmidhi is buried in Sherobod, 60 kilometers north of Termez. He is locally known as Isa Termezi or Termez Baba "Father of Termez". References [1] Al-Bastawī, ʻAbd al-ʻAlīm ʻAbd al-ʻAẓīm (1990). Al-Imām al-Jūzajānī wa-manhajuhu fi al-jarḥ wa-al-taʻdīl. Maktabat Dār al-Ṭaḥāwī. p. 9. [2] Karen G. Ruffle, Gender, Sainthood, & Everyday Practice in South Asian Shiism, (University of North Carolina Press, 2011), 40. [3] The Faith of Islam By Edward SellThe Faith of Islam By Edward Sell (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=DNVpRr-BGu8C& pg=PA96& dq=sahih+ tirmidhi+ born+ khurasan#v=onepage& q=sahih tirmidhi born khurasan& f=false). . Retrieved 2010-09-11. External links • Biography of Imam al-Tirmidhi at ( • Biography of al-Tirmidhee at (
  • 24. Sunan ibn Majah 22 Sunan ibn Majah Sunan Ibn Mājah (Arabic: ‫ )ﺳُﻨﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ‬is one of the Al-Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadiths), collected by Ibn Mājah. Description It contains over 4,000 aḥādīth in 32 books (kutub) divided into 1,500 chapters (abwāb). About 20 of the traditions it contains were later declared to be forged; such as those dealing with the merits of individuals, tribes or towns, including Ibn Mājahs home town of Qazwin. Views Sunni regard this collection as sixth in strength of their Six major Hadith collections [1]. Nonetheless this position was not settled until the 14th century or later. Scholars such as al-Nawawi (d. 676/1277) and Ibn Khaldun (d. 808/1405) excluded the Sunan from the generally accepted books; others replaced it with either the Muwaṭṭaʾ of Imām Mālik or with the Sunan ad-Dārimī. References [1] Gibril, Haddad (April 4, 2003), Various Issues About Hadiths (http:/ / www. abc. se/ ~m9783/ n/ vih_e. html), living ISLAM – Islamic Tradition, External links • Sunan ibn Majah ( - English Translation of Sunan ibn Majah
  • 25. Ibn Majah 23 Ibn Majah Muslim scholar Abū ʻAbdillāh Muḥammad ibn Yazīd Ibn Mājah al-Rabʻī al-Qazwīnī Title Ibn Mājah Born 824 CE Died 887 or 889 Ethnicity Persian Works Sunan ibn Mājah, Kitāb at-Tafsīr and Kitāb at-Tārīkh Abū ʻAbdillāh Muḥammad ibn Yazīd Ibn Mājah al-Rabʻī al-Qazwīnī (Arabic: ‫ﺍﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ‬ ‫ 428( ,)ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺰﻭﻳﻨﻲ‬CE/209 AM—887/273) commonly known as Ibn Mājah, was a medieval scholar of hadith. He compiled the last of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, Sunan Ibn Mājah.[1] Biography Ibn Mājah was born in Qazwin, the modern-day Iranian province of Qazvin, in 824 CE/209 AH[1] to a family who were clients (mawla) of the Rabīʻah tribe.[2] Mājah was the nickname of his father, and not that of his grandfather nor was it his mothers name, contrary to those claiming this. The hāʼ at the end is un-voweled whether in stopping upon its pronunciation or continuing because it a non-Arabic name.[2] He left his hometown to travel the Islamic world visiting Iraq, Makkah, the Levant and Egypt. He studied under Abū Bakr ibn Abī Shaybah (through whom came over a quarter of al-Sunan), Muḥammad ibn ʻAbdillāh ibn A map of present-day Iran showing the Numayr, Jubārah ibn al-Mughallis, Ibrāhīm ibn al-Mundhir al-Ḥizāmī, location of Qazwin, the place of birth and ʻAbdullāh ibn Muʻāwiyah, Hishām ibn ʻAmmār, Muḥammad ibn Rumḥ, death of Ibn Mājah Dāwūd ibn Rashīd and others from their era. Abū Yaʻlā al-Khalīlī praised Ibn Mājah as "reliable (thiqah), prominent, agreed upon, a religious authority, possessing knowledge and the capability to memorize."[1] According to al-Dhahabī, Ibn Mājah died on approximately February 19, 887 CE/with eight days remaining of the month of Ramadan, 273 AH,[1] or, according to al-Kattānī, in either 887/273 or 889/275.[2] He died in Qazwin.[2]
  • 26. Ibn Majah 24 Works Al-Dhahabī mentioned the following of Ibn Mājahs works:[1] • Sunan Ibn Mājah: one of the six canonical collections of hadith • Kitāb al-Tafsīr: a book of Quran exegesis • Kitāb al-Tārīkh: a book of history or, more likely, a listing of hadith transmitters The Sunan The Sunan consists of 1,500 chapters and about 4,000 hadith.[1] Upon completing it, he read it to Abū Zurʻah, a hadith authority of his time, who commented, "I think that were people to get their hands on this, the other collections, or most of them, would be rendered obsolete."[1] References [1] al-Dhahabi, Muhammad ibn Ahmad (1957). al-Mu`allimi. ed (in Arabic). Tadhkirat al-Huffaz. 2. Hyderabad: Da`irat al-Ma`arif al-`Uthmaniyyah. pp. 636. [2] al-Kattani, Muhammah ibn Ja`far (2007). Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Kattani. ed (in Arabic). al-Risalah al-Mustatrafah (seventh ed.). Beirut: Dar al-Bashair al-Islamiyyah. pp. 12. Further reading • Suhaib Hasan Abdul Ghaffar, Criticism of Hadith among Muslims with reference to Sunan Ibn Maja, Presidency of Islamic Research, IFTA and Propagation: Riyadh 1984. ISBN 0-907461-56-5 • Robson, James. The Transmission of Ibn Majahs "Sunan", Journal of Semitic studies 3 (1958): 129–41. External links • Sunan Ibn Majah ( - Searchable Sunan Ibn Majah Online • Biography of Imam Ibn Maajah at ( • (French) Biography of Imam Ibn Mâjah by ( article-abu-abdi-llah-ibn-majah-al-qazwini-m-273-103181808.html)
  • 27. Muwatta Imam Malik 25 Muwatta Imam Malik The Muwaṭṭaʾ (Arabic: ‫ )ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻃﺄ‬is the first written collection of hadith comprising the subjects of Muslim law, compiled and edited by the Imam, Malik ibn Anas.[1] Maliks best-known work, Al-Muwatta was the first legal work to incorporate and join hadith and fiqh together. The work was received with wide praise. Abu Bakr ibn al-`Arabi said: "The Muwatta’ is the first foundation and the core, while al-Bukhari’s book is the second foundation in this respect. Upon these two all the rest have built, such as Muslim and al-Tirmidhi." Description It is considered to be from the earliest extant collections of hadith that form the basis of Islamic jurisprudence alongside the Quran.[2] Nonetheless, is not merely a collection of hadith; many of the legal precepts it contains are based not on hadith at all. The book covers rituals, rites, customs, traditions, norms and laws of the time of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It is reported that Imam Malik selected only about 1% of authentic Ahadith for inclusion into the Muwatta, from the corpus of 100,000 narrations available to him. Thus, the book has been compiled with great diligence and meticulousness. [3] History Due to increase in juristic differences, the Caliph of the time, Abū Ja‘far Mansūr, requested Imam Malik to produce a standard book that could be promulgated as law in the country. The Imam refused this in 148 AH, but when the Caliph again came to the Hijaz in 163 AH, he was more forceful and said: “O Abū ‘Abd Allāh, take up the reign of the discipline of fiqh in your hands. Compile your understanding of every issue in different chapters for a systematic book free from the extremism of ‘Abd Allāh b. ‘Umar, concessions and accommodations of ‘Abd Allāh b. ‘Abbās and unique views of ‘Abd Allāh b. Mas‘ūd. Your work should exemplify the following principle of the Prophet: “The best issues are those which are balanced.” It should be a compendium of the agreed upon views of the Companions and the elder imāms on the religious and legal issues. Once you have compiled such a work then we would be able to unite the Muslims in following the single fiqh worked by you. We would then promulgate it in the entire Muslim state. We would order that no body acts contrary to it.” [4] Historical reports attest that another ‘Abbāsī caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd too expressed similar wishes before Imām Mālik who remained unmoved. He, however, compiled Muwattā, keeping before himself the target of removing the juristic differences between the scholars. Examples on certain situations and how they were solved are an important factor of the texts. A famous example: Muwatta of Malik, Bk. 30, Sect. 2, No. 13 "Yahya related to me from Malik that Abdullah ibn Dinar said, "A man came to Abdullah ibn Umar when I was with him at the place where judgments were given and asked him about the suckling of an older person. Abdullah ibn Umar replied, A man came to Umar ibn al-Khattab and said, I have a slave-girl and I used to have intercourse with her. My wife went to her and suckled her. When I went to the girl, my wife told me to watch out, because she had suckled her Umar told him to beat his wife and to go to his slave-girl because kinship by suckling was only by the suckling of the young."
  • 28. Muwatta Imam Malik 26 Authenticity Imam Malik composed the Muwatta over a period of forty years to represent the "well-trodden path" of the people of Medina. Its name also means that it is the book that is "many times agreed upon"- about whose contents the people of Medina were unanimously agreed. Its high standing is such that people of every school of fiqh and all of the imams of hadith scholarship agree upon its authenticity. The Muslim Jurist, Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i famously said, "There is not on the face of the earth a book – after the Book of Allah – which is more authentic than the book of Malik."[5] Over one thousand disciples of the Imām have transmitted this work from him. This has resulted in differences in the text in various instances. There are thirty known versions of the work of which the most famous is the one transmitted by Yahyā b. Yahyā Laythī Andalusī. Composition of al-Muwatta Al-Muwatta consists of approximately 1,720 hadith divided amongst the following hadith terminology as follows:[2] • 600 marfu` hadith • 613 mawquf hadith • 285 maqtu hadith • 222 mursal hadiths Distinguishing characteristics Amin Ahsan Islahi has listed several distinguishing characteristics of the Muwatta[6]: 1. Its briefness (in size) yet comprehensiveness (in coverage) 2. Imam Malik does not accept any marfū‘ hadīth (ascribed to the Prophet) if it is not verbatim transmission of the words of the Prophet (he even gave consideration to letters, prepositions and particles like wāw, tā, bā etc. in them) 3. No acceptance of Hadith from any innovator - this is a stricter standard than many other muhaddithun 4. Highly literary form of the classical Arabic. This helps readers develop the ability to understand the language of the prophetic traditions. Commentaries on Al-Muwatta Due to the importance of the Al-Muwatta to Muslims it has often been accompanied by commentaries, mostly but not exclusively by followers of the Maliki school. • Al Tamhid by Yusuf ibn abd al-Barr is organized according to the narrators which Malik narrates from, and includes extensive biographical information about each narrator in the chain. • al-Istidhkar, also by Ibn Abd al-Barr is more of a legal exegesis on the hadith contained in the book than a critical hadith study, as was the case with the former. It is said that the Istidhkar was written after the Tamhid, as Ibn Abd al Barr himself alludes to in the introduction. However, through close examination it is apparent that the author made revisions to both after their completion due to the cross referencing found in both. • The explanation of Al-Suyuti, who although a follower of the Shafi`i school, wrote a small commentary to the Al-Muwatta. • Al-Musaffa Sharh al-Muwatta, Shah Wali Allah Dahlawi (al-Musaffa Sharh al-Muwatta in Persian). Shah Waliullah attached great importance to the Muwatta and penned another commentary in Urdu too. • Al-Muntaqâ sharh al-Muwatta of Abu al-Walid al-Baji, the Andalusian Mâlikî Qâdî, (Abû al-Walîd Sulaymân ibn Khalaf al-Bâjî, al-Muntaqâ sharh Muwatta’ Mâlik, edited by Muhammad ‘Abd al-Qâdir Ahmad ‘Atâ, Beirut: Dâr al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1420/1999) Sharh al-Muwatta has two versions: al-Istifa and its abridgment
  • 29. Muwatta Imam Malik 27 al-Muntaqa.[7] • Awjāz-ul-Masālik ilá Muwattā Imām Mālik is a Deobandi commentary written by Muhammad Zakariya al-Kandahlawi. He began the work in 1927 in Medina while only 29 years old. • Sharh Muwatta al-Malik by Muhammad al-Zurqani. It is considered to be based on three other commentaries of the Muwatta; the Tamhid and the Istidhkar of Yusuf ibn Abd al Barr, as well as the Al-Muntaqa of Abu al-Walid al-Baji. • Al-Imla fi Sharh al-Muwatta in 1,000 folios, by Ibn Hazm.[8] • Sharh Minhaaj by Subki.[9] • Sharh Muwatta by Ali al-Qari References [1] al-Kattani, Muhammad ibn Ja`far (2007). Muhammad al-Muntasir al-Kattani. ed (in Arabic). al-Risalah al-Mustatrafah (seventh ed.). Beirut: Dar al-Bashair al-Islamiyyah. pp. 9, 41. [2] "The Hadith for Beginners", Dr. Muhammad Zubayr Siddiqi, 1961 (2006 reprint), Goodword Books [3] Mabadi Tadabbur-i-Hadith, Amin Ahsan Islahi [4] Ibrāhīm b. ‘Alī b. Muhammad b. Farhūn al-Ya‘murī al-Mālikī, al-Dībāj al-Madhhab fī Ma‘rifah A‘yān ‘Ulamā’ al-Madhhab, 1st ed., vol. 1 (Beirut: Dār al-Nashr, Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1996), 25. [5] Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr, al-Tamhīd limā fī al-muwattā min al-ma‘ānī wa al-asānīd, vol. 1 (Morocco: Dār al-Nashr, 1387 AH), 76. [6] Mabadi Tadabbur-i-Hadith, Amin Ahsan Islahi [7] "Abu al-Walid al-Baji" (http:/ / www. sunnah. org/ history/ Scholars/ al-baji. htm). . Retrieved 2010-05-11. [8] "Ibn Hazm" (http:/ / www. sunnah. org/ history/ Innovators/ ibn_hazm. htm). . Retrieved 2010-05-11. [9] "Al-Albani Unveiled" (http:/ / www. masud. co. uk/ ISLAM/ misc/ 8or20. htm). . Retrieved 2010-05-11. External links • Al-Muwatta ( online from the Compendium of Muslim Texts • Introduction to the Muwatta’ of Imam Maalik (
  • 30. Malik ibn Anas 28 Malik ibn Anas Islamic scholar Mālik ibn Anas Title Imam of the Abode of Emigration Born 711 CE/93 AH Medina Died 795 CE/179 AH (aged 83-84) Medina Ethnicity Arab Region Saudi Arabia Maddhab Sunnah Main interests Hadith, Fiqh Notable ideas Maliki madhhab Works Al-Muwatta, Mudawana Influences • Imam Jaʿfar al-Sādiq • Abu Hanifa • Abu Suhail an-Nafi • Hisham ibn Urwah • Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri Influenced Al-Shafi`i Mālik ibn Anas ibn Mālik ibn Abī Āmir al-Asbahī (Arabic ‫( )ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‬c. 711 – 795) (93 AH – 179 AH ) is known as "Imam Malik," the "Sheikh of Islam", the "Proof of the Community," and "Imam of the Abode of Emigration." [1] He was one of the most highly respected scholars of fiqh in Sunni Islam. Imam Shafi`i, who was one of Maliks students for nine years and a scholarly giant in his own right, stated, "when scholars are mentioned, Malik is the star."[2] The Maliki Madhab, named after Malik, is one of the four schools of jurisprudence that are followed by Sunni Muslims to this day. Biography His full name was Abu Abdullah Mālik ibn Anas ibn Mālik Ibn Abī Āmir Ibn Amr Ibnul-Hārith Ibn Ghaimān Ibn Khuthail Ibn Amr Ibnul-Haarith. Malik was born the son of Anas ibn Malik (not the Sahabi) and Aaliyah bint Shurayk al-Azdiyya in Medina circa 711. His family was originally from the al-Asbahi tribe of Yemen, but his great grandfather Abu Amir relocated the family to Medina after converting to Islam in the second year after hijra (623). According to Al-Muwatta, he was tall, heavyset, imposing of stature, very fair, with white hair and beard but bald, with a huge beard and blue eyes.[1] Teachers Living in Medina gave Malik access to some of the most learned minds of early Islam. He memorized the Quran in his youth, learning recitation from Imam Abu Suhail Nafi ibn Abd ar-Rahman, from whom he also received his Sanad, or certification and permission to teach others. He studied under various famed scholars including Hisham ibn Urwah, Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, and—along with Imam Abu Hanifa, the founder of the Hanafi Sunni Madhhab-- and under the household of the prophets lineage, Imam Jafar al Sadiq[3] This fact may explain the mutual respect and relative peace that has often existed between the Hanafi and Maliki Sunnis, on one hand, and the Shias on the other.
  • 31. Malik ibn Anas 29 Golden Chain of Narration Imam Maliks chain of narrators was considered the most authentic and called Silsilat ul-Zhahab or "The Golden Chain of Narrators" by notable hadith scholars including Imam Bukhari.[4] The Golden Chain of narration (i.e., that considered by the scholars of Hadith to be the most authentic) consists of Malik, who narrated from Nafi, who narrated from ibn Umar, who narrated from Muhammad. Views Reluctance in rendering religious verdicts Malik took advantage of the fact that he was contemporary to many of the Tabi‘in to formulate his school of thought, which gave precedence to the acts of the people of Medina over the Hadith if they were in conflict. This was done due to the sizeable amount of scholars, and companions of Muhammad residing in the city where Maliks reputation grew immensely. Malik nevertheless showed hesitancy in issuing religious verdicts explaining in one of his more famous statements that: The shield of the scholar is, I do not know, so if he neglects it, his statement is attacked.[5] Textualist interpretation of hadith on Gods attributes Malik adhered to a textual interpretation of hadith in relation to Gods attributes. Al-Daraqutni relates that Malik was asked about the attributes of Allah, to which Malik answered, "Pass them on as they come."[6] Furthermore, Qadi Iyad relates that Malik was asked whether people would be looking toward Allah given the narration, "And some faces shall be shining and radiant upon that day, looking at their Lord." Malik ensuingly answered, "Yes, with these two eyes of his," though his student replied, "there are a people who say he will not be looking at Allah, that looking means a reward" to which Malik answered, "They lied, rather they will look at Allah." Opposition to bidah or innovation in beliefs Malik was vehemently opposed to bidah and even directed others not to extend the Islamic greeting of Salam to the people of bidah, stating, "how evil are the People of Innuendo, we do not give them felicitations."[7] Malik explained that "he who establishes an innovation in Islam regarding it as something good, has claimed that Muhammad has betrayed his trust to deliver the message as God says, this day have I perfected for you your religion. And whatsoever was not part of the religion then, is not part of the religion today."[8] Prohibiting Kalam Malik sternly prohibited theological rhetoric and philosophical speech, frequently referred to as kalam.[9] Malik believed that Kalam was rooted in heretical doctrines taken up and followed by controversial theologians such as Jahm bin Safwan.[10] When asked about an individual who delved into Kalam, Malik answered, "He establishes his innuendo with kalaam, and if kalaam had been knowledge, the Companions and the tabiin would have spoken about it, just as they spoke about the rules and regulations.[11]
  • 32. Malik ibn Anas 30 Death Imam Malik died at the age of 86 in Medina in 795 and is buried in the famous Jannat ul-Baqi cemetery across from the Masjid al Nabawi. Maliks last words were related by one Ismail Ibn Abi Uways who said, "Malik became sick, so I asked some of our people about what he said at the time of his death. They said, `He recited the shahadah (testification of faith), then he recited: Their affair is for Allah, before and after.[12] Works Imam Malik wrote Al-Muwatta, "The Approved," which was said to have been regarded by Imam Shafii to be the soundest book on Earth after the Quran. • Al-Muwatta • Al-Mudawwana al-Kubra Quotes "The reform of the later generations of this Ummah will take place in the same way as reformed its earlier generations." taken from Islahi Khutbat (Discourse on Islamic Way of Life) References [1] "Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn `Amr, al-Imam, Abu `Abd Allah al-Humyari al-Asbahi al-Madani" (http:/ / www. sunnah. org/ publication/ khulafa_rashideen/ malik. htm). . Retrieved 2010-04-10. [2] "The Life and Times of Malik ibn Anas" (http:/ / www. islaam. com/ Article. aspx?id=530). Islaam.Com. . Retrieved 2010-04-10. [3] "– Topics" (http:/ / muslimheritage. com/ topics/ default. cfm?ArticleID=471). 2005-01-04. . Retrieved 2010-04-10. [4] ""Imaam Maalik ibn Anas" by Hassan Ahmad, ‘Al Jumuah’ Magazine Volume 11 – Issue 9" (http:/ / www. sunnahonline. com/ ilm/ seerah/ 0041. htm). . Retrieved 2010-04-10. [5] Al-Intiqaa, pg. 38 [6] as-Siffat, pg.75 [7] al-Ibaanah of ibn Battah, no.441 [8] al-Itisaam [9] Dhammul-Kalaam (qaaf/173/alif) [10] Jaami Bayaanul-Ilm wa Fadlihi (p. 415) [11] Dhammul-Kalaam (qaaf/173/baa) [12] Quran 30:4 External links • Life of Imam Malik ( • Biography of Imam Malik ( Malik.htm) • A comprehensive Biography of Imam Malik ( htm) • Al-Muwatta of Imam Malik ( • Muslims of Norwich ( A Maliki community • (French) The lifestyle of Imâm Mâlik Ibn Anas ( ( article-le-mode-de-vie-de-l-imam-malik-ibn-anas-abu-zahra-104634686.html)
  • 33. Sunan al-Darimi 31 Sunan al-Darimi Sunan al-Darimi (Arabic: ‫ )ﺳﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ‬or Musnad al-Darimi by `Abd Allah ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-Darimi (181H–255H) is a hadith collection considered by Sunnis to be among the prominent nine collections: the Al-Kutub al-Sittah, Al-Muwatta and the Musnad of Imam Ahmad. Despite its title as a Musnad, it is not arranged by narrator in the manner of other Musnads, such as that of Tayalisi or Ibn Hanbal. It is arranged by subject matter in the manner of a book of Sunan, like the Sunan Ibn Majah. Conveyance Darimi transmitted these hadiths to `Isa ibn `Umar al-Samarqandi; date of death unknown, but presumably after 293 AH. Thereafter it passed to: • `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hamawiya al-Sarkhasi (293–381 AH) • `Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Muzaffar al-Dawudi "Jamal al-Islam" (374–467 AH) • Abul-Waqt `Abd al-Awwal ibn `Isa ibn Shu`ayb al-Sijizzi (458–553 AH) Published editions • Edited by Husayn Salim Asad, Dar al-Maghni, 1420 AH / 2000 CE, p. 151-3 Al-Darimi Name & Lineage Abu Muhammad Abdullah Bin Abdur Rahman Bin Fadhl Bin Bahraan Bin Abdus Samad At Tamimi Ad Darimi As Samarqandi, commonly known as Imam Darimi, came from the family tribe of Banu Darim Bin Maalik Bin Hanzalah Bin Zaid Bin Manah Bin Tamim.[1] He is also known as Imam Tamimi, in relation to Tamim Bin Murrah, who was amongst the ancestor of Banu Darim.[2] Still again, he is called Imam Samarqandi, the name deriving from the city of Samarqand, which produced many Islamic scholars, like himself. Birth Imam Darimi was born on 181 A.H., as is admitted by him ‘I was born on the same year in which Imam Abdullah Bin Mubarak had died. And Abdullah Bin Mubarak died in 181 A.H.’.[3] His Knowledge & Travels The biographers of Imam Darimi have not written much in details of his acquiring knowledge in the early stages of his life, and the same is for the details of his extensive travels for knowledge. Though it is mentioned that he was amongst the ones who frequently traveled to many places for knowledge and collecting of Aahadith (Plural of Hadith)! He was a great memorizer, trusted, truthful, pious, righteous, orderly and perfecting person.
  • 34. Al-Darimi 32 His Teachers Imam Darimi was a student of many an expert scholar of his time, in Hadith and Fiqh. He had a great number of teachers. His Students Amongst his students were Imam Muslim Bin Al Hajjaj, Imam Abu Dawud Sulaiman, Imam Muhammad Bin Eesa Tirmizi, Imam Abdullah Bin Ahmad Bin Hanbal, and many others. His Works As Sunan ud Darimi - Some from among his collections of the Prophet Muhammads Aahadith. At Tafsir ud Darimi - Imam Zahbi mentioned the work in Seer Aalaam un Nubalaa[4] though its lost now, unless discovered! Al Jaamie - Khateeb Al Baghdadi has mentioned this in his Tarikh ul Baghdad.[5] Death The Imam died in 255 A.H. 8th in the month of Zul Hijjah, the day of Tarweeyah, after the Asr Prayer. He was buried on the Friday of the Day of Arafah. References [1] (Lubbul Lubaab – Volume 1 – Page 308) [2] (Al Ansaab – Volume 1 – Page 478) [3] (Tahzibul Kamaal – Volume 15 – Page 216) [4] (Seer Aalaam un Nubalaa - Volume 12 - Page 228) [5] (Tarikh ul Baghdad - Volume 10 - Page 29)
  • 35. Sahih al-Bukhari 33 Sahih al-Bukhari Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (Arabic: ‫ ,)ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬is one of the Al-Kutub Al-Sittah (six major hadiths) of sunni Islam. These prophetic traditions, or hadith, were collected by the Persian Muslim scholar Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari, after being transmitted orally for generations. Sunni Muslims view this as one of the three most trusted collections of hadith along with Sahih Muslim and al-Muwatta [1]. In some circles, it is considered the most authentic book after the Quran.[2][3] The Arabic word sahih translates as authentic or correct.[4] Actual title The actual title of the book commonly referred to as Sahih al-Bukhari, according to Ibn al-Salah, is: al-Jaami’ al-Sahih al-Musnad al-Mukhtasar min Umur Rasool Allah wa sunanihi wa Ayyamihi. A word for word translation is: The Abridged Collection of Authentic Hadith with Connected Chains regarding Matters Pertaining to the Prophet, His practices and His Times.[3] Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani mentioned the same title replacing the word umur, matters, with hadith.[5] Overview Al-Bukhari traveled widely throughout the Abbasid empire from the age of 16, collecting those traditions he thought trustworthy. It is said that al-Bukhari collected over 300,000 hadith and included only 2,602 traditions in his Sahih.[6] At the time when Bukhari saw [the earlier] works and conveyed them, he found them, in their presentation, combining between what would be considered sahih and hasan and that many of them included da’if hadith. This aroused his interest in compiling hadith whose authenticity was beyond doubt. What further strengthened his resolve was something his teacher, Ishaq ibn Ibrahim al-Hanthalee – better known as Ibn Rahoyah – had said. Muhammad ibn Ismaa’eel al-Bukhari said, “We were with Ishaq ibn Rahoyah who said, ‘If only you would compile a book of only authentic narrations of the Prophet.’ This suggestion remained in my heart so I began compiling the Sahih.” Bukhari also said, “I saw the Prophet in a dream and it was as if I was standing in front of him. In my hand was a fan with which I was protecting him. I asked some dream interpreters, who said to me, ‘You will protect him from lies.’ This is what compelled me to produce the Sahih.”[7] The book covers almost all aspects of life in providing proper guidance of Islam such as the method of performing prayers and other actions of worship directly from the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Bukhari finished his work around 846, and spent the last twenty-four years of his life visiting other cities and scholars, teaching the hadith he had collected. In every city that he visited, thousands of people would gather in the main mosque to listen to him recite traditions. In reply to Western academic doubts as to the actual date and authorship of the book that bears his name, scholars point out that notable hadith scholars of that time, such as Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (855 CE/241 AH), Ibn Maīn (847 CE/233 AH), and Ibn Madīni (848 CE/234 AH), accepted the authenticity of his book[8] and that the collections immediate fame makes it unlikely that it could have been revised after the authors death without historical record. During this period of twenty-four years, Bukhari made minor revisions to his book, notably the chapter headings. Each version is named by its narrator. According to Ibn Hajar Asqalani in his book Nukat, the number of hadiths in all versions is the same. The most famous one today is the version narrated by al-Firabri (d. 932 CE/320 AH), a trusted student of Bukhari. Khatib al-Baghdadi in his book History of Baghdad quoted Firabri as saying: "About seventy thousand people heard Sahih Bukhari with me". Firabri is not the only transmitter of Sahih Bukhari. There were many others that narrated that book to later generations, such as Ibrahim ibn Maqal (d. 907 CE/295 AH), Hammad ibn Shaker (d. 923 CE/311 AH), Mansur Burduzi (d. 931 CE/319 AH) and Husain Mahamili (d. 941 CE/330 AH). There are many books that noted differences between these versions, the best known being Fath al-Bari.
  • 36. Sahih al-Bukhari 34 Distinctive Features Amin Ahsan Islahi, the notable Islamic scholar, has listed three outstanding qualities of Sahih Bukhari [9]: 1. Quality and soundness of the chain of narrators of the selected ahādīth. Imam Bukhari has followed two principle criteria for selecting sound narratives. First, the lifetime of a narrator should overlap with the lifetime of the authority from whom he narrates. Second, it should be verifiable that narrators have met with their source persons. They should also expressly state that they obtained the narrative from these authorities. This is a stricter criterion than that set by Imam Muslim. 2. Imam Bukhari accepted the narratives from only those who, according to his knowledge, not only believed in Islam but practiced its teachings. Thus, he has not accepted narratives from the Murjites. 3. The particular arrangement and ordering of chapters. This expresses the profound knowledge of the author and his understanding of the religion. This has made the book a more useful guide in understanding of the religious disciplines. Authenticity Ibn al-Salah said: "The first to author a Sahih was Bukhari, Abu ‘Abdillah Muhammad ibn Ismaa’eel al-Ju’fee, followed by Aboo al-Husain Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj al-Naisaabooree al-Qushairee, who was his student, sharing many of the same teachers. These two books are the most authentic books after the Quran. As for the statement of al-Shafi’i, who said “I do not know of a book containing knowledge more correct than Malik’s book,” – others mentioned it with a different wording – he said this before the books of Bukhari and Muslim. The book of Bukhari is the more authentic of the two and more useful."[3] Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani quoted Aboo Ja’far al-‘Uqailee as saying, "After Bukhari had written the Sahih, he read it to Ali ibn al-Madini, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Yahya ibn Main as well as others. They considered it a good effort and testified to its authenticity with the exception of four hadith. Al-‘Uqailee then said that Bukhari was actually correct regarding those four hadith." Ibn Hajar then concluded, "And they are, in fact, authentic."[10] Ibn al-Salah said in his Muqaddimah: "It has been narrated to us that Bukhari has said, I have not included in the book al-Jami’ other than what is authentic and I did not include other authentic hadith for the sake of brevity."[3] In addition, al-Dhahabi said, "Bukhari was heard saying, I have memorized one hundred thousand authentic hadith and two hundred thousand which are less than authentic.”[11] Number of hadith Ibn al-Salah also said: "The number of hadith in his book, the Sahih, is 7,275 hadith, including hadith occurring repeatedly. It has been said that this number excluding repeated hadith is 4,000."[3] This is referring to those hadith which are musnad,[12] those from the Companions originating from the Prophet which are authentic.[13] Commentaries Several detailed commentaries on this collection have been written, such as: 1. Al-Kawkab al-Darari fi Sharh Al-Bukhari by al-Kirmani (died: 796H). 2. Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari by al-Hafith Ibn Hajar (died: 852H). 3. Umdah al Qari fi Sharh Sahih al Bukhari written by Badr al-Din al-Ayni and published in Beirut by Dar Ihya’ al-turath al-`Arabi[14] 4. Irshad al-Sari li Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari by al-Qastalani (died: 923H); one of the most well known of the explanations of Sahih Bukhari[15]. 5. Al-Tanqih by al-Zarkashi. 6. Al-Tawshih by al-Suyuti (died: 811H)
  • 37. Sahih al-Bukhari 35 7. Sharh Ibn Kathir (died: 774H) 8. Sharh ‘Ala’ al-Din Maghlatay (died: 792H) 9. Sharh Ibnu al-Mulaqqin (died: 804H) 10. Sharh al-Barmawi (died: 831H) 11. Sharh al-Tilmasani al-Maliki (died: 842H) 12. Sharh al-Bulqini (died: 995H) 13. Fath al-Bari by Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (died: 795H) 14. Sharh Ibni Abi Hamzah al-Andalusi 15. Sharh Abi al-Baqa’ al-Ahmadi 16. Sharh al-Bakri 17. Sharh Ibnu Rashid 18. Hashiyat ul Bukhari By Tajus Shariah Mufti Muhammad Akhtar Raza Khan Qaadiri Al Azhari; 19. Sharh Ibn Battaal By Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Khalaf ibn Abd al-Malik (died: 449H); published in 10 volumes with an additional volume containing indexes; 20. Al-Mutawari Ala Abwab al-Bukhari by Nasir al-Din ibn al-Munayyir (died: 683H): An explanation of select chapter titles; published in one volume. 21. Fayd al-Bari by Anwar Shah al-Kashmiri Translations Sahih al-Bukhari has been translated into English by the Salafi scholar Muhammad Muhsin Khan in 9 volumes. The text used for this work is Fath Al-Bari, published by the Egyptian Press of Mustafa Al-Babi Al-Halabi in 1959. It is published by Al Saadawi Publications and Dar-us-Salam and is included in the USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts.[16] References [1] Mabadi Tadabbur-i-Hadith, Amin Ahsan Islahi [2] The Canonization of Al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=nyMKDEAb4GsC& dq=The+ Canonization+ of+ Al-Bukhari+ and+ Muslim& source=gbs_navlinks_s) by Jonathan Brown, BRILL, 2007 [3] Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah, pg. 160-9 Dar al-Ma’aarif edition [4] "Meaning of sahih" (http:/ / www. islamic-dictionary. com/ index. php?word=sahih). . Retrieved 2010-05-13. [5] Hadyi al-Sari, pg. 10. [6] "The number of authentic hadith" (http:/ / www. ibnamin. com/ num_hadith. htm). . Retrieved 2010-05-13. [7] Abridged from Hady al-Sari,the introduction to Fath al-Bari, by Ibn Hajr, pg. 8–9 Dar al-Salaam edition. [8] "Al Imam Bukhari" (http:/ / www. ummah. net/ Al_adaab/ hadith/ bukhari/ imam_bukhari. html). . Retrieved 2010-02-03. [9] Mabadi Tadabbur-i-Hadith, Amin Ahsan Islahi [10] Hady al-Sari, pg. 684. [11] Tadhkirat al-huffaz, vol. 2 pgs. 104-5, al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah edition. [12] Hady al-Sari, pg. 654. [13] Nuzhah al-Nathr, pg. 154 [14] google cach (http:/ / 66. 249. 93. 104/ search?q=cache:_tbh3_dRvKQJ:www. e-imj. com/ Vol4-No1/ Vol4-No1-H5. htm+ Bukhari+ Umdah+ Qari& hl=en& ct=clnk& cd=18) [15] Abdal-Hakim Murad. "Abdal-Hakim Murad – Contentions 8" (http:/ / www. masud. co. uk/ ISLAM/ ahm/ bari. htm). . Retrieved 2010-05-13. [16] "Full translation from the USC-MSA" (http:/ / www. usc. edu/ dept/ MSA/ fundamentals/ hadithsunnah/ bukhari/ ). . Retrieved 2010-09-26.
  • 38. Sahih al-Bukhari 36 External links • Hadith Bukhari ( - Alternative English Translation Without mistakes and omissions Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal is a collection of Hadith collected by the famous Sunni scholar Ibn Hanbal to whom the Hanbali madhab of Sunnis is attributed. Description It is said by some that Ibn Hanbal made a comment in regards to his book which read as follows: "There is not a hadith that I have included in this book except that it was used as evidence by some of the scholars." Certain Hanbali scholars, such as Abul-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi claimed that the Musnad contains hadiths that are fabricated by interpolation (i.e. the narrator jumbling up information, mixing texts and authoritative chains). However, it is agreed that the hadith that are suspected to be fabricated are not new hadiths that are creations of a dubious narrators imagination.[1]. References [1] Fatawa of Ibn Taimiya, vol 1, page 248. Front cover of Musnad Imam Ahmad Ibne Hanbal. External links • Methodology of Imam Ahmad ( (Arabic) • Search Musnad Ahmad Bin Hanbal at ( (Arabic)
  • 39. Ahmad ibn Hanbal 37 Ahmad ibn Hanbal Islamic scholar Abu Abdillah Ahmed ibn Muhammed ibn Hanbal al-Shaybani Title Sheikh ul-Islam Imam Ahl al-Sunnah Born [1] 780 CE/164 AH [2] [3] Baghdad, Iraq  ) Died [1] 855 CE/241 AH (aged 74-75) [4] Baghdad, Iraq Ethnicity Arab Region Iraq Maddhab Ijtihad School tradition Athari Main interests [4] Fiqh, Hadith, Aqeedah Notable ideas Hanbali madhhab Works Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal Influences [4] • Al-Shafi‘i • Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah • ‘Abd ar-Razzaq as-San‘ani • Yahya ibn Said al-Qattan • Yazid Ibn Haroon • Abu Dawud at-Tayalisi • Abdur Rahman Ibn Mahdi • Waki ibn al Jarrah • Hushaim Ibn Basheer • Ismaaeel Ibn Ulyah • Abu Yusuf
  • 40. Ahmad ibn Hanbal 38 Influenced [5] • al-Barbahaaree, [6] • Muhammad al-Bukhari, • Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj • ibn Qudamah • Abu Zurah al-Razi • Yahya ibn Main • Saalih Ibn Ahmad Ibn Hanbal • Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Hanbal • Abu Dawood • Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Dhuhli • Tirmidhi • Ibn Majah • Ali ibn al-Madini • Abu Hatim Muhammad ibn Idris al-Razi • ibn Aqil • ibn al-Jawzi • Mohammad bin Abdulwahab • ibn Taymiyya • Al-Nasai • ibn al-Qayyim • ibn Rajab al-Hanbali [7] • Ibrahim ibn Yaqub al-Juzajani Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hanbal Abu `Abd Allah al-Shaybani (Arabic: ‫)ﺍﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ ﺍﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ‬ was an important Muslim scholar and theologian. He is considered the founder of the Hanbali school of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). Imam Ahmad is one of the most celebrated Sunni theologians, often referred to as "Sheikh ul-Islam"[8] or the "Imam of Ahl al-Sunnah," honorifics given to the most esteemed doctrinal authorities in the Sunni tradition. Imam Ahmad personified the theological views of the early orthodox scholars, including the founders of the other extant schools of Sunni fiqh, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Malik ibn Anas, and Imam ash-Shafi`i. Biography Early life and family Ahmad ibn Hanbals family was originally from Basra, Iraq, and belonged to the Arab Banu Shayban tribe.[9] His father was an officer in the Abbasid army in Khorasan and later settled with his family in Baghdad, where Ahmad was born in 780 CE.[2] Ibn Hanbal had two wives and several children, including an older son, who later became a judge in Isfahan.[8] Education and Work Ibn Hanbal studied extensively in Baghdad, and later traveled to Legal writings, produced October 879. further his education. He started learning jurisprudence (Fiqh) under the celebrated Hanafi judge, Abu Yusuf, the renowned student and companion of Imam Abu Hanifah. After finishing his studies with Abu Yusuf, ibn Hanbal began traveling through Iraq, Syria, and Arabia to collect hadiths, or traditions of the Prophet Muhammad. Ibn al-Jawzi states that Imam Ahmad had 414 Hadith masters whom he narrated from. With this knowledge, he became a leading authority on the hadith, leaving an immense encyclopedia of hadith, the al-Musnad. After several years of travel, he returned to Baghdad to study Islamic law under al-Shafi. He became a mufti in his old age, but is remembered most famously, as the founder of the Hanbali madhab or school of Islamic law, which is now most dominant in Saudi Arabia, Qatar as well as the United Arab Emirates. [10][11] [12]
  • 41. Ahmad ibn Hanbal 39 In addition to his scholastic enterprises, ibn Hanbal was a soldier on the Islamic frontiers (Ribat) and made Hajj five times in his life, twice on foot.[13] Death Ibn Hanbal died in 855 CE in Baghdad, Iraq. The Mihna Ibn Hanbal was famously called before the Inquisition or Mihna of the Abassid Caliph al-Mamun. Al-Mamun wanted to assert the religious authority of the Caliph by pressuring scholars to adopt the Mutazila view that the Quran was created rather than uncreated. According to Sunni tradition, ibn Hanbal was among the scholars to resist the Caliphs interference and the Mutazila doctrine of a created Quran—although some Orientalist sources raise a question on whether or not he remained steadfast [14] However, according to Sunni tradition, due to his refusal to accept Mutazilite authority, ibn Hanbal was imprisoned in Baghdad throughout the reign of al-Mamun. In an incident during the rule of al-Mamuns successor, al-Mutasim, ibn Hanbal was flogged to unconsciousness. However, this caused upheaval in Baghdad and al-Mamun was forced to release ibn Hanbal. [13] After al-Mu’tasim’s death, al-Wathiq became caliph and continued his predecessors policies of Mutazilite enforcement and in this pursuit, he banished ibn Hanbal from Baghdad. It was only after al-Wathiqus death and the ascent of his brother al-Mutawakkil, who was much friendlier to the more traditional Sunni dogma, that ibn Hanbal was welcomed back to Baghdad. Works The following books are found in Ibn al-Nadims Fihrist: • Kitab al-`Ilal wa Ma‘rifat al-Rijal: "The Book of Narrations Containing Hidden Flaws and of Knowledge of the Men (of Hadeeth)" Riyad: Al-Maktabah al-Islamiyyah • Kitab al-Manasik: "The Book of the Rites of Hajj" • Kitab al-Zuhd: "The Book of Abstinence" ed. Muhammad Zaghlul, Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-Arabi, 1994 • Kitab al-Iman: "The Book of Faith" • Kitab al-Masail "Issues in Fiqh" • Kitab al-Ashribah: "The Book of Drinks" • Kitab al-Fadail Sahaba: "Virtues of the Companions" • Kitab Thaah al-Rasul : "The Book of Obedience to the Messenger" • Kitab Mansukh: "The Book of Abrogation" • Kitab al-Faraid: "The Book of Obligatory Duties" • Kitab al-Radd `ala al-Zanadiqa wal-Jahmiyya "Refutations of the Heretics and the Jahmites" (Cairo: 1973) • Tafsir : "Exegesis" • the Musnad
  • 42. Ahmad ibn Hanbal 40 Quotes • It is said that, when told that it was religiously permissible to say what pleases his persecuters without believing in it at the time of mihna, Ahmad said "If I remained silent and you remained silent, then who will teach the ignorant?". • With regard to innovation within religion, Ahmad said “The graves of sinners from People of Sunnah is a garden, while the graves of the pious ascetics from the People of Innovation is a barren pit. The pious among Ahlus Sunnah are the Friends of Allah, while the sinners among Ahlul-Bidah are the Enemies of Allah.”[15] Historical views • Imam Abu Dawood, who was a collector of prophetic hadith stated: "The lectures of Ahmad were sittings of the Hereafter. He would not mention in them anything of the worldly affairs; and I never saw him mention this world." • The Hanafi scholar Yahya ibn Main stated: “I have not seen the like of Ahmad, we have accompanied him for fifty years, and he never boasted about anything from the good which he was characterized with.”[8] • When Abdul-Qadir Gilani was asked whether there existed a person who was a wali of Allah who was upon a creed other than the creed of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Gilani answered: "That has not occurred and will never occur.”[8] • Harmala said: “I heard Al-Shafi‘i say: ‘I left Baghdad and did not leave behind me anyone more virtuous, more learned, more knowledgeable than Ahmad ibn Hanbal.’” • Abu Ubayd said: "The Science at its peak is in the custody of four men, of whom Ahmad ibn Hanbal is the most knowledgeable." • Yahya ibn Main said, as related by Abbas [al-Duri]: "They meant for me to be like Ahmad, but by Allah! I shall never in my life compare to him." • Muhammad ibn Hammad al-Taharani said: "I heard Abu Thawr say: Ahmad is more learned or knowledgeable than Sufyan al-Thawri.’" • Ibrahim al-Harbi said: "I held Ahmad as one for whom Allah had gathered up the combined knowledge of the first and the last." • Qutaiba ibn Said noted that if Ahmad were to witness the age of Sufyan al-Thawri, Malik, al-Awzai and Laith ibn Sad, he would have surpassed them all. References [1] "‫( "ﻣﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬http:/ / www. ibnamin. com/ Manhaj/ scholars. htm). . Retrieved 2010-03-21. [2] Roy Jackson, "Fifty key figures in Islam", Taylor & Francis, 2006. p 44: "Abu Abdallah Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hanbal ibn Hilal al-Shaybani was born in Baghdad in Iraq in 780" [3] The History of Persia by John Malcolm – Page 245 [4] A Literary History of Persia from the Earliest Times Until Firdawsh by Edward Granville Browne – Page 295 [5] Explanation of the Creed, pg. 8 [6] "CLASSICAL BOOKS Hadeeth Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (al-Jaami as-Saheeh)" (http:/ / fatwa-online. com/ classicalbooks/ hadeeth/ 0000101. htm). . Retrieved 2010-03-21. [7] Al-Bastawī, ʻAbd al-ʻAlīm ʻAbd al-ʻAẓīm (1990). Al-Imām al-Jūzajānī wa-manhajuhu fi al-jarḥ wa-al-taʻdīl. Maktabat Dār al-Ṭaḥāwī. p. 9. [8] Foundations of the Sunnah, by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, pg 51-173 [9] H. A. R. Gibb et al., ed. (1986). "Aḥmad B. Ḥanbal". Encyclopaedia of Islam. A-B. 1 (New ed.). Brill Academic Publishers. p. 272. ISBN 90-04-08114-3. "Aḥmad B. Ḥanbal was an Arab, belonging to the Banū Shaybān, of Rabī’a,..." [10] http:/ / www. islamawareness. net/ Madhab/ Hanbali/ ahmad_ibn_hanbal. html
  • 43. Ahmad ibn Hanbal 41 [11] al-Dhahabi, Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ 9:434-547 #1876 and Tadhkira al-Huffaz 2:431 #438 [12] http:/ / suzyashraf. tripod. com/ index. html_essays [13] "Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal" (http:/ / www. islamicawakening. com/ viewarticle. php?articleID=1193). . [14] Brill, E.J., ed. (1965-1986). The Encyclopedia of Islam, vol. 7. pp. 3. [15] Tabaqaat al-Hanaabilah (1/184) Further reading • Ibn al-Jawzi, Manaqib al-Imam Ahmad • Nadwi, S. A. H. A., Saviors of Islamic Spirit (Vol. 1), translated by Mohiuddin Ahmad, Academy of Islamic Research and Publications, Lucknow, 1971. • Melchert, Christopher, Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Makers of the Muslim World), Oneworld, 2006. External links • Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal: Life & Madhab ( php?articleID=1193&) • Diagram of teachers and students of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal ( muhammad-ibn-abdullah-lineage-and-family-tree/ students-sheikhs-and-teachers-of-famous-muslim-imams-and-scholars-in-muslim-history.php?id=413) Shamaail Tirmidhi The Shamāil Muhammadiyyah, often referred to as Shamāil al-Tirmidhi or simply Shamāil, is a collection of hadiths compiled by the ninth-century Muslim hadith scholar Tirmidhi regarding the intricate details of the Islamic prophet Muhammads appearance, belongings, manners and life. The book contains 399 narrations from the successors of the Prophet which are divided into 56 chapters.[1] One famous commentary on the book in the modern era is Muhammad Zakariya al-Kandahlawis Khasaael e Nabawi, and one of the more famous translations into English is done by Muhammad ibn Abdu Rahman Ebrahim. References [1] ibn Isa (2011) Bibliography • ibn Isa, Muhammad (Imam Tirmidhi) (2011) (in Arabic with Malay translation) (Hardcover). Syamail Muhammadiyah: KeanggunanMu Ya Rasulullah. Malaysia: PTS Islamika Sdn. Bhd.. pp. 388. ISBN 978-967-3-66064-3.
  • 44. Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah 42 Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah Mukhtasar al-Mukhtasar min al-Musnad al-Sahih, in short Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah, is a collection of hadith by Ibn Khuzaymah Content Its chapters cover prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, and the Zakat tithe. Views Among the Sahih collections after Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, it is regarded highly along with Sahih Ibn Hibbaan and Sahih Abi Awana. Published edition It has been edited by Muhammad Mustafa Al-Azami, and published by al-Maktab al-Islami in Beirut. References
  • 45. Ibn Khuzaymah 43 Ibn Khuzaymah Muslim scholar Ibn Khuzaymah Title Imām al-aʼimmah (‫ﺇﻣﺎﻡ‬ ‫)ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ‬ Al-Hafiz Al-Hujjah Born Safar 223 AH Nishapur Died 2 Dhu al-Qidah 311 AH Maddhab Shafii Main interests Hadith, Fiqh Works Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah Influences Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh Abu Abdillah Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Khuzaymah (Arabic: ‫ 738 ,ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﻳﻤﺔ‬CE/223 AH[1] – 923 CE/311 AH[1]) was a prominent Muslim hadith and Shafii fiqh scholar best known for his hadith collection, Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah. Biography He was born in Nishapur a year earlier than Ibn Jarir al-Tabari and outlived him by one year. In Nishapur, he studied under its scholars, including Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh (died 238 AH), the muhaddith of Khorasan at the time.[1] Works Al-Hakim recorded that Ibn Khuzaymah wrote more than 140 books.[1] Little of what he wrote survives today:[1] • Ṣaḥīḥ Ibn Khuzaymah : mukhtaṣar al-Mukhtaṣar min al-musnad al-Ṣaḥīḥ (‫ﻣﺨﺘﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻨﺪ : ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﻳﻤﺔ‬ ‫ :)ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬Only one fourth of the book survived. • Kitāb al-Tawḥīd wa-ithbāt ṣifāt al-Rabb ʻazza wa-jall (‫" :)ﮐﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺏ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‬The Book of the Affirmation of Divine Unity and the Affirmation of the Attributes of the Lord" • Shaʼn al-duʻāʼ wa-tafsīr al-adʻīyah al-maʼthūrah (‫)ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎء ﻭﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﺩﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺛﻮﺭﺓ‬ References [1] Ibn Khuzaymah, Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq (1988), Shahwān, ʻAbd al-ʻAzīz ibn Ibrāhīm, ed., Kitāb al-Tawḥīd wa-ithbāt ṣifāt al-Rabb ʻazza wa-jall, Dār al-Rushd, pp. 25–35
  • 46. Sahifah Hammam ibn Munabbih 44 Sahifah Hammam ibn Munabbih Sahifah Hammam ibn Munabbih is perhaps one of the earliest known hadith collections,[1] by 8th century scholar Hammam ibn Munabbih. It has been translated, in the 20th century, by Muhammad Hamidullah. References [1] http:/ / www. islamic-awareness. org/ Hadith/ hadith. html
  • 47. Hammam ibn Munabbih 45 Hammam ibn Munabbih Hammam ibn Munabbih Died [1] 132 AH/750 CE Era Medieval era Region <region> scholar Hammam ibn Munabbih (Arabic: ‫( )ﻫﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺒﻪ‬d. 132/750) was an Islamic scholar, from among the Tabi‘in and one of the narrators of hadith. Biography He was the son of Munabbih ibn Kamil, and Wahb ibn Munabbih was his brother. Works • Sahifah Hammam ibn Munabbih was one of the 9 students of Abu Hurairah. Abu Hurairah used to narrate the hadith he heard from the Prophet to his 9 students. Out of all 9 students, only Sahifah Hammam ibn Munabbihs book has survived in manuscript form. It was later edited and published by Dr. Muhammad Hamidullah in 1961 in Hyderabad, India, Sahifah Hammam ibn Munabbih and is generally regarded as the earliest known hadith collections[2] References [1] Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Taqrib al-Tahdhib [2] Are There Any Early Hadiths? (http:/ / www. islamic-awareness. org/ Hadith/ hadith. html)
  • 48. Musannaf ibn Jurayj 46 Musannaf ibn Jurayj Musannaf of ibn Jurayj is a book by Islamic scholar ibn Jurayj, one of the earliest hadith collections. References Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq The Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq is a very early book of Hadith that was collected by ‘Abd ar-Razzaq as-San‘ani. It not only contains a huge number of hadith attributed directly to Muhammad, but also from the Sahaba and early Muslim scholars. The title roughly means "The Categorized", which suggests the nature of this hadith collection, as it is arranged according to categories of Fiqh.[1] History behind this Book The book of Hafiz Al-Sanani, Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq was lost and mixed up with other books, and could not be differentiated for almost 1100 years until it was arranged and edited by the great Indian Scholar Muhaddith-e-Kabir Hazrat Maulana Habib al-Rahman al-Azmi (Rahmatullah Alaih). Maulana Habib al-Rahman who has worked on numerous books of Ahadith was famous for his vast knowledge of the hadith. It took him almost 20 years to complete this great historical work for which he is a insanely loved and respected person among the scholars around the world. The book was published in Beirut. Sources The hadith in the Musannaf come mainly from three people: Mamar Ibn Rashid (d. AD 770), Ibn Jurayj, and Sufyan al-Thawri. There are also relatively small numbers of hadith from Sufyan Ibn Uyayna, Abu Hanifa, and Malik Ibn Anas among a large number of other people. Most of them are said to have been compilers of hadith books in their own right. Reliability An article by Harald Motzki appeared in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies that mentioned the Musannaf of `Abd al-Razzaq al-San`ani as a source of authentic ahadith of the first century AH. The conclusion of the author was, "While studying the Musannaf of `Abd al-Razzaq, I came to the conclusion that the theory championed by Goldziher, Schacht, and in their footsteps, many others – myself included – which in general, reject hadith literature as a historically reliable sources for the first century AH, deprives the historical study of early Islam of an important and a useful type of source."[2] Notes [1] "Scholar of Renown: Abd Al-Razzaq Al-Sanaani, Adil Salahi" (http:/ / www. aljazeerah. info/ Islam/ Islamic subjects/ 2004 subjects/ January/ Scholar of RenownAbd AlRazzaq AlSanaani, Adil Salahi. htm). . Retrieved 2010-06-13. [2] Motzki, H.; "The Musannaf Of `Abd al-Razzaq Al-San`ani As A Source of Authentic Ahadith of The First Century A.H.", Journal Of Near Eastern Studies, 1991, Volume 50, p. 21.
  • 49. Abd ar-Razzaq as-Sanani 47 ‘Abd ar-Razzaq as-San‘ani ‘Abd ar-Razzaq as-San‘ani Born [1] 126 AH /744 CE Died [1] 211 AH Shawwal Era Medieval era Region Yamani scholar School Sunni ‘Abd ar-Razzaq as-San‘ani (126 AH – 211 AH) was a Sunni Islamic scholar of the Science of hadith. Name ‘Abd al-Razzaq ibn Hammam ibn Nafi’ al-Sanani (prounounced as ‘Abd ar-Razzaq ibn Hammam ibn Nafi’ as-Sana’ni) Biography He lived in San‘a, the capital of Yemen. His pursuit of studies also included travels to Mecca, Medina, Syria and Iraq, where he studied under many scholars in all these cities. Scholasticism Imam Bukhari says: “When Abd Al-Razzaq reports hadiths reading from what he had written, then what he reports is more authentic.” This means that Al-Bukhari would accept hadiths reported by Abd Al-Razzaq as authentic when he is aware that he was reading from his book. If he was reporting from memory, then Al-Bukhari would want some corroboration to classify the reported hadith as authentic. Imam Ahmad says: “We visited Abd Al-Razzaq before the year 200, when he still enjoyed a good eyesight. Anyone who attended Abd Al-Razzaq’s circle after he had lost his eyesight may be classified as poor in authenticity.” Works • Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq • Tafsir book that was included in Mustadrak al-Hakem References [1]
  • 50. Sahih Ibn Hibbaan 48 Sahih Ibn Hibbaan Sahih Ibn Hibbaan Author(s) Muhammad ibn Hibban ibn Ahmad al-Tamimi al-Busti Language Arabic Subject(s) hadith Ṣaḥīḥ Ibn Ḥibbān (‫ )ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ‬is a collection of hadith by Sunni scholar Ibn Hibban. It has the distinction of being one of small number of collections intended by the respective authors to contain only authentic hadith. The author of this Sahih is Abu Hatim Muhammad ibn Hibban ibn Ahmad al-Tamimi al-Busti(ar), from Bust in Khorasan. He was a prominent Shafii hadith specialist and prolific author who died in 965 CE.[1] Overview The actual name of this collection is al-Taqasim wa al-Anwa`, however, it is commonly referred to as Sahih ibn Hibban. The author utilized an innovative method in the arrangement of this work as it is not arranged in topical chapters nor is it based upon a musnad arrangement and is therefore difficult to navigate.[1] Instead, it was arranged first by bab, or chapter, and then under each chapter, by naw`, or type. The book opens with a lengthy introduction.[2] The Sahih remains in its entirety as of the late Nineteenth Century or early Twentieth Century, according to al-Kattani, who died in 1926.[1] Authenticity According to al-Kattani, "it has been said that Ibn Hibban, after ibn Khuzaymah, authored the most authentic hadith collection, after Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim".[1] However, al-Suyuti spoke more definitively when saying that Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah was the most authentic collection after Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, followed by Sahih Ibn Hibban which, in turn, was more authentic than Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain.[3] This means that Sahih Ibn Hibban is the fourth most authentic hadith collection. Derivative Works al-Ihsan Ali ibn Balban (d. 739/1339) rearranged the hadith chapters of Sahih Ibn Hibban according to the topics of jurisprudence and published them as al-Ihsan fi Taqrib Sahih Ibn Hibban.[1] Mawarid al-Zaman The unique hadith it contains, those not found in either Sahih Bukhari or Sahih Muslim, are arranged in the order of jurisprudence headings in the book Mawarid al-Zaman ila Zawaid Ibn Hibban by Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Haythami (d. 807/1405).[1]
  • 51. Sahih Ibn Hibbaan 49 References [1] Al-Risalah al-Mustatrafah., by al-Kattani, pg. 20-1, Dar al-Bashair al-Islamiyyah, seventh edition, 2007. [2] Bustan al-Muhaddithin, by Abd al-Aziz al-Dihlawi, pg. 90, Dar al-Gharab al-Islami, Beirut, first edition, 2002. [3] Tadrib al-Rawi, vol. 1, pg. 148, Dar al-Asimah, Riyadh, first edition, 2003. Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain (Arabic: ‫ ;ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﻦ‬Al-Mustadrak ala al-Sahîhayn) is a five volume hadith collection written by Hakim al-Nishaburi d. 405H. History He wrote it in the year 393 AH (1002–1003 CE), when he was 72 years old. It contains 9045 hadith.[1] He claimed all hadith in it were authentic according to the conditions of either Sahih al-Bukhari or Sahih Muslim or both.[2] Authenticity The statement of authenticity was not accepted by a number of prominent later Sunni scholars. Al-Dhahabi, a 14th century Sunni Shafii Islamic scholar made an abridged version of the collection named Talkhis al-Mustadrak where he commented on its authenticity. It has become the habit of scholars today working in the field of hadîth, when compiling them and determining their authenticity, to say things like "It is authenticated by al-Hâkim and al-Dhahabî concurs". In doing so, they are referring to al-Dhahabis Talkhîs, his abridgement of the Mustadrak that is often published along with it in its margins.[3] Dhahabi also wrote:[4] The Mustadrak contains a good number of hadîth that conform to the conditions of authenticity of both (al-Bukhârî and Muslim) as well as a number of hadîth conforming to the conditions of either one of them. Perhaps the total number of such hadîth comprises half the book. There is roughly another quarter of the hadîth that have authentic chains of transmission, but that have something else about them or that have some defect. As for the rest, and that is about a fourth, they are rejected and spurious narrations that are unauthentic. Some of those are fabrications. I came to know of them when I prepared an abridgement of the Mustadrak and pointed them out. al-Dhahabi lamented: It would have been better if al-Hakim had never compiled it."[5] Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, a 15th century Sunni Islamic scholar states that Mawduat al-Kubra is as unreliable in its attributing the grade of being "forged" to certain ahadith as al-Hakims Mustadrak is unreliable in its declaring the grade of "sound" or Sahih to many ahadith.[6] Abridgment Talkhis al-Mustadrak is an abridged version of Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, written by Al-Dhahabi. al-Dhahabi in his Talkhis al-Mustadrak made an abridged version (a version with omitted material of the collection where he commented on its claimed authenticity). In that version, he added his comments on 1182 hadith. Al-Dhahabî in his encyclopedic Târikh al-Islam "The History of Islam" says the following in his biographical entry on al-Hâkim, wherein he speaks about his Mustadrak: "Some of those are fabrications. I came to know of them when I prepared an abridgement of the Mustadrak and pointed them out." al-Dhahabî said of it:[7] "|It is a useful book. I had made an abridgement of it that is in considerable need of work and editing."
  • 52. Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain 50 On at least three other occasions, al-Dhahabi citicised hadith he had not commented on in his Talkhîs. For example, when speaking about Mu`âwiyah b. Sâlih,[8] he writes: "He is among those narrators whom Muslim accepts but not al-Bukhârî. You can see al-Hâkim relating this narrators hadîth in his Mustadrak and say: This is according to the conditions of al-Bukhârî. He repeatedly makes this mistake." However, when the same statement comes up in his Talkhîs, he says nothing about it . There have been many prominent scholars who have assumed that al-Dhahabîs silence in his Talkhîs indicates his tacit approval of al-Hâkims ruling, scholars of the caliber of al-Suyuti in al-Nukat al-Badî`ât (197) (15th century CE), al-Manâwî in Fayd al-Qadîr, and al-Husaynî in al-Bayân wa al-Ta`rîf. Many contemporary scholars follow this view as well, but some question that stance. References [1] These figures are taken from the editorial introduction of Ibn al-Mulaqqins Mukhtasar Istidrâk al-Dhahabî, 8–9 (http:/ / www. islamtoday. net/ / english/ show_detail_section. cfm?q_id=839& main_cat_id=11) [2] arshad. "Major Collections of Hadith" (http:/ / members. cox. net/ arshad/ hadithcol. html). . Retrieved 2010-06-10. [3] "Al-Hakim’s Mustadrak & al-Dhahabî’s Talkhis" (http:/ / www. islamtoday. net/ english/ show_detail_section. cfm?q_id=839& main_cat_id=11). IslamToday. . [4] in his biographical encyclopedia entitled Siyar A`lâm al-Nubalâ "Biographies of Outstanding Personalities" (http:/ / www. islamtoday. net/ / english/ show_detail_section. cfm?q_id=839& main_cat_id=11) [5] "Al-Hakim Al-Naysaburi" (http:/ / www. sunnah. org/ history/ Scholars/ al_hakim_al_naysaburi. htm). Archived (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20100701190623/ http:/ / www. sunnah. org/ history/ Scholars/ al_hakim_al_naysaburi. htm) from the original on 1 July 2010. . Retrieved 2010-06-10. [6] stated in al-Qawl al-Musaddad fil-Dhabb `an Musnad al-Imam Ahmad (published by Shaykh Ahmad Shakir in his edition of the Musnad) (http:/ / www. livingislam. org/ n/ maq_e. html) [7] Siyar A`lâm al-Nubalâ (17/176) [8] Mîzân al-I`tidal (4/135)
  • 53. Hakim al-Nishaburi 51 Hakim al-Nishaburi Muslim scholar Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Hakim Nishapuri Title al-Hakim Born 933 (321 AH) Died 1012 (403 AH) Ethnicity Persian Maddhab Shafii Main interests Hadith Works Mustadrak al-Hakim Influenced [1] Imam al-Bayhaqi Abu Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn Abd-Allah al-Hakim al-Nishaburi (Arabic: ‫)ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﺭﻱ‬ (933 - 1012), and also known as Ibn Al-Baiyi.[2]) was a Sunni scholar and the leading traditionist of his age, frequently referred to as the "Imam of the Muhaddithin" or the "Muhaddith of Khorasan." Biography Al-Hakim, who hailed from Nishapur, had vast amounts of teachers[3] in Khurasan, Iraq, Transoxiana and elsewhere. He had scores of notable students, including Imam al-Bayhaqi[4] who was a scholarly giant in his own right. Al-Hakim gained a substantial reputation for writing Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain. He started writing al-Mustadrak in the year when he was 72 years old. Al-Hakim is quoted to have said: "I drank water from Zamzam and asked Allâh for excellence in writing books". Death On the 3rd of Safar 405 al-Hakim went into the bath, came out after bathing, said "Ah" and died wearing but a waist-cloth before he had time to put on a shirt. Later, one of al-Hakims students, Al-Hasan ibn Ash`ath al-Qurashî said: "I saw al-Hâkim in my dream riding a horse in a handsome appearance and saying: Salvation. I asked him: `Al-Hakim! In what? He replied: Writing hadith." [5] Legacy Shah Waliullah, a 18th century Sunni Islamic scholar stated [6]: A mujaddid appears at the end of every century: The mujaddid of the 1st century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah, Umar bin Abdul Aziz. The mujaddid of the 2nd century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah Muhammad Idrees Shafii. The mujaddid of the 3rd century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah Abu Hasan Ashari. The mujaddid of the 4th century was Abu Abdullah Hakim Nishapuri.
  • 54. Hakim al-Nishaburi 52 Criticism Al-Hakim drew criticism for mildly adhering to Shi`ism.[7] Ibn al-Subkî rejects the label of Shi`i as baseless because Ibn `Asakir includes al-Hakim among the Asharis, who consider the Shias as innovators. Yet this label is still branded as a blemish today at the hands of those who oppose his positions if they weaken theirs, and those who oppose him for being a follower of al-Ashari, or for being a Sufi. Others noted to al-Hakims sincerity in narrating hadith as the first hadith of Prophet Muhammad al-Hâkim narrated is: May Allah make radiant the face of one who heard one of my sayings and then carried it to others. It may be that one carries understanding without being a person of understanding; it may be that one carries understanding to someone who possesses more understanding than he. Works He authored the following works among others: • Al-Abwâb ("The Chapters") • Al-Amâlî ("The Dictations") • Amâlî al-`Ashiyyât ("Night Dictations") • Fadâil al-Shâfi`î ("The Immense Merits of al-Shâfi`î") • Fawâid al-Nusakh ("Benefits of the Copies") • Fawâid al-Khurâsâniyyîn ("Benefits of the People of Khurâsân") • Al-Iklîl fî Dalâil al-Nubuwwa ("The Diadem: The Marks of Prophethood") • Al-`Ilal ("The Defects of Hadîth") • Mâ Tafarrada bi Ikhrâjihi Kullu Wâhidin min al-Imâmayn ("Reports Found Only in al-Bukhârî or Only in Muslim") • Al-Madkhal ilâ `Ilm al-Sahîh ("Introduction to the Science of Sound Reports") • Ma`rifat Anwâ` `Ulûm al-Hadîth ("Knowledge of the Different Types of the Hadîth Sciences") • Al-Mustadrak `alâ al-Sahîhayn ("Supplement for What is Missing From al-Bukhârî and Muslim") • Muzakkâ al-Akhbâr ("Verified Reports") • Al-Sahîhân ("The Two Books of sahîh Hadîths") • Al-Talkhîs ("The Summary") • Tarâjim al-Musnad `alâ Shart al-Sahîhayn ("The Reports of Ahmads Musnad That Match the Criteria of the Two Books of Sahîh") • Tarâjim al-Shuyûkh ("Biographies of the Shaykhs") • Târîkh `Ulamâ Ahl Naysabûr ("History of the Scholars of Naysabûr") References [1] Constructive Critics, Ḥadīth Literature, and the Articulation of Sunnī Islam, By Scott C. Lucas,pg. 98 [2] Islamtoday.Com - Al-Hakim’s Mustadrak & al-Dhahabî’s Talkhis (http:/ / www. islamtoday. net/ / english/ show_detail_section. cfm?q_id=839& main_cat_id=11) [3] Brief Biographies of the Eminent Scholars of Hadeeth (http:/ / members. cox. net/ ameer1/ bioschol. html) [4] Constructive Critics, Ḥadīth Literature, and the Articulation of Sunnī Islam, by Scott C. Lucas, pg.98 [5] http:/ / www. livingislam. org/ n/ 6sch_e. html [6] Izalat al-Khafa p. 77 part 7 [7] Constructive Critics, Ḥadīth Literature, and the Articulation of Sunnī Islam, By Scott C. Lucas, pg.98.
  • 55. A Great Collection of Fabricated Traditions 53 A Great Collection of Fabricated Traditions A Great Collection of Fabricated Traditions, (Arabic: ‫ ;ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ‬Al-Mawdūāt al-Kubrā), is a collection of fabricated hadith collected by Abul-Faraj Ibn Al-Jawzi for criticism. Description The book consists of narrations, presented as hadith, declared fabricated by the author and then arranged by subject. Al-Mawduat has been described by Al-Nawawi as including many narrations, occupying approximately two volumes.[1] It consists of some 1847 narrations according to the numbering provided in the latest edition and is currently published in four volumes with ample footnotes providing additional information. Criticism Al-Nawawi criticized the book as containing many hadith which cannot properly be declared mawdo. Some of them are, according to Al-Suyuti, daif, hasan or even sahih.[1] Ahmad ibn Ali Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani contends, however, that the majority of the narrations in this book are, in fact, fabricated and that those narrations criticized as not actually being fabricated are very few in comparison.[1] References [1] Tadrib Al-Rawi by Al-Al-Suyuti, vol. 1, pgs. 471-2, Dar Al-Asimah edition.
  • 56. Abul-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi 54 Abul-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi Muslim scholar Abd al-Rahman ibn Ali ibn Muhammad Title Abul-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi Born AH 508 (1114/1115) Died [1] AH 597 (1200/1201) Ethnicity Arab Maddhab [2] Hanbali Main interests History, Tafsir, Hadith and Fiqh Works A Great Collection of Fabricated Traditions Influenced [2] Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi, d 600 AH [1] Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, d 654 AH [2] Ibn Qudama al-Maqdisi [3] Diya al-Din al-Maqdisi Abul-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi (508 AH-597 AH) from Bagdad was an Islamic scholar whose family traces their lineage back to that of Abu Bakr, the famous companion of the prophet Muhammad and first caliph. He belonged to the Hanbali school of jurisprudential thought. Etymology His full name was Abd al-Rahman ibn Ali ibn Muhammad (Arabic: ‫ )ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ibn `Ubayd Allah ibn `Abd Allah ibn Hammadi ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ja`far ibn `Abd Allah ibn al-Qasim ibn al-Nadr ibn al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn `Abd Allah ibn al-Faqih `Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Faqih al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr. Biography He was known for his works in exegesis of the Quran as well as his numerous hadith writings. One of the more famous of the latter is his "Tahqiq", a compendium of both the hadith evidences used by the Hanbali school of jurisprudential thought and a work of compartive law (Arabic: ‫ ﻓﻘﻪ‬Fiqh). He is said to have been a precocious child who allegedly made his first speech at the age of ten (attended by a crowd of 50,000), and authored his first book at the age of thirteen.[4] Theology Ibn al-Jawzi is famous for the theological stance that he took against other Hanbalites of the time, in particular Ibn al-Zaghuni and al-Qadi Abu Yala. He believed that these and other Hanbalites had gone to extremes in affirming Gods Attributes, so much so that he accused them of tarnishing the reputation of Hanbalites and making it synonymous with extreme anthropomorphism. Ibn al-Jawzi believed that Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal himself disapproved of such theology. Ibn al-Jawzis most famous work in this regard is his Daff Shubah al-Tashbih (also incorrectly printed under the title al-Baz al-Ashhab al-Munqaddu ala Mukhalifi al-Madhhab; note that the relationship of the recently printed Kitab Akhbar as-Sifat of Merlin Swartz to this work is still a question of debate). There is a recent translation of this work under the title of "Attributes of God [5]" published by Amal Press [6].
  • 57. Abul-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi 55 God is neither inside nor outside of the Universe Ibn Jawzi states, in As-Sifat, that God neither exists inside the world nor outside of it.[7] To him, "being inside or outside are concomitant of things located in space" i.e. what is outside or inside must be in a place, and, according to him, this is not applicable to God.[7] He writes: Both [being in a place and outside a place] along with movement, rest, and other accidents are constitutive of bodies ... The divine essence does not admit of any created entity [e.g. place] within it or inhering in it.[7] Works Ibn al-Jawzi is perhaps the most prolific author in Islamic history. Al-Dhahabi states: “I have not known anyone amongst the ‘ulama to have written as much as he (Ibn al-Jawzi) did.[2] Recently, Professor Abdul Hameed al-Aloojee, an Iraqee scholar conducted research on the extent of ibn al Jawzi’s works and wrote a reference work in which he listed Ibn al Jawzees’s works alphabetically, identifying the publishers and libraries where his unpublished manuscripts could be found. The number of Ibn al-Jawzi’s books reached a staggering total of 376 texts.[8] Somes even say that he is the author of more than 700 works.[9] • Al-Tahqiq (Arabic: ‫ )ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬mentioned above • A Great Collection of Fabricated Traditions (Al-Mawduat al-Kubra) (Arabic: ‫)ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ‬ • Al-Muntazam fi Tarikh al-Umam translates as: A categorical collection of the history of the nations (Arabic: ‫)ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺄﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ‬ • Provision of the journey(Arabic: ‫ ) ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺮ‬the second of his three works of exegesis on the Quran. The third in the series, entitled "al-Mughni fi al-Tafsir" (‫ )ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺮ‬is lost. The first has recently been published. Quranic Sciences • Al-Mughni fi al-Tafsir, 81 parts • Zad al-Masir fi ‘Ilm al-Tafsir, 4 volumes • Taysir al-Bayan fi Tafsir al-Quran • Tadhkirat al-Arib fi Tafsir al-Gharib • Gharib al-Gharib • Nuzhat al-‘Uyun al-Nawadhir fi al-Wujuh wa al-Nadha’ir • Al-Wujuh wa al-Nawadhir fi al-Wujuh wa al-Nadha’ir, a summary of Nuzhat al-‘Uyun al-Nawadhir • Al-Ishara ila al-Qira’at al-Mukhtara, 4 parts • Tadhkirat al-Mutanabbih fi ‘Uyun al-Mushtabih • Funun al-Afnan fi ‘Uyun ‘Ulum al-Quran • Ward al-Aghsan fi Funun al-Afnan • ‘Umdat al-Rasikh fi Ma’rifat al-Mansukh wa al-Nasikh, 5 parts • Al-Musaffa bi Akuffi Ahl al-Rusukh min ‘Ilm al-Nasikh wal-Mansukh
  • 58. Abul-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi 56 Theology • Muntaqad al-Mu’taqid • Minhaj al-Wusul ila ‘Ilm al-Usul, 5 parts • Bayan Ghaflat al-Qa’il bi Qidam Af’al al-‘Ibad • Ghawamidh al-Ilahiyat • Maslak al-‘Aql • Minhaj Ahl al-Isaba • Al-Sirr al-Masun • Daf’ Shubhat al-Tashbih, 4 parts • Al-Radd ‘Ala al-Muta’assib al-‘Anid • Kitab Akhbar as-Sifat [10] Front cover of Al-Radd ‘Ala al-Muta’assib al-‘Anid published by Dar ul Kutoob Al Ilmiyah. Traditions and Asceticism • Jami’ al-Asanid bi Alkhas al-Asanid • Al-Alqab • Al-Hada’iq, 34 parts • Manaqab Ameer ul Mumineen ‘Umar b. al-Khattab • Naqiy al-Naql, 5 parts • Fadha’il ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Aziz • Al-Mujtab • Fadha’il Sa’id b. al-Musayyab • Al-Nuzha, 2 parts • Fadha’il al-Hasan al-Basri • ‘Uyun al-Hikayat • Manaqib al-Fudhayl b. ‘Ayadh, 4 parts • Multaqat al-Hikayat, 13 parts • Manaqib Bishr al-Hafi, 7 parts • Irshad al-Muridin fi Hikayat al-Salaf al-Salihin • Manaqib Ibrahim b. Adham, 6 parts • Rawdhat al-Naqil • Manaqib Sufyan al-Thawri • Ghurar al-Athar, 30 parts • Manaqib Ahmad b. Hanbal • Al-Tahqiq fi Ahadith al-Ta’liq, 2 volumes (ISBN • Manaqib Ma’ruf al-Karkhi, 2 parts 977-5704-48-0) • Al-Madih, 7 parts • Manaqib Rabi’a al-‘Adawiyya • Al-Mawdhu’at min al-Ahadith al-Marfu’at, 2 volumes • Muthir al-‘Azm al-Sakin ila Ashraf al-Amakin (ISBN 977-5227-59-3) • Al-‘Ilal al-Mutanahiya fi al-Ahadith al-Wahiya, 2 • Safwat al-Safwa, 5 parts, abridgment of Hilyat al-Awliya’ by Abu Nu’aym volumes • Ikhbar Ahl al-Rusukh fi al-Fiqh wal-Tahdith bi • Minhaj al-Qasidin, 4 parts Miqdar al-Mansukh min al-Hadith (ISBN 977-14-2005-4) • Al-Sahm al-Musib, 2 parts • Al-Mukhtar min Akhbar al-Akhyar • Akhyar al-Dhakha’ir, 3 parts • Al-Qati’ li Muhal al-Lijaj bi Muhal al-Hallaj, a rebuttal against the supporters of al-Hallaj, the pantheist who was executed by the agreement of the jurists from four schools. • Al-Fawa’id ‘an al-Shuyukh, 60 parts • ‘Ujalat al-Muntadhar li Sharh Hal al-Khidhr
  • 59. Abul-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi 57 • Manaqib Ashab al-Hadith • Al-Nisa’ wa ma yata’alluq bi adabihin • Mawt al-Khidhr • ‘Ilm al-Hadith al-Manqul fi Anna Aba Bakr Amma al-Rasul • Mukhtasar Mawt al-Khidhr • Al-Jawhar • Al-Mashyikha • Al-Mughlaq • Al-Musalsalat • Al-Muhtasab fi al-Nasab • Tuhfat al-Tullab, 3 parts • Tanwir Mudlahim al-Sharaf History • Talqih Fuhum Ahl al-Athar fi ‘Uyun al-Tawarikh wa al-Siyar • Al-Muntazam fi Tarikh al-Muluk wal-Umam, 10 volumes • Shudhur al-‘Uqud fi Tarikh al-‘Uhud • Tara’if al-Dhara’if fi Tarikh al-Sawalif • Manaqib Baghdad • Al-Wafa bi Fadha’il al-Mustafa, biography of the Prophet, 2 volumes Fiqh • al-Insaf fi Masa’il al-Khilaf • Junnat al-Nadhir wa Jannat al-Nadhar • ‘Umad al-Dala’il fi Mushtahar al-Masa’il • Al-Mudhab fi al-Madhab • Masbuk al-Dhahab • Al-Nubdha • Al-‘Ibadat al-Khams • Asbab al-Hidaya li Arbab al-Bidaya • Kashf al-Dhulma ‘an al-Dhiya’ fi Radd Da’wa Ilkiya • Radd al-Lawm al-Dhaym fi Sawm Yawm al-Ghaym Art of Preaching (wa’dh) • al-Yawaqit fi al-Khutab • al-Muntakhab fi al-Nuwab • Muntakhab al-Muntakhab • Muntakhal al-Muntakhab • Nasim al-Riyadh • Al-Lu’lu’ • Kanz al-Mudhakkir • Al-Azaj • Al-Lata’if • Kunuz al-Rumuz • Al-Muqtabis • Zayn al-Qisas • Mawafiq al-Marafiq (ISBN 2-7451-3464-7) • Shahid wa Mashhud • Wasitat al-‘Uqud min Shahid wa Mashhud • Al-Lahab, 2 parts • Al-Mudhish
  • 60. Abul-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi 58 • Saba Najd • Muhadathat al-‘Aql • Laqt al-Juman • Al-Muq’ad al-Muqim • Iqadh al-Wasnan min al-Raqadat bi Ahwal al-Haywan wal-Nabat, 2 parts • Nakt al-Majalis al-Badriyya, 2 parts • Nuzhat al-Adib, 2 parts • Muntaha al-Muntaha • Tabsirat al-Mubtadi’, 20 parts • Al-Yaquta, 2 parts (ISBN 977-5141-49-4) • Tuhfat al-Wu’adh Various sciences • Dham al-Hawa, 2 volumes • Funun al-Albab • Sayd al-Khatir, 65 parts • Al-Dhurafa wal-Mutamajinin • Ihkam al-Ish’ar bi Ahkam al-Ash’ar, 20 parts • Manaqib Abi Bakr • Al-Qussas al-Mudhakkirin (Also available in English: A critical edition, annotated translation • Manaqib ‘Ali and introduction by Merlin L. Swartz ASIN: B0007KE23O) • Taqwim al-Lisan • Fadha’il al-‘Arab • Al-Adhkiya • Durrat al-Iklil fi al-Tarikh, 4 volumes • Al-Hamqa • Al-Amthal • Talbis Iblis, 2 volumes (A small part of the book has been translated and abridged into English • Al-Manfa’ah fi al-Madhahib al-Arba’ah, 2 by Dr. Bilal Philips) volumes • Laqt al-Manafi’ fi al-Tibb, 2 volumes • Al-Mukhtar min al-Ash’ar, 10 volumes • Al-Shayb al-Khidhab • Ru’us al-Qawarir, 2 volumes • A’mar al-A’yan • Al-Murtajal fi al-Wa’dh • Al-Thabat ‘ind al-Mamat, 2 parts • Dhakhirat al-Wa’idh, several volumes • Tanwir al-Ghabash fi Fadhl al-Sud wal-Habash, 2 parts • Al-Zajr al-Makhuf • Al-Hath ‘ala Hifdh al-‘Ilm wa Dhikr Kibar al-Huffadh • Al-Ins wal-Mahabba • Ashraf al-Mawali, 2 parts • Al-Mutrib al-Mulhib • I’lam al-Ahya bi Aghlat al-Ihya, a criticism of Ihya ‘Ulum al-Din by al-Ghazzali • Al-Zand al-Wariy fi al-Wa’dh al-Nasiriy, 2 parts • Tahrim al-Muhill al-Makruh • Al-Fakhir fi Ayyam al-Imam al-Nasir • Al-Misbah al-Mudhi’ li Dawlat al-Imam al-Mustadhi’ • Al-Majd al-Salahi • ‘Atf al-‘Ulama ‘ala al-Umara wal-Umara ‘ala al-‘Ulama • Lughat al-Fiqh, 2 parts • Al-Nasr ‘Ala Misr • ‘Aqd al-Khanasir fi Dhamm al-Khalifat al-Nasir • Al-Majd al-‘Adhudi • Dhamm ‘Abd al-Qadir, a censure of ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jaylani • Al-Fajr al-Nuri • Gharib al-Hadith • Manaqib al-Sitr al-Rafi’ • Mulah al-Ahadith, 2 parts • Ma Qultuhu min al-Ash’ar • Al-Fusul al-Wa’dhiya ‘ala Huruf al-Mu’jam • Al-Maqamat • Salwat al-Ahzan, 10 volumes • Min Rasa’ili • Al-Ma’shuq fil-Wa’dh • Al-Tibb al-Ruhani • Al-Majahlis al-Yusufiyya fil-Wa’dh • Bayan al-Khata wal-Sawab fi Ahadith Ibn Shihab, 16 parts • Al-Wa’dh al-Maqbari • Al-Baz al-Ashhab al-Munqadh ‘ala man Khalafa al-Madhab, a treatise in Fiqh, and not another • Qiyam al-Layl, 3 parts title of Daf’ Shubah al-Tashbih according to Ibn Rajab. • Al-Nur fi Fadha’il al-Ayyam wal-Shuhur • Al-Muhadatha
  • 61. Abul-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi 59 • Taqrib al-Tariq al-Ab’ad fi Fadha’il Maqbarat Ahmad • Al-Munaja • Manaqib al-Imam al-Shafi’i • Zahir al-Jawahir fil-Wa’dh, 4 parts • Al-‘Uzlah • Al-Nuhat al-Khawatim, 2 parts • Al-Riyadha • Al-Murtaqa li man Ittaqa • Minhaj al-Isaba fi Mahabat al-Sahaba • Hawashi ‘ala Sihah al-Jawhari • Mukhtasar Funun Ibn ‘Aqil, 10 odd volumes Notes [1] Robinson:2003:XV [2] IslamicAwakening.Com: Ibn al-Jawzi: A Lifetime of Dawah (http:/ / www. as-sahwah. com/ viewarticle. php?articleID=1277& ) [3] Ibn Al-Jawzi (http:/ / www. sunnah. org/ history/ Scholars/ ibn_aljawzi. htm) [4] Ibn al-Jawzi: A Lifetime of Dawah (http:/ / www. islamicawakening. com/ viewarticle. php?articleID=1277) [5] http:/ / www. amalpress. com/ index. php?l_dis=publications& det=full& id=18 [6] http:/ / www. amalpress. com/ [7] Swartz, Merlin. A Medieval Critique of Anthropomorphism. Brill, 2001, p.159 [8] http:/ / www. sunnahonline. com/ ilm/ seerah/ 0035. htm Ibn al-Jawzee [9] IBN AL-JAWZI (http:/ / www. sunnah. org/ history/ Scholars/ ibn_aljawzi. htm) [10] Swartz, Merlin. A Medieval Critque of Anthropomorphism. Brill, 2001 References • Robinson, Chase F. (2003), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-62936-5 External links • The Attributes of God ( Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Jawzi trans. Abdullah bin Hamid Ali published by Amal Press ( • The Most Comprehensive Biographical Note of Ibn al-Jawzi online ( Ibn_al-Jawzi) • Biography ( • (French) Importance of attachment to the Quran by Imam Ibn Al Jawzi ( article-l-attachement-au-qur-an-que-contiennent-les-coeurs-des-amoureux-d-allah-ibn-al-jawzi-46585345.html) • (French) Refutation of anthropomorphism by Imam Ibn Al Jawzi ( article-ibn-al-jawzi-expose-critique-et-refute-l-egarement-des-anthropomorphistes-hanbalites-59608673.html)
  • 62. Tahdhib al-Athar 60 Tahdhib al-Athar Tahdhīb al-Āthār (Arabic: ‫ )ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻝﺁﺛﺎﺭ‬is a collection of hadith by Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Al-Kattani described it as one of al-Tabaris amazing works, although, he did not complete it. Description Al-Tabari compiled this work as inclusive of hadith, an examination of their authenticity, and the explanation of each. He arranged his work according to the companion narrating it, beginning with Abu Bakr al-Siddiq.[1] He completed the hadith of the ten companions promised paradise, Ahl al-Bayt and their clients, as well as a large segment of `Abd Allah ibn `Abbass hadith.[1] Al-Tabari gathered those hadith he determined to be authentic from each of these companions and discussed the various routes of their individual hadith and any hidden defects.[1] He then discussed the understanding of each hadith, the differing opinions of the scholars and their rational, the definitions of any unusual terminology.[1] He died in 922 before completing it.[1] Al-Kattani praised Tahdhib as being from the authors amazing works.[1] References [1] al-Kattani, Muhammad ibn Jafar (2007) (in Arabic). al-Risalah al-Mustatrafah (Seventh ed.). Beirut: Dar al-Bashair al-Islamiyyah. p. 43.
  • 63. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari 61 Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari Born 838 (224AH) Amol, Tapuria, Iran Died 923 (310AH) Era Medieval era Region Medieval Islamic civilization School Jariri Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (Arabic: ‫ 013 – 422( )ﺃﺑﻮ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺮﻱ‬AH; 838–923 CE) was a prominent and influential scholar, historian and exegete of the Quran from Tabaristan, modern Mazandaran in Persia/Iran. His most influential and best known works are his Quranic commentary known as Tafsir al-Tabari and his historical chronicle Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk (History of the Prophets and Kings), often referred to Tarikh al-Tabari. Al-Tabari founded his own madhhab which is usually designated by the name Jariri. Biography Tabari was born in Amol, Tabaristan (some twenty kilometres south of the Caspian Sea) in the winter of 838–9.[1] He memorized the Quran at seven, was a qualified religious leader at eight and began to study the prophetic traditions at nine. He left home to study in A.H. 236[2] (850–1) when he was twelve. He retained close ties to his home town. He returned at least twice, the last time in A.H. 290 (903) when his outspokenness caused some uneasiness and led to his quick departure.[3] He first went to Ray (Rhages), where he remained for some five years.[4] A major teacher in Rayy was Abu Abdillah Muhammad ibn Humayd al-Razi, who had earlier taught in Baghdad but was now in his seventies.[5] Among other material, ibn Humayd taught Jarir Tabari the historical works of ibn Ishaq, especially al-Sirah, his life of Muhammad.[6] Tabari was thus introduced in youth to pre-Islamic and early Islamic history. Tabari quotes ibn Humayd frequently. We know little about Tabaris other teachers in Rayy.[7] Tabari then travelled to study in Baghdad under ibn Hanbal, who, however, had recently died (in late 855 or early 856).[8] Tabari possibly made a pilgrimage prior to his first arrival in Baghdad.[9] He left Baghdad probably in 242 A.H. (856–7)[10] to travel through the southern cities of Basra, Kufah and Wasit.[11] There he met a number of eminent and venerable scholars.[12] On his return to Baghdad, he took a tutoring position from the vizier Ubaydallah b. Yahya b. Khaqan.[13] This would have been before A.H. 244 (858) since the vizier was out of office and in exile from 244 to 248 (858-9 to 862).[14] There is an anecdote told that Tabari had agreed to tutor for ten dinars a month, but his teaching was so effective and the boys writing so impressive that the teacher was offered a tray of dinars and dirhams. The ever-ethical Tabari declined the offer saying he had undertaken to do his work at the specified amount and could not honourably take more.[15] This is one of a number of stories about him declining gifts or giving gifts of equal or greater amount in return.[16] In his late twenties he travelled to Syria, Palestine and Egypt.[17] In Beirut he made the highly significant connection of al-Abbas b. al-Walid b. Mazyad al-Udhri al-Bayruti (c.169-270/785-6 to 883–4). Al-Abbas instructed Tabari in the Syrian schools variant readings of the Quran and transmitted through his father al-Walid the legal views of al-Awzai, Beiruts prominent jurist from a century earlier.
  • 64. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari 62 Tabari arrived in Egypt in 253H (867),[18] and some time after 256/870 returned to Baghdad,[19] possibly making a pilgrimage on the way. If so, he did not stay long in the Hijaz. Tabari had a private income from his father while he was still living and then the inheritance.[20] He took money for teaching. He never took a government or a judicial position.[21] Tabari was some fifty years old when al-Mutadid became caliph. He was well past seventy in the year his History, as we know it, was published. During the intervening years, he was famous, if somewhat contrversial, personality. Among the figures of his age, he had access to sources of information equal to anyone, except, perhaps, those who were directly connected with decision making within the government. Most, if not all, the materials for the histories of al-Mutadid, al-Muktafi, and the early years of al-Muqtadir were collected by him about the time Quran Tabari the reported events took place. His accounts are as authentic as one can except from any pre-modern age.[22] Personal Characteristics He is described as having a dark complexion, large eyes and a long beard. He was tall and slender[23] and his hair and beard remained black until he was very old. He was attentive to his health, avoiding red meat, fats and other unhealthy foods. He was seldom sick before his last decade when he suffered from bouts of pleurisy. When he was ill, he treated himself )to the approval of physicians). He had a sense of humour, though serious subjects he treated seriously. He had studied poetry when young and enjoyed writing, reciting and participating in poetic exchanges. It is said that he was asked in Egypt about al-Tirimmah and was able to recite this seventh century poets work for Egyptians who had merely heard al-Tirimmahs name. He was witty and urbane, clean and well mannered.[24] He avoided coarse speech, instead displaying refined eloquence.[25] He had a good grounding in grammar, lexicography and philology. Such were considered essential for Quranic commentary. He knew Persian and was acquainted with the origins of various foreign loan words in Arabic from a number of other languages. Tabari never married.[26] There is a description of his normal day: rising early for prayer, studying till early afternoon, publicly praying the afternoon prayer, reciting Quran and teaching Quran, and then teaching law until late. He died in Baghdad on February 17, 923.[27]
  • 65. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari 63 Works Al-Tabari wrote history, theology and Quranic commentary. His legal writings were published first and then continued to appear throughout his life. Next were his commentaries on the Quran. Lastly, his history was published. Despite a style that makes it seem he drew largely on oral sources, written material (both published and unpublished) provided him with the bulk of his information. His biographers stress his reverence for scholarship and his keen intent to offer his readers hard fact. He did not hesitate to express his independent judgement (ijtihad).[28] He stated his assessment as to which of the sources he cited was accurate. This was more understandably an aspect of his theology than of his history. This does not mean he saw himself as innovative. On the contrary, he was very much opposed to religious innovation. The story goes that when he was near death ibn Kamil suggested he forgive his enemies. He said he was willing to do so, except for the person who had described him as an innovator.[29] In general Tabaris approach was conciliatory and moderate, seeking harmonious agreement between Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by Tabari conflicting opinions.[30] Initially he identified as a Shafiite in Fiqh law and Shafiites were happy to have him so considered. He was later seen as having established his own school. Although he had come to Baghdad in youth to study from Hanbal, he incurred the vehement wrath of the Hanbalites.[31] Tabaris madhhab is usually designated by the name Jariri after his patronymic.[32] However, in the keenly competitive atmosphere of the times, his school failed to endure.[33] While we still lack a satisfactory scholarly biography of this remarkable caliph, interested readers now have access to a meticulous and well-annotated translation of the sections from al-Tabaris chronicle, which constitute the most important primary source for the history of his reign. Anyone familiar with al-Tabarisc hronicle knows what a formidable challenge it poses for a translator, especially for one attempting to make it accessible to an audience that includes non-specialists. There is, first of all, the obstacle of al-Tabaris Arabic prose, which varies greatly in style and complexity according to the source he is using (and apparently quoting verbatim). The sections in the McAuliffe translation, drawn mostly from al-Madaini and Umar ibn Shabba, do not represent the most obscure passages to be found in al-Tabari, but they are nonetheless full of linguistic ambiguities and difficulties for the translator.[34] His wrote extensively; his voluminous corpus containing two main titles: • History of the Prophets and Kings – (Arabic: ‫ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻠﻮﻙ‬or Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk or Tarikh al-Tabari) The first of the two large works, generally known as the Annals (Arabic Tarikh al-Tabari). This is a universal history from the time of Quranic Creation to AD 915, and is renowned for its detail and accuracy concerning Muslim and Middle Eastern history. Tabaris work is one of the major primary source for historians. • The Commentary on the Quran – (Arabic: al-musamma Jami al-bayan fi tawil al-Quran, commonly called Tafsir al-Tabari) His second great work was the commentary on the Quran, (Arabic Tafsir al-Tabari), which was marked by the same fullness of detail as the Annals. Abul-Qaasim Ibn Aqil Al-Warraq (‫ )ﺭﺣﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‬says: " Imām Ibn Jarir (‫ )ﺭﺣﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‬once said to his students: “Are youll ready to write down my lesson on the Tafsir (commentary) of the entire Holy Quran?" They enquired as to how lengthy it would be. "30 000 pages"! he replied. They said: "This would take a
  • 66. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari 64 long time and cannot be completed in one lifetime. He therefore made it concise and kept it to 3000 pages (note, this was in reference to the old days when they used ink and hard-paper which was a bit long format today). It took him seven years to finish it from the year 283 till 290. It is said that it is the most voluminous Athari Tafsir (i.e., based on hadith not intellect) existent today so well received by the Ummah that it survived to this day intact due to its popularity and widely printed copies available worldwide. Scholars such as Baghawi and Suyuti used it largely. It was used in compiling the Tafsir ibn Kathir which is often referred to as Mukhtasar Tafsir at-Tabari. • Tahdhīb al-Athār (‫ )ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ‬was begun by Tabari. This was on the traditions transmitted from the Companions of Muhammad. It was not, however, completed. A persual of Tabari shows that in fact he relied on a variety of historians and other authors such as Abu Mihnaf, Sayf b. Umar, Ibn al-Kalbi, Awana b. al-Hakam, Nasr b. Muzahim, al-Madaini, Urwa b. al-Zubayr, al-Zuhri, Ibn Ishaq, Waqidi, Wahb b. Munabbih, Kab al-Ahbar, Ibn al-Matni, al Haggag b. al-Minhal, Hisham b. Urwa, al-Zubayr b. Bakkar and so forth, in addition to oral accounts that were circulating at the time. In recounting his history, Tabari used numerous channels to give accounts. These are both channels that are given by the same author in a work, such as for example three different accounts that start with the isnad al-Harita.[35] Texts Relating To Al-Tabari It is thus an extremely early witness to the recep tion of al-Tabarls text-indeed much earlier than the sources that are customarily pressed into service to improve our understanding of the Tarikh al-rusul wal-muluik, e.g., Miskawayh, Ibn Asakir, Ibn al-Athir, and Ibn Khallikan.7 Second, since al-Azdi was writing in the de cades following al-Tabarl, his Tarikh can say something about the reception of al-Tabaris Tarikh among those who immediately followed the great master. That al-Tabaris history was immensely significant we can all agree; but as to precisely how he became so signifi cant there is no clear consensus.8 Third-and returning to Forands insight-al-Azdi fre quently drew on the same authorities tapped by al-Tabari, but whose works are for the most part now lost, such as Abui Mashar (170/786), Abiu Mikhnaf (157/774), al-Haytham ibn Adi (207/822), al-Madalini (around 228/843), and Umar ibn Shabba (262/878).[36] In 78.29 the Quran says "each thing we enumerate as [or in] a kitab, " and al-Tabari appends to the verse by way of elaboration "its number, its amount, and its extent-the knowledge of (any) thing does not escape us" (XXX: 10). This might suggest that al- Tabari considered kitab merely as a metaphor for Allahs knowledge. However, from al-Tabaris comments elsewhere on Allahs knowledge it is quite evident that he is not speaking metaphorically. For example, in 35.11 where the Quran states that the length or shortness of a persons life is in a kitab is explained by al- Tabari as "it is in a kitab with Allah, written (maktab) which he computes and knows" (XXII: 71-2).8[37] Al-Tabari reports that al- Mahdi was just about to promote Harun as heir apparent ahead of Musa when he died, and adds by way of corroboration another report that al-Mahdi set off for Masabadhan in a great hurry.34 However, it may be doubted that al-Mahdi at the time shared the reporters subsequent knowledge of his imminent demise there, and none of the other reported circumstances of his death suggest that he was in a hurry to go anywhere. On the contrary, the sources in general make it clear that he had gone to Masabadhan for recreation, and they occasionally say so explicitly. Al-Tabari does say explicitly that envoys were sent to the provinces, where they obtained the oath of allegiance not only to al-Hadi as caliph but also to Harun as heir apparent (wall al-ahd).38 This was probably the first occasion on which Harfin was so acknowledged.39 Harin himself, with the advice of al-Rabic, sent out these envoys, and all of this must have been presented to his brother on his return as a fait accompli.[38] After so many exchanges of recrimination with his own men, and after various attempts to regroup what was becoming a progressively disorderly army, Ali is reported by Tabari in a most revealing passage to have explained his acceptance of the arbitration as such: "It is no sin but only a failure of judgment." Nothing sums up the moral and religious complexity of the situation better than this sentence. The group that made a big issue of Alis dilemma were the Kharijites, who for reasons of their own could see clearly the religious and political issues involved, who agreed neither with Ali nor with his opponent but were in turn incapable of administering a polity of their own. Tabaris
  • 67. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari 65 account also brings that out very clearly when he relates (p. 115) how the assembled Kharijites, who were quite willing to expound the reasons for their recession from Alis forces, would one by one refuse to take the leadership of their own group, a situation quite characteristic of religious purists when confronted with "dirty" politics.[39] Realistic depictions alternate with formalized and archetypal narrative. Tabari is careful to give his reports of these conquests a religious frame (expressions such as "Nuaym wrote to Umar about the victory that God had given him" [pp. 25–26] abound), though it is worth noting that Tabari describes the initiation of the campaign in pragmatic rather than ideological terms. He states that cUmars decision to invade came as a result of his realization "that Yazdajird was making war on him every year and when it was suggested to him that he would continue to do this until he was driven out of his kingdom" (p. 2). The religious frame in Tabaris account is therefore not inflexible or exclusive.[40] References [1] Franz Rosenthal, trans., The History of al-Ţabarī (State University of New York Press, 1989), Volume 1, pp. 10-11 [2] Rosenthal, pp. 15–16 [3] Rosenthal, p. 11 [4] Rosenthal, p. 16 [5] Rosenthal, p. 17 [6] Rosenthal, p. 18 [7] Rosenthal, p. 17 [8] Rosenthal, p. 19 [9] Rosenthal, p. 19 [10] Rosenthal, p. 20 [11] Rosenthal, p. 19 [12] Rosenthal, p. 20 [13] Rosenthal, p. 21 [14] Rosenthal, p. 21 [15] Rosenthal, p. 22 [16] Rosenthal, p. 22 [17] Rosenthal, p. 23 [18] Rosenthal, p. 27 [19] Rosenthal, p. 31 [20] Rosenthal, p. 14 [21] Rosenthal, p. 36 [22] Saliba, George. The History of Al-Ṭabarī = Taʻrīkh Al-rusul Waʻl-mulūk. Vol. XXXVIII. New York: State University of New York, 1985. Print. [23] Rosenthal, p. 40 [24] Rosenthal, p. 41 [25] Rosenthal, p. 4o [26] Rosenthal, p. 33 [27] Rosenthal, p. 78 [28] Rosenthal, p. 55 [29] Rosenthal, p. 61 [30] Rosenthal, p. 56 [31] Rosenthal, p. 63 [32] Rosenthal, p. 64 [33] Rosenthal, p. 66 [34] The History of al-Tabari (Tarikh al-Rusul Walmuluk). Vol. XXVIII: Abbasid Authority Affirmed, the Early Years of al-Mansur A.D. 753-763/A.H. 136-145 by Al-Tabari (Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Jarir); Jane Dammen McAuliffe Review by: Elton L. Daniel International Journal of Middle East Studies , Vol. 29, No. 2 (May, 1997), pp. 287-289 Published by: Cambridge University Press Article Stable URL: http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 164026 [35] Osman, Ghada. "ORAL VS. WRITTEN TRANSMISSION: THE CASE OF ṬABARĪ AND IBN SAʿD." Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 15 May 2012. [36] A Local Historians Debt to al-Ṭabarī: The Case of al-Azdīs "Tarīkh al-Mawṣil" Chase F. Robinson Journal of the American Oriental Society , Vol. 126, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 2006), pp. 521-535 Published by: American Oriental Society Article Stable URL: http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 20064541.
  • 68. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari 66 [37] Ṭabarīs Exegesis of the Qurānic Term al-Kitāb Herbert Berg Journal of the American Academy of Religion , Vol. 63, No. 4 (Winter, 1995), pp. 761-774 Published by: Oxford University Press Article Stable URL: http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 1465467 [38] The Succession to the Caliph Mūsā al-Hādī Richard Kimber Journal of the American Oriental Society , Vol. 121, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 2001), pp. 428-448 Published by: American Oriental Society Article Stable URL: http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 606671 [39] Tarikh al-Rusul Wa-l-Muluk (History of Prophets and Kings), the History of al-Tabari, vol. XVII, the First Civil War by Abu Jafar Jarir Ibn Muhammad al-Tabari; G. R. Hawting Review by: George Saliba International Journal of Middle East Studies , Vol. 30, No. 1 (Feb., 1998), pp. 125-127 Published by: Cambridge University Press Article Stable URL: http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 164211 [40] The History of al-Tabari (Tarikh al-Rusul Wal-Muluk). Vol. XIV: The Conquest of Iran by Al-Tabari; G. Rex Smith Review by: Hassan I. Mneimneh International Journal of Middle East Studies , Vol. 28, No. 2 (May, 1996), pp. 262-264 Published by: Cambridge University Press Article Stable URL: http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 176433 Bibliography • Bosworth, C.E., "Al-Tabari, Abu Djafar Muhammad b. Djarir b. Yazid" in P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs et al., Encyclopædia of Islam, 2nd Edition. (Leiden: E. J. Brill) 12 Vols. published between 1960 and 2005. • Ehsan Yar-Shater, ed., The History of al-Ţabarī (State University of New York Press) 40 Vols. published between 1989 and 2007 ISBN 0-88706-563-5. • Rosenthal, Franz, trans., The History of al-Ţabarī (State University of New York Press, 1989), Volume 1. External links • Biographical Data: Abu Jaffar Tabari ( php?id=114),, retrieved 2008-09-15 • Imām Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Jarīr At-Tabarī (‫( )ﺭﺣﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‬ 1427rtabri.htm) Riyadh as-Saaliheen Riyadh as-Saaliheen (‫ ,)ﺭﻳﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻟﺤﻴﻦ‬translated: "The Gardens of the Righteous", is a compilation of verses from the Quran and hadith by Yahiya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi. Description In total, it contains 1896 hadith divided into 372 chapters, many of which are introduced by verses of the Quran. Almost all of the hadith in Riyadh as-Saaliheen is authentic,[1] it contains most of the strong hadith from Al-Bukhari and Muslim and is well regarded by the scholars of hadith.
  • 69. Riyadh as-Saaliheen 67 Explanation Books of commentary on the hadith in Riyadh as-Saaliheen have been written, including the most recent, by Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen d. 1421H. [2] References [1] Daif Hadith of al-Nawawis Riyadh al-Saliheen (http:/ / abdurrahman. org/ index. html), according to the checking of Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani [2] Ibn Farooqs Book Review of » Riyādh us Sāliheen (http:/ / ibnfarooq. com/ riyadhUsSaliheen. html) External links • English Translation with short commentary ( pdf) • Book review of Riyadh as Saliheen ( • Entire MP3 Recording of Riyaadhus Saaliheen ( • English Translation with short commentary by Salahuddin Yusuf ( hadeeth/riyad/) published Originally by Darussalam • Riyad as-Salihin (The Meadows of the Righteous) by Al-Imam Abu Zakariya Yahya bin Sharaf An-Nawawi Ad-Dimashqi Online ( • Complete Riyad-us Saliheen in Arabic and English ( chapter_display.php) • English Translation by Aisha Bewley ( • Urdu Translation by Shaykh-Shamsuddin vol-1 ( Riaz-Us-Saliheen-Vol-1-Urdu-Tarjamah-by-Shaykh-Shamsuddin) • Urdu Translation by Shaykh-Shamsuddin vol-2 ( Riaz-Us-Saliheen-Vol-2-Urdu-Tarjamah-by-Shaykh-Shamsuddin)
  • 70. Al-Nawawi 68 Al-Nawawi Yahya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi Born 631 AH/1234 CE Died [1] 676 AH /1278 CE Era Medieval era Region Damascus School Shafii Abu Zakaria Mohiuddin Yahya Ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi (1234–1278) (Arabic: ‫ ,)ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﻳﺤﻴﻰ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ‬popularly known as al-Nawawi, an-Nawawi or Imam Nawawi (631–676 A.H. / 1234–1278 CE), was a Sunni Muslim author on Fiqh and hadith.[2] His position on legal matters is considered the authoritative one in the Shafii Madhhab. He was born at Nawa near Damascus, Syria. As with many Arabic and Semitic names, the last part of his name refers to his hometown. He studied in Damascus from the age of 18 and after making the pilgrimage in 1253 he settled there as a private scholar. From a young age he showed signs of great intelligence, and so his father paid for a good education. As a judge, he was much sought after for advice and adjudication of disputes. During his life of 45 years[3] he wrote many books on Islamic studies and other topics. He collected and sourced 40 hadith of the Islamic prophet, Mohammed back to one of his companions.[4] In 1267 he succeeded Abu Shama as professor of hadith at the Ashrafiyya [school] in the city. He died at Nawa at a relatively young age, having never married. Birth and Birth place The complete name of Imam Nawawi is Abu Zakaria Mohiuddin Yahya, son of Sharaf AnÄNawawi, son of Murry, son of Hassan, son of Hussain, son of Muhammad, son of Juma, son of Hazam. Nawawi refers to Nawa, a place near Damascus, in the suburb of the city of Howran. One of his ancestors named Hazam had settled at this place. Imam Nawawi was born at Nawa in the year 631 A.H. His father, a virtuous and pious man, resolved to arrange for proper and befitting education as he had discovered the symptoms of heavenly intelligence and wisdom in his promising child at an early stage. Shaikh Yasin bin Yousuf Marakashi, a saintly figure of Nawa says: "I saw Imam Nawawi at Nawa when he was a youth of ten years of age. Other boys of his age used to force him to play with them, but Imam Nawawi would always avoid the play and would remain busy with the recitation of the Noble Quran. When they tried to domineer and insisted on his joining their games, he bewailed and expressed his no concern over their foolish action. On observing his sagacity and profundity, a special love and affection developed in my heart for young Nawawi. I approached his teacher and urged him to take exceptional care of this lad as he was to become a great religious scholar and most pious saint of future. His teacher asked whether I was a soothsayer or an astrologer. I told him I am neither soothsayer nor an astrologer but Allah caused me to utter these words." His teacher conveyed this incident to Imams father and he keeping in view the learning quest of his son, decided to dedicate the life of his son for the service and promotion of the cause of Islamic Faith. In a short period, Nawawi learnt to read the Holy Quran and by that time he nearly had attained puberty. Nawa had no academic or scholarly atmosphere and there were no religious academies or institutes where one could earn excellence in religious learning, so his father took him to Damascus, which was considered the center of learning and scholarship, and the students from far and wide gathered there for schooling. During that period, there were more than three hundred institutes, colleges and universities in Damascus.
  • 71. Al-Nawawi 69 Imam Nawawi joined Madrasah Rawahiyah which was affiliated with the Ummvi University. The founder and patron of this Madrasah was a trader named Zakiuddin Abul-Qassim who was known as Ibn Rawahah. Madrasah was named after him. Noted and eminent teachers of the period taught in that Madrasah. Imam Nawawi says, "I studied in this institution for two years. During my stay in Madrasah Rawahiyah, I never had complete rest and lived on the limited food supplied by the institution." As a routine he used to sleep very little at night. When it became irresistible as a human being, he would lean and slumber for a while against the support of books. After a short duration he would again be hard at his scholastic pursuits. His Teachers & Guides During his stay at Damascus, he studied from more than twenty celebrated teachers. These teachers were regarded as masters and authority of their subject field and disciplines they taught. Imam studied Hadith, Islamic Jurisprudence, its principles, syntax and Etymology fromgreat scholars of his time. Abu Ibrahim Ishaq bin Ahmad AI-Maghribi, Abu Muhammad Abdur-Rahman bin Ibrahim Al-Fazari, Radiyuddin Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Abu Hafs Umar bin Mudar Al-Mudari, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Isa Al-Muradi, Abul-Baqa Khalid bin Yusuf An-Nablusi, Abul-Abbas Ahmad bin Salim Al-Misri, Abu Abdullah Al-Jiyani, Abul-Fath Umar bin Bandar, Abu Muhammad At-Tanukhi, Sharafuddin Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad Al-Ansari, Abul-Faraj Abdur-Rahman bin Muhammad bin Ahmad Al-Maqdisi, Abul-Fadail Sallar bin Al-Hasan Al Arbali etc. There were hundreds of Imams students, among them some notables are: Alauddin bin Attar, Ibn Abbas Ahmad bin Ibrahim, Abul-Abbas Al-Jafari, Abul-Abbas Ahmad bin Farah, Rashid Ismail bin Muallim Al-Hanafi, Abu Abdullah Al-Hanbali, AbulAbbas Al-Wasti, Jamaluddin Sulaiman bin Omar Az-Zari, AbulFaraj Abdur-Rahman bin Muhammad bin Abdul-Hamid AlMaqdisi, Badr Muhammad bin Ibrahim, Shamsuddin Muhammad bin Abu Bakr, Ash-Shihab Muhammad bin Abdul-Khaliq, Hibatullah Al-Barizi, Abul-Hajjaj Yusuf bin Az-Zaki etc. His Desire and Crave for Learning Imam Nawawi had endless thirst for knowledge, and it can be guessed from his daily practice of studies. He used to read daily twelve lessons and write explanation and commentary of every lesson and also made important additions. Whatever the book he read, he put down the marginal notes and explanations on that book. His intelligence, hard work, love, devotion and absorption in his-studies amazed his teachers and they became fond of him and began to praise and admire him. According to Imam Dhahabi, Imam Nawawis concentration and absorption in academic love gained proverbial fame. He had devoted all his time for learning and scholarship. Other than reading and writing, he spent his time contemplating on the interacted and complex issues and in finding their solutions. Allah had also conferred upon him the gift of fast memory and depth of thought, and he who makes the right use of this boon, there remains no doubt in his sagacity and discernment. Imam Nawawi made full benefit of his God given qualities and potentialities and earned the highest degree of honor. Imams Simplicity and Niceness of Manners The learned persons, elite of the society and the public greatly respected the Imam on account of his piety, learning and excellent character. He used simple dress and ate simple food. Devout scholars do not care about worldly chattels, they give preference to religious and academic pursuits, propagation of Faith etc. They experience more heavenly delight and joy in such activities than those who seek satisfaction in luxurious foods, precious clothes and other worldly things. Imam Nawawi had a prominent place among the erudite notables of his age. He was a God-fearing person with illustrious and glorious aims regarding propagation of Faith. Celebrated Sheikh Mohiuddin expresses his impression about Imam Nawawi as thus: Imaam an-Nawawi had three distinctive commendable qualities in his person. If anybody has only one out of these three, people turn to him in abundance for guidance. First, having knowledge and its
  • 72. Al-Nawawi 70 dissemination. Second, to evade completely from the worldly inclinations, and the third, inviting to all that is good (Islam) enjoining virtue and forbidding vice. Imaam an-Nawawi had all three in him. Shia Muslims have a sympathetic view of him. They regard some of his works favourably and have translated some into Persian. Works • Al Minhaj bi Sharh Sahih Muslim ‫ ,ﺷﺮﺡ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬making use of others before him, and is considered one of the best commentaries on Sahih Muslim. It is available online [5]. • Riyadh as-Saaliheen ‫ ,ﺭﻳﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻟﺤﻴﻦ‬is a collection of hadith on ethics, manners, conduct, and is very popular in the Muslim world today. • al-Majmu sharh al-Muhadhdhab ‫ ,ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺬﺏ‬is a comprehensive manual of Islamic law according to the Shafii school has been edited with French translation by van den Bergh, 2 vols., Batavia (1882–1884), and published at Cairo (1888). • Minhaj al-Talibin ‫ ,ﻣﻨﻬﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺒﻴﻦ ﻭﻋﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‬a classical manual on Islamic Law according to Shafii fiqh. • Tahdhib al-Asma wal-Lughat ‫ ,ﺗﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎء‬has been edited as the Biographical Dictionary of Illustrious Men chiefly at the Beginning of Islam by F. Wüstenfeld (Göttingen, 1842–1847). • Taqrib al-Taisir ‫ ,ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻴﺴﻴﺮ ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﻳﺮ‬an introduction to the study of hadith, it is an extension of Ibn al-Salahs Muqaddimah, was published at Cairo, 1890, with Suyutis commentary "Tadrib al-Rawi". It has been in part translated into French by W. Marçais in the Journal asiatique, series ix., vols. 16–18 (1900–1901). • Forty Hadiths ‫ ,ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻳﺔ‬collection of the forty (actually forty-two) chief traditions has been frequently published along with numerous commentaries. • Ma Tamas ilayhi hajat al-Qari li Saheeh al-Bukhaari ‫,ﻣﺎ ﺗﻤﺲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻱ ﻟﺼـﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒـﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬ • Tahrir al-Tanbih ‫,ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ‬ • Kitab al-Adhkar ‫ ,ﺍﻷﺫﻛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺨﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﺑﺮﺍﺭ‬is a collection of supplications of prophet Muhammad. • al-Tibyan fi adab Hamalat al-Quran ‫,ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺁﺩﺍﺏ ﺣﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‬ • Adab al-fatwa wa al-Mufti wa al-Mustafti ‫,ﺁﺩﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﺘﻲ‬ • al-Tarkhis fi al-Qiyam ‫,ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﻟﺬﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‬ • Manasik ‫ ,ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﻹﻳﻀﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﻚ‬on Hajj rituals. • Sharh Sunan Abu Dawood • Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari • Mukhtasar at-Tirmidhi • Tabaqat ash-Shafiiyah • Rawdhat al-Talibeen • Bustan al-`arifin
  • 73. Al-Nawawi 71 Recent English Language Editions • Bustan al-`arifin (The Garden of Gnostics), Translated by Aisha Bewley Minhaj Et-Talibin • Minhaj et talibin: A Manual of Muhammadan Law ; According To The School of Shafi, Law Publishing Co (1977) ASIN B0006D2W9I • Minhaj et talibin: A Manual of Muhammadan Law ; According To The School of Shafi, Navrang (1992) ISBN 81-7013-097-2 • Minhaj Et Talibin: A Manual of Muhammadan Law, Adam Publishers (2005) ISBN 81-7435-249-X The Forty Hadith • The Compendium of Knowledge and Wisdom; Translation of Jami Uloom wal-Hikam by Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali translated by Abdassamad Clarke, Turath Publishing (2007) ISBN 0-9547380-2-0 • Al-Nawawi Forty Hadiths and Commentary; Translated by Arabic Virtual Translation Center; (2010) ISBN 978-1-4563-6735-0 • Ibn-Daqiq’s Commentary on the Nawawi Forty Hadiths; Translated by Arabic Virtual Translation Center; (2011) ISBN 1-4565-8325-5 • Al-Nawawis Forty Hadith, Translated by Ezzeddin Ibrahim, Islamic Texts Society; New edition (1997) ISBN 0-946621-65-9 • The Forty Hadith of al-Imam al-Nawawi, Abul-Qasim Publishing House (1999) ISBN 9960-792-76-5 • The Complete Forty Hadith, Ta-Ha Publishers (2000) ISBN 1-84200-013-6 • The Arbaeen 40 AHadith of Imam Nawawi with Commentary, Darul Ishaat • Commentary on the Forty Hadith of Al-Nawawi (3 Vols.), by Jamaal Al-Din M. Zarabozo, Al-Basheer (1999) ISBN 1-891540-04-1 Riyadh As-Salihin • Gardens of the righteous: Riyadh as-Salihin of Imam Nawawi, Rowman and Littlefield (1975) ISBN 0-87471-650-0 • Riyad-us-Salihin: Garden of the Righteous, Dar Al-Kotob Al-Ilmiyah • Riyadh-us-Saliheen (Vol. 1&2 in One Book) (Arabic-English) Dar Ahya Us-Sunnah Al Nabawiya References [1] Kitaabun – Classical and Contemporary Muslim and Islamic Books: What Everyone Needs to Know About Islam: Esposito, John L OXFORD (http:/ / kitaabun. com/ shopping3/ product_info. php?products_id=1445) [2] A Short Biography of Imaam an-Nawawi (http:/ / www. islaam. net/ main/ display_article_printview. php?id=244), The Islamic Network [3] an-Nawawi and his works (http:/ / www. islaam. net/ 40hadeeth/ nawawi. html) – The Islamic Network [4] An-Nawawis Forty Hadiths (http:/ / www. isna. net/ services/ library/ hadith/ hadithnabawi. html) -Translation of Imam An-Nawawis Book [5] http:/ / hadith. al-islam. com/ Display/ Hier. asp?Doc=1& n=0 phinj • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • 74. Al-Nawawi 72 External links • A short bio on Imam Nawawi ( • An-Nawawis Forty Hadiths ( Masabih al-Sunnah Masabih al-Sunnah is a collection of hadith by the Persian Shafii scholar Abu Muhammad al-Husayn ibn Masud ibn Mubammad al-Farra al-Baghawi, from sometime before 516 H. An improved version of this work, Mishkat al-Masabih, has additional hadith, and was the work of another Persian traditionist Al-Tabrizi d. 741H. Description The collection is divided into a number of books which are divided into chapters which are further divided into two separate sections, one for Sahih ahadeeth as labeled by him ( from the collections of Bukhari and Muslim), the second section was for hasan ahadeeth according to his own labelling (from Al-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud and others). Al-Tabrizi would alter certain ahadeeth positions in his own collection. Features of the Collection • Al-Baghawi omitted the isnads of these ahadeeth but kept the names of the Sahaba to whom the ahadith were traced. • Part of his purpose, as explained in the introduction, was to enlighten Muslims about certain things of which the Quran is silent. • Contains a grand total of 4434 ahadeeth. • 2434 are from Sahih section: 325 Sahih Bukhari Only 875 Sahih Muslim Only 1234 from both Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim • Al-Baghawi tells which ahadeeth from the second section of his work are gharib and daif • A number of commentaries were made on this collection. Tuhfat Al-Abrar, Al-Maysir and the commentary by Abd al-Qadir ibn Abd Allah al-Suhrawardi. References • Bysiness.Co.Uk [1] • 1568 books obtained by Melvyl, the on line catalog of the University of California library system. [2] [1] http:/ / www. bysiness. co. uk/ Classical_Other/ classicb. htm [2] http:/ / www-personal. umich. edu/ ~beh/ islam_hadith_melv. html
  • 75. Al-Baghawi 73 Al-Baghawi Muslim scholar Al-Baghawi Title Rukn al-Dīn Muhyi al-Sunnah Born 433 AH or 436 AH Died 516 AH Maddhab Shafii Main interests Tafsir, Hadith, Fiqh Works Tafsir al-Baghawi Abu Muhammad al-Husayn ibn Masud ibn Muhammad al-Farra al-Baghawi (Persian/Arabic:‫ﺍﺑﻮﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺣﺴﯿﻦ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ ,)ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺑﻐﻮﯼ‬born 433 AH[1] or 436 AH[2] - 1122 CE/516 AH) was a renowned Persian Muslim Mufassir, hadith scholar and a Shafi`i faqih best known for his major work Tafsir al-Baghawi. Al-Farra was in reference to trading with fur, and al-Baghawi was a reference to his hometown Bagh or Baghshûr (then in Persia) between Herat and Marw ar-Rud. He died in Marw ar-Rud. He is also famous for his other works on hadith such as Sharḥ al-sunnah and Masabih al-Sunnah, the latter became famous as Mishkat al-Masabih with the additions of al-Tabrizi (d. 741H). He was a student of al-Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Marwa al-Rudi. Works • Tafsīr al-Baghawī : al-musammá : maʻālim al-tanzīl (‫)ﻣﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ : ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﻰ : ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻮﻱ‬ • Al-Tahdhīb fī fiqh al-imām al-Shāfiʻī (‫)ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‬ • Sharḥ al-sunnah (‫)ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ • Masabih al-Sunnah (‫)ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ • Al-Anwār fī shamāʼil al-Nabī al-Mukhtār (‫) ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻤﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬ • Al-Jamʻ bayna al-Ṣaḥīḥayn (‫)ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﻦ‬ • Al-Arbaʻīn ḥadīthan (ً‫)ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﻴﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎ‬ • Majmūʻah min al-fatāwā (‫)ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ‬ References [1] Al-Ḥamawī, Yāqūt ibn ʻAbd Allāh. Muʻjam al-buldān. [2] Ziriklī, Khayr al-Dīn. Tartīb al-aʻlām ʻalá al-aʻwām : al-aʻlām.
  • 76. Majma al-Zawaid 74 Majma al-Zawaid Majma al-Zawaid wa Manba al-Fawaid Author(s) Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Haythami Language Arabic Subject(s) hadith Majma al-Zawaid wa Manba al-Fawaid (Arabic: ‫ )ﻣﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﻳﺪ ﻭﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﻳﺪ‬is a secondary hadith collection written by Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Haythami (1335—1404 CE/735—807 AH). It compiles the unique hadith of earlier primary collections Description Al-Zawaid As the centuries passed, some authors began to compile secondary collections of hadith derived from the primary collections – those with isnads connecting those hadith they contain to their sources. One method of composition of these works was al-zawaid, the extraction of any unique hadith found in one collection but not in another. Most commonly, the hadith of one collection would be extracted that were not found in six canonical hadith collections.[1] Majma al-Zawaid Majma al-Zawaid is a prominent example of the al-zawaid methodology of hadith compilation. It contains hadith extracted from Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, the Musnad by Abu Yala al-Mawsili, the Musnad of Abu Bakr al-Bazzar, and three of al-Tabaranis collections: Al-Mujam al-Kabir, Al-Mujam Al-Awsat and Al-Mujam As-Saghir. The hadith gathered by al-Haythami are those not found in the six canonical hadith collections: Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan al-Sughra, Sunan Abu Dawood, Sunan al-Tirmidhi and Sunan Ibn Majah. It is considered secondary because it was collected from previous hadith collections and does not include the isnad of the hadith. In spite of the fact that its source books are primarily arranged as musnads, Majma al-Zawaid is arranged in the manner of a sunan collection – by topical chapter titles relating to jurisprudence.[1] The author provides commentary on the authenticity of each hadith and evaluates some of the narrators.[2] He is, however, considered to have been somewhat lenient in his rulings upon the hadith he graded.[1] Praise Al-Kattani described al-Majma al-Zawaid as being "from the most beneficial books of hadith, or rather, there is no book comparable to it and an equivalent has yet to be authored."[2] Origins Majma al-Zawaid combines several earlier works of the author. Those works are: 1. Ghayah al-Maqsad fi Zawaid al-Musnad: the zawaid of Musnad Ahmad, a subject suggested to him by his teacher, Abd al-Rahim ibn al-Husain al-Iraqi; 2. Al-Bahr al-Zakhkhar fi Zawaid Musnad al-Bazzar: the zawaid of the Musnad of al-Bazzar; 3. The zawaid of the Musnad of Abu Yala al-Mawsili; 4. Al-Badr al-Munir fi Zawaid al-Mujam al-Kabeer: the zawaid of al-Tabaranis Al-Mujam al-Kabir;
  • 77. Majma al-Zawaid 75 5. Majma al-Bahrain fi Zawaid al-Mujamain: the zawaid of al-Tabaranis al-Mujam al-Awsat and al-Mujam al-Saghir.[2] Published editions • Printed in Cairo 1352–1353 AH/1933-1934 CE. • Printed by Muassash al-Maarif in Beirut in 1986 in a total of 10 sections in 5 volumes – 2 sections per volume. It includes the editing of al-Iraqi and Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani. References [1] Buhuth fi Tarikh al-Sunnah al-Musharrafah, by Diya Ikram al-Umari, pg. 366-7, Maktabah al-Ulum wa al-Hikam, Madinah, Saudi Arabia, fifth edition, 1994. [2] al-Risalah al-Mustatrafah, by al-Kattani, pg. 171-2, Dar al-Bashair al-Islamiyyah, seventh edition, 2007. Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Haythami Nur al-Din `Ali ibn Abi Bakr ibn Sulayman, Abu al-Hasan al-Haythami (735AH 1335 – 807AH 1404) was a Sunni Shafi`i Islamic scholar from Cairo, whose father had a shop on a desert road. He was born in the month of Rajab in 735 H. corresponding to 1335 CE. He learned the Quran and memorized it, and when he was a teenager, he became a disciple of a highly renowned scholar of Hadith, Abd Al-Raheem ibn Al-Hussain ibn Abd Al-Rahman, who was better known as Zain Al-Deen Al-Iraqi. Al-Haythami became a committed associate of Al-Iraqi, staying with him all the time, traveling with him when he traveled, and offering the pilgrimage in his company. He attended with him every circle he attended in Cairo, other cities in Egypt, Makkah, Madinah, Jerusalem, Damascus, Baalbak, Aleppo and other places. The only teacher under whom Al-Haythami read, without being attended by Al-Iraqi, was Ibn Abd Al-Hadi, from whom he heard the Sahih collection of Imam Muslim. On the other hand, Al-Iraqi heard from only four teachers without Al-Haythami taking part. Al-Iraqi, who was only ten years older than Al-Haythami, was a highly distinguished scholar of Hadith. Al-Haythami was also to distinguish himself as a scholar of Hadith, but despite his broad scholarly achievement, he preferred to remain in the shadow of his teacher and friend, Al-Iraqi. Indeed, Al-Iraqi relied on Al-Haythami in conducting much of his affairs, and gave him his daughter in marriage. He trained him in a particular area of Hadith scholarship and Al-Haythami was to achieve distinction in this field and to produce highly valuable works in it. This is the area of Zawa’id which we will presently discuss. Al-Haythami was exemplary in his religious devotion, and his serious approach to Hadith scholarship. He cared little for worldly matters, which are the main preoccupation of many people, dedicating himself to the study of Hadith, and associating only with Hadith scholars. While Al-Iraqi was alive, he taught Hadith in his presence. Similarly, Al-Iraqi rarely taught without Al-Haythami being present. But after Al-Iraqi’s death, he was sought by many students who wished to read under him. He taught unhesitatingly, but without assuming any personal distinction. He is praised by many scholars for his humility, kindly manner, and dedication to learning. Ibn Hajar, a Hadith scholar of the highest caliber who studied much under Al-Haythami, describes him as very kind, highly critical of anyone indulging in a practice that is unacceptable to Islam, yet he was extremely tolerant when it came to personal grievances. When other students of Al-Iraqi repeatedly tried to irritate him, he simply tolerated them without much complaint. While many scholars mention his commitment to his teacher, showing him great respect in all situations, all are agreed that his own knowledge was broad, and that he distinguished himself by his great achievement in Hadith scholarship. They are also agreed that he was highly devoted in his worship, very pious and very kind in his dealing
  • 78. Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Haythami 76 with other people. As we have already said, Al-Haythami distinguished himself in a particular area of Hadith scholarship, namely Zawa’id, which linguistically means ‘addition or increase’. This is a comparative study seeking to identify all the Hadiths that are listed in a collection by a distinguished Hadith scholar but are not listed in any of the six main Hadith collections. This is highly useful for students of Hadith, because it identifies for them which Hadiths they need to learn from any particular collection, if they have already learned the six main ones. Moreover, many of these collections, from which Al-Haythami extracted the Zawa’id, are not arranged according to topics of Fiqh, while Al-Haythami arranged them on this basis, which makes for easier reference. Hence, his work is highly valuable. In all, Al-Haythami extracted the Zawa’id from Al-Musnad by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, and also from Al-Bazzar’s collection, Ibn Hibban’s Sahih, Al-Musnad by Abu Ya’la, as well as the three collections named Al-Mu’jam by Al-Tabarani, and then collected all these and listed them all in one voluminous work which he called Majma’ Al-Zawa’id wa Manba’ Al-Fawa’id. He dropped all chains of transmission and arranged his book according to the topics of Fiqh, which is the pattern used in the six main collections of Hadith. He graded each Hadith, pointing out which were authentic and which lacked in authenticity. Alternatively, he would mention names of narrators who were questioned or regarded as unreliable. It should be pointed out that not all Al-Haythami’s gradings were acceptable to later Hadith scholars. The book was published in 10 volumes by Qudsi in Cairo about 70 years ago, but more recently, a new annotated edition was published by Dar Al-Fikr in Beirut, Lebanon. The omission of chains of transmission, justified on grounds of brevity, has been felt as a defect in this work, but it remains a great encyclopedia of Hadith. Al-Haythami was praised for it by his contemporaries and by later scholars. Al-Haythami died on 19 Ramadan 807 H, corresponding to 1405 CE. May God bestow abundant mercy on his soul. Works • Majma al-Zawaid wa Manba al-Fawaid (10 vols) • Mawarid al-Dhaman ila Zawaid Ibn Hibbaan (ala Sahihain)
  • 79. Bulugh al-Maram 77 Bulugh al-Maram Bulugh al-Maram Author(s) Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani Language Arabic Subject(s) Ahadith Ahkam Shafii Bulugh al-Maram min Adillat al-Ahkam, translation: Attainment of the Objective According to Evidences of the Ordinances by al-Hafidh ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (1372 – 1448) is a collection of hadith pertaining specifically to Islamic Jurisprudence of the Shafii madhab. This genre is referred to in Arabic as Ahadith al-Ahkam. Contents Bulugh al-Maram contains a total of 1358 hadiths. At the end of each hadith narrated in Bulugh al-Maram, al-Hafidh ibn Hajar mentions who collected that hadith originally. Bulugh al-Maram includes hadith drawn from numerous primary sources of hadith in it including, Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawud, Jami at-Tirmidhi, Sunan al-Nasai, Sunan ibn Majah, and Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal and more. Bulugh al-Maram holds a unique distinction as all the hadith compiled in the book have been the foundation for Shafii Islamic Jurisprudence rulings. In addition to mentioning the origins of each of the hadith in Bulugh al-Maram, ibn Hajar also included a comparison between the versions of a hadith that came from different sources. Because of its unique qualities, it still remains a widely used collection of hadith regardless of school of thought. Explanations • Al-Badr al-Tamam by al-Husain ibn Muhammad al-Maghribi • Subul al-Salam by Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Amir al-Sanani, who abridged al-Badr al-Tamam Translation • Bulugh Al-Maram: Attainment of the Objective According to Evidence of the Ordinances, Dar-us-Salam; 1st edition (1996), ASIN: B000FJJURU Other books of Ahadith al-ahkam • Tahdhib al-Athar by Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari • Umdah al-ahkam by Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi • Al-Sunan al-Kubra by Ahmad Bayhaqi • al-Muntaqa by Majd ibn Taymiyah explained by Muhammad ash-Shawkani in Nayl al-Awtar Sharh Muntaqa al-Akhbar
  • 80. Bulugh al-Maram 78 External links • Audio lectures explaining the hadiths found in Bulugh al-maram on Tahara, Marriage, Business, Etc. [1] • Bulugh Al-Maram Min Adillat Al-Ahkam by Imam Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani [2] [1] http:/ / www. imamfaisal. com/ [2] http:/ / islamicstore. co. uk/ search/ bulugh-al-maram-min-adillat-al-ahkam/
  • 81. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani 79 Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani Born 773 A.H. Died [1] 852 A.H. Era Medieval era Region Egyptian scholar School Shafii For other uses, see Ibn Hajar. Al-Haafidh Shihabuddin Abul-Fadl Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Muhammad, better known as Ibn Hajar due to the fame of his forefathers, al-Asqalani due to his family origin (Arabic: ‫( )ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻘﻼﻧﻲ‬February 18, 1372 – February 2, 1448, 852 A.H.[1]), was a medieval Shafiite Sunni scholar of Islam who represents the entire realm of the Sunni world in the field of Hadith. He is also known as shaykh al islam. Early life He was born in Cairo in 1372, the son of the Shafii scholar and poet Nur al-Din Ali. Both of his parents died in his infancy, and he and his sister, Sitt al-Rakb, became wards of his fathers first wifes brother, Zaki al-Din al-Kharrubi, who enrolled Ibn Hajar in Quranic studies when he was five. Here he excelled, learning Surah Maryam in a single day, and progressing to the memorization of texts such as the Quran, then the abridged version of Ibn al-Hajibs work on the foundations of fiqh. Education When he accompanied al-Kharrubi to Mecca at the age of 12, he was considered competent to lead the Tarawih prayers during Ramadan. When his guardian died in 1386, Ibn Hajars education in Egypt was entrusted to hadith scholar Shams al-Din ibn al-Qattan, who entered him in the courses given by al-Bulqini (d. 1404) and Ibn al-Mulaqqin (d. 1402) in Shafii fiqh, and Abd al-Rahim ibn al-Husain al-Iraqi (d. 1404) in hadith, after which he travelled to Damascus and Jerusalem, to study under Shams al-Din al-Qalqashandi (d. 1407), Badr al-Din al-Balisi (d. 1401), and Fatima bint al-Manja al-Tanukhiyya (d. 1401). After a further visit to Mecca, Medina, and Yemen, he returned to Egypt. Al-Suyuti said: “It is said that he drank Zamzam water in order to reach the level of al-Dhahabi in memorization, which he succeeded in doing, even surpassing him.”[2]
  • 82. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani 80 Personal life In 1397, at the age of twenty-five, he married Anas Khatun, who was a hadith expert in her own right, holding ijazas from Hafiz al-Iraqi. She gave celebrated public lectures to crowds of ulema, including al-Sakhawi. Positions Ibn Hajar went on to be appointed to the position of Egyptian chief-judge (Qadi) several times. Death Ibn Hajar died after Isha prayers on February 2, 1449 at the age of seventy-nine. His funeral in Cairo was attended by an estimated fifty thousand people, including the sultan and the caliph. Works Ibn Hajar authored more than fifty works on hadith, hadith terminology, biographical evaluation, history, Quranic exegesis , poetry and Shafii jurisprudence. • Fath al-Bari – considered the most prominent and reliable commentary on al-Bukharis Jami` al-Sahih: In 1414 (817 A.H.), Ibn Hajar commenced the enormous task of assembling his commentary on Sahih Bukhari. Ibn Rajab had begun to write a huge commentary on Sahih Bukhari in the 1390s with the title of Fath al-Bari, thus Ibn Hajar decided to name his own commentary with the same title, Fath al-Bari, which in time became the most valued commentary of Sahih Bukhari. When it was finished, in December 1428 (Rajab 842 A.H.), a celebration was held near Cairo, attended by the ulema, judges, and leading Egyptian personalities. Ibn Hajar read the final pages of his work, after which poets recited eulogies and gold was distributed. It was, according to historian Ibn Iyaas d. 930 A.H., the greatest celebration of the age in Egypt. • al-Isaba fi tamyiz al-Sahaba – the most comprehensive dictionary of the Companions. • al-Durar al-Kamina – a biographical dictionary of leading figures of the eighth century. • Tahdhib al-Tahdhib – an abbreviation of Tahdhib al-Kamal, the encyclopedia of hadith narrators by Yusuf ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Mizzi • Taqrib al-Tahdhib – the abridgement of Tahthib al-Tahthib. • Tajil al-Manfaah – biographies of the narrators of the Musnads of the four Imams, not found in al-Tahthib. • Bulugh al-Maram min adillat al-ahkam – on hadith used in Shafii fiqh. • Nataij al-Afkar fi Takhrij Ahadith al-Adhkar • Lisan al-Mizan – a reworking of Mizan al-Itidal by al-Dhahabi. • Talkhis al-Habir fi Takhrij al-Rafi`i al-Kabir • al-Diraya fi Takhrij Ahadith al-Hidaya • Taghliq al-Ta`liq `ala Sahih al-Bukhari • Risala Tadhkirat al-Athar • al-Matalib al-`Aliya bi Zawaid al-Masanid al-Thamaniya • Nukhbat al-Fikar along with his explanation of it entitled Nuzhah al-Nathr in hadith terminology • al-Nukat ala Kitab ibn al-Salah – commentary of the Muqaddimah of Ibn al-Salah • al-Qawl al-Musaddad fi Musnad Ahmad a discussion of hadith of disputed authenticity in the Musnad of Ahmad • Silsilat al-Dhahab • Ta`rif Ahl al-Taqdis bi Maratib al-Mawsufin bi al-Tadlis
  • 83. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani 81 References [1] "USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts" (http:/ / www. usc. edu/ dept/ MSA/ fundamentals/ hadithsunnah/ scienceofhadith/ asa3. html). . Retrieved 2010-03-21. [2] Thail Tabaqaat al-Huffaath, pg. 251. External links • • Ibn Hajar Asqalani and his Commentary Fath al-Bari ( htm) Kanz al-Ummal Treasure of the Doers of Good Deeds(Arabic: Kanz al-‘Ummāl fī sunan al-aqwāl wal af‘āl is an Islamic hadith collection, collected by the Islamic Scholar Ali ibn Abd-al-Malik al-Hindi. Description Ali al-Muttaqi ‘s major work is Kanz al-‘Ummāl regarding which his teacher Abu al-Hasan al-Bakrī al-Ṣiddiqī says : “ Al-Suyūṭī has done a great favor upon the entire world by writing al-Jāmi‘ al-Saghīr and ‘Ali al-Muttaqī has done a great service to al-Suyūṭī by compiling and arranging his work of al-Jāmi‘ al-Saghīr“. Editions • First Published by Dā’irat al-Ma‘ārif Hyderabad Deccan, edited by the scholars of Jamia Nizamia . • Published by Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmīyah, Lebanon, 1998, edited by Mahmud Umar al-Dumyati . The author Al-Muttaqī was born 888 AH, CE 1472 in Burhanpur which is a town situated in modern day Southern Madhya Pardesh on the banks of the river Tapti, India. ‘Alī al-Muttaqī writes in his autobiography that when he was eight years old, it occurred to him father to enroll him in the service of Shaykh Bajan. The Shaykh instructed him in samā‘ and Shaykh ‘Abd al-Raḥīm Bajan taught me adhkār [pl. of "dhikr"]. ‘Ali al- Muttaqī soon after earned his living as a scribe. He travelled to different regions of Hindustan and travelled to Multan to meet Shaykh Ḥisām al-Dīn al-Muttaqī and stayed under his guardianship, here he was instructed in Taṣawwuf. ‘Alī al-Muttaqī then travelled to Makkah and stayed in the company of Abu al-Ḥasan al-Bakrī al-Ṣiddīqī, from whom he acquired knowledge of hadith and Taṣawwuf. ‘Alī al- Muttaqī wrote some of his early works in Makkah. ‘Alī al-Muttaqī also studied with the famous scholar of hadith Shaykh Shihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad bin Hajar al-Makkī. ‘Alī al-Muttaqī returned twice to India to Gujarat which was ruled by Maḥmūd Shāh who was an admirer of the Shaykh.
  • 84. Kanz al-Ummal 82 Works The eminent Ahl-i Hadith religious scholar Nawab Siddiq Hasan Khan of Bhopal says regarding Shaykh ‘Alī al-Muttaqī: “I have read and studied the works of Shaykh ‘Alī al-Muttaqī, his works are very beneficial and informative and complete.” From the works of Shaykh ‘Alī al-Muttaqī: 1. Kanz al-‘Ummāl , this is his most famous work. This work is printed. 2. Talkhīṣ al-Bayān, this book is regarding the Mahdi of the last time. 3. Maṭla‘ al-Ghāyah, it is a summary of Ibn al-Athīr’s "Al-Nihāyah fī Gharīb al-Aḥādīth". A manuscript of this was available in the Berlin Library. 4. Ghāyat al-Kamāl fī Bayān Afḍal al-‘Amaml , a copy of it is in the Dār al-‘Ulūm library of Peshawar , a copy also exists in Institute of Oriental Manuscripts Leningrad. 5. Al-Fuṣūl fī Sharḥ Jami‘ al-Uṣūl, a hand written manuscript by ‘Alī al-Muttaqī is in the collections of Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library 6. Jawāmi‘ Kalim fī al-Mawāḍi‘ wal-Ḥikam, manuscripts of this work is available in many Indian collections also in Paris, Berlin, and al-Azhar. 7. Al-Aḥādīth al-Mutawattira, a manuscript is available Raza Library Rampur, India. 8. Al-Rutba al-Fākhira, this deals with "taṣawwuf". 9. Tabyīn al-Ṭarīq, also "taṣawwuf". 10. Al-Ḥukm al-‘Irfānīya, also "taṣawwuf". 11. Al-Burhān al-Jalī fī Ma‘rifat al-Walī. Other books by Shaykh ‘Alī al-Muttaqī are mentioned in the introduction of "Kanz al-‘Ummāl", a rare manuscript of the Shaykh is available in the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin, Ireland. Shaykh ‘Alī al-Muttaqī died in Makkah ((1567 CE/975 AH). He was buried in the Mu’alla graveyard. References
  • 85. Ali ibn Abd-al-Malik al-Hindi 83 Ali ibn Abd-al-Malik al-Hindi Ala al-Din Ali ibn Abd-al-Malik Husam al-Din al-Muttaqi al-Hindi (The exalter of faith, Ali son of servant of AllahThe King, from India) (died 1567 CE/975 AH) was a Sunni Muslim Islamic scholar who is known for writing Kanz al-Ummal.[1] References [1] http:/ / www. al-eman. com/ islamlib/ viewtoc. asp?BID=137> External links • Minhaj us Sawi Al-Minhaj us-Sawi min-al-Hadith-in-Nabawi is a Hadith compendium compiled by Tahir ul-Qadri. It is compiled in the pattern and style of Imam Nawawi’s Riyadh al-Salihin ‫ ﺭﻳﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻟﺤﻴﻦ‬and Khatib Tabrizi’s Mishkat al-Masabih It is a compendium of Prophetic Hadiths, categorised under a number of headings and compiled with clear relevance to the lives and situation of Muslims in the modern age. The work is authenticated by a rigorous and detailed process of Takhreej – referencing each hadith to its sources – from a study of over 300 authentic works of hadith. The writer has set up 16 chapters of the book including an abridged version of his chains of authorities (Mukhtasar al-Jawahir al-Bahira fi al-Asanid at-Tahira) and a firm word on the science of hadith and branches of doctrine which is termed as al-Khutba as-Sadida fi Usul al-Hadith wa Furu al-Aqida.This book contains one thousand pages & eleven hundred ahadith. This book prepares the ground for correction of religious beliefs, inspires readers to act piously and provides practical guidance in practical life. English Version of this book has been released in Januara 2012. It is split into 2 volumes: Prophetic Virtues and Miracles and Righteous Character and Social Interactions. .[1][2][3] on April 16, 2009 inauguration ceremony of al-Minhaj-us-Sawi was conducted in which Renowned religious scholar, Allama Dr Muhammad Sarfraz Naeemi was chief guest.[4] gathering statements related to subjects such as: • The supreme status and superiority of the Prophet Muhammad, • Etiquette and daily relations, • The rak`as of Tarawih prayer, • The Prophet Muhammads manner of prayer As well as these it contains many other extremely significant issues on which a lot of misconceptions and confusion exists such as: • Ruling of the khawarij, apostates and those who disparage the Prophet Muhammad • Virtue of Knowledge and righteous actions • Nobility of the Ummah • Righteousness, bonds of kin and rights • Etiquettes and daily relations • Its final chapter throws light on uni-link and bi-link traditions reported by Imam al-Azam Abu Hanifa (ra) and tri-link traditions reported by Imam Bukhari.
  • 86. Minhaj us Sawi 84 References [1] Minhaj-us-Sawi in English (http:/ / www. minhajpublications. com/ ?p=632) [2] (http:/ / www. khilafahmovement. org/ tahirulqadri. htm) [3] (http:/ / www. farghana. org/ education/ courses/ hadith) [4] inaugural ceremony of al-Minhaj-us-Sawi (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ english/ tid/ 7953/ Ulama-o-Mashaykh-Convention--inaugural-ceremony-of-al-Minhaj-us-Sawi. html) External links • Al-Minhaj As-Sawi to Read Online ( bid=35&read=img&lang=en) • Course available on hadith covering a comprehensive study of Al-Minhaj As-Sawi ( • Other books on Hadith by the same author ( cid=2&lang=en) • Minhaj-us-Sawi in English (
  • 87. Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri 85 Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻃﺎﮨﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭﯼ‬ Full name Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻃﺎﮨﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭﯼ‬ Born February 19, 1951 Region South Asia School/tradition Hanafi Qadiriyya Sufi Main interests [1] Sufism, Islamic Philosophy, Hadith, Tafsir, Seerah, Tasawwuf, Politics Notable ideas Fatwa on Terrorism, Concept of Jihad, interfaith dialogue Muhammad Tahir ul-Qadri (Urdu: ‫( )ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻃﺎﮨﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭﯼ‬born February 19, 1951) is a Pakistani Sufi scholar[2][3][4] and former professor of international constitutional law at the University of the Punjab.[5] Qadri was recently described by the CNN-IBN as the International Peace Ambassador.[6] Qadri was nominated for the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize[7] Qadri is the founder of Minhaj-ul-Quran International, a broad-based global Sufi organization[8] working in the fields of welfare, human rights and education. Its objectives are the promotion of a moderate and non-extremist vision of Islam, the establishment of good relations and understanding between communities and religions,[9] and the education of youth through "employing the methods of Sufism".[10] He also founded The Minhaj University of which he is the head of the Board of Governors, as well as an international relief charity, Minhaj Welfare Foundation.[11] Qadri was also the founding chairman of the political party Pakistan Awami Tehreek (PAT), although he is no longer involved in politics. Qadri spoke at the World Economic Forum in January 2011.[12] Biography Qadri is the son of Farid-ud-Din Qadri and his ancestors belong to the Punjabi Sial family of Jhang near Sargodha. Qadri started his education at the Christian Sacred Heart School in Jhang, where he learnt English and was exposed to Christianity at an early age. He learnt under Mawlana Diya al-Din al-Madani (d. 1981, aged 107) and studied Hadith from Muhaddith al-Hijaz al-Sayyid ‘Alawi ibn ‘Abbas al-Maliki al-Makki (d. 1971). Al-Shaykh al-Sayyid ‘Alawis son, the late muhaddith of al-Hijaz, al-Sayyid Muhammad ibn ‘Alawi al-Maliki al-Makki (d. 2004) who was the foremost Sunni authority of the Middle East gave all of his fathers ijazas and isnads to Qadri in written form which he had previously received verbally, as well as his own chains.[13] Qadri continued his quest for knowledge early in his life, making sama‘[14] of Hadith from the then Muhaddith al-A‘zam of Pakistan, Sardar Ahmad al-Qadri
  • 88. Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri 86 (d. 1962).[15] Qadri has also learnt from a number of other prominent classical authorities in the Islamic sciences such as the following scholars: Abu al-Barakat Ahmad al-Qadri al-Alwari[16] Abd al-Rashid al-Ridwi[17] Tahir Allauddin al-Qadri al-Gilani[18] Ahmad al-Zubaydi[19] Abd al-Ma‘bud al-Jilani[16] Farid al-Din Qadri[16] Ahmad Saeed Kazmi[15] Husayn ibn Ahmad ‘Usayran[20] Muhammad Fatih al-Kattani[20] Burhan Ahmad al-Faruqi[20] Qadri studied law at the University of the Punjab, Lahore where he graduated with an LLB in 1974, gaining a Gold Medal for his academic performances.[21] Following a period of legal practice as an advocate, he taught law at the University of the Punjab from 1978 to 1983 and then gained his PhD [22] in Islamic Law (Punishments in Islam, their Classification and Philosophy) from the same university in 1986 where his supervisors were Bashir Ahmad Siddiqui (‘Ulum al-Islamiyya) and Justice Javaid Iqbal.[23][24] He was appointed as a professor of Law at the University of Punjab, where he taught British, Habib ‘Umar ibn Hafiz of Hadramawt in Yemen, US and Islamic constitutional law.[25] receiving Ijazas from Qadri He was appointed as a Jurist Consultant (legal adviser) on Islamic law for the Supreme Court and the Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan and also worked as a specialist adviser on Islamic curricula for the Federal Ministry of Education (Pakistan). At various times between 1983 and 1987, he received and declined offers for various high-level posts. He has delivered more than 6,000 lectures on economy and political studies, religious philosophy, law, Sufism, medical sciences, material sciences and astronomy. Numerous lectures are available in Urdu, English and Arabic at Islamic bookshops around the world. Qadri has himself given ijaza to a number of leading Muslim scholars, making them his students, linking them through himself back to Muhammad.[26][27] Founding of Minhaj-ul-Quran Qadri founded a Sufism-based organisation Minhaj-ul-Quran International in October 1981 and spent the next decade expanding it nationally and internationally.[28] In 1987, the headquarters of Minhaj-ul-Quran, based in Lahore, Pakistan was inaugurated by Sufi saint Tahir Allauddin who is now regarded as the organisations spiritual founder.[29] The goal of the organisation is fairly broad, namely to promote religious moderation, effective and sound education, inter-faith dialogue and harmony, and a moderate interpretation of Islam employing methods of Sufism.[30] Over the past 30 years, the institute has reportedly expanded to over 90 countries. During the March 2011 session the United Nations Economic and Social Council granted special consultative status to Qadris organisation Minhaj-ul-Quran International.[31]
  • 89. Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri 87 Noteworthy Events In 2006, Qadri was a keynote speaker at the Muslims of Europe Conference in Istanbul, Turkey to discuss identity, citizenship, and challenges and opportunities for European Muslims.[32] On 31 August 2008, Qadri delivered a lecture entitled "Islam on Peace, Integration and Human Rights" hosted by Farghana Institute Manchester.[33] In March 2010 he gained media attention for the launch of his unconditional Fatwa on Terrorism and appeared on various international media outlets including Sky News, BBC News, ITV, EuroNews, Al-Jazeera, CNN and CNNs Amanpour, CBC News, Russia Today, Al Arabiya and various other outlets.[34] He appeared on Frost Over The World and interviewed by David Frost in which Qadri stated that the "purpose of his life is to bring peace and harmony in the world".[35] Furthermore, the US State Department declared the Fatwa to be a significant publication which takes back Islam from terrorists.[36] Qadri was quoted in the American Foreign Policy magazine stating: "I am trying to bring [the terrorists] back towards humanism. This is a jihad against brutality, to bring them back towards normality. This is an intellectual jihad."[37] In August 2010 Qadri held the first anti-terrorism camp for Muslim youth at the University of Warwick with the aim of tackling extremism in the UK.[38] The camp was organised by his organisation Minhaj-ul-Quran UK[39] which has established 572 schools, a number of colleges and a chartered university.[40] Global Peace and Unity On 24 October 2010, Qadri was invited to deliver a speech entitled "Jihad: Perception and reality" to a gathering of thousands of British Muslims at the largest European multicultural gathering, the Global Peace and Unity event.[41] Qadri stated in his speech: "Let me make it very clear and sound, let me remove any ambiguity that no leader or a group has any authority to declare jihad. If any leader or a group does that, it is terrorism and not jihad." He added: "it is solely the prerogative of a state authority to declare jihad and only as a matter of Qadri at the Global Peace and Unity Conference, last resort when diplomacy and all other efforts to make peace have 23 October 2010 failed."[42]
  • 90. Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri 88 US Institute of Peace On 10 November 2010, Qadri delivered a lecture on "Islamic Concept of Jihad" at the US Institute of Peace, a prestigious think-tank.[43] The audience comprised senior scholars, doctors, professors, engineers, policy makers and opinion leaders etc.[44] World Economic Forum In January 2011, Qadri was invited to speak at the World Economic Forum in Davos on the topic of "The Reality of Terrorism".[45] U.S. Islamic World Forum In April 2011, Qadri was invited to speak at the U.S. - Islamic World Forum which was jointly organized by the Brookings Institution, Qatar Government and the OIC, where he spoke on issues such as integration and identity, the impact of media and politics, security and Qadri at the World Economic Forum in Davos in counter-terrorism, the treatment of minorities, and interfaith January 2011 relations.[46][47][48] Lecture on Terrorism & Integration at the Parliament of New South Wales, Australia In July 2011, he gave a lecture on the issues of terrorism and integration at the Parliament of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia where he was invited by the member of the NSW Legislative Council, the Hon. Shaoquett Moselmane MLC.[49] The audience at the lecture comprised members of the NSW Legislative Council, ministers, politicians, policy makers, senior scholars and religious leaders, etc.[50] On 19 July 2011 Qadri appeared on NEWS LINE Australia Network where he discussed terrorism and possible troop withdrawals from Afghanistan.[51] On 23 July 2011, Qadri appeared on SBS ONE TV and cautioned Western governments about their "aid and anti-terror funding"[52] Peace for Humanity Conference On 24 September 2011, Minhaj-ul-Quran convened the "Peace for Humanity Conference" at Wembley Arena in London where Tahir-ul-Qadri and the assembled speakers issued a declaration of peace on behalf of religious representatives of several faiths, scholars, politicians, and 12,000 participants present from various countries. This conference was endorsed by, or received supportive messages from, the Grand Imam of Al-Azhar University, Ban Ki-Moon (Secretary General of the United Nations), Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu (Secretary General of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation), David Qadri at the Peace for Humanity Conference, 24 September 2011 Cameron (British Prime Minister), Nick Clegg (British Deputy Prime Minister), Rowan Williams (Archbishop of Canterbury) and others.[53][54]
  • 91. Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri 89 Peaceful Future of Afghanistan Conference On 30 November 2011, Qadri was the keynote speaker at the 3-day "Peaceful Future of Afghanistan" conference in Istanbul, Turkey which was organised by the Center for World Religions, Diplomacy and Conflict Resolution of George Mason University together with Marmara University and was attended by more than 120 Afghani leaders. Qadri clarified about jihad and why suicide bombings is not Islamic. He provided suggestions on how to make a peaceful future in Afghanistan by dialogue and co-operation. He pointed out that Afghans need to unite against the radicals and Taliban who are in fact responsible for the NATO occupation in the first place.[55][56] 2012 Tour of India On 22 February 2012, Qadri arrived in Delhi for a 4-week tour of India.[57] Due to threat from the Taliban he was treated as a state guest[58] and was provided Z plus security throughout his tour by the Government of India.[59] Qadri went to India with a message of peace and said Terrorism has no place in Islam while addressing the fatwa book launch in Delhi.[60] People gathered to listen to Qadri along with government officials in Gujarat.[61] In Hyderabad he attracted a large gathering of people at the Quli Qutub Shah stadium and spoke on the Islamic Millions listen to Tahir-ul-Qadri in Hyderabad, India, March 2012 concept of wasilah.[62] Qadri addressed a huge crowd at Palace Grounds of the historic Bangalore where he cleared misconceptions about Islam and said A true Muslim is one who protects mankind, not just Muslims.[63] Qadri also urged the Pakistani and Indian governments to reduce their defence expenditures and instead spend money on the welfare of poor people.[64] He went to Ajmer under tight security and his programme was not disclosed until he had arrived in the city. He was one of the only scholars to hold a gathering in historic Ajmer.[65] In Mumbai the state government had arranged adequate security for Qadris programme due to threats from extremists.[66] Views Extremism & Terrorism Qadri argues that terrorists have left the true, classical teachings of Islam and that their rebellious spirit of violence and religious extremism is a continuity of the Khawarij.[67] Qadri was one of the religious leaders in Pakistan to condemn the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. He has denounced and severely condemned Osama bin Ladin.[68] Qadri describes terrorism as an "ideological infection"[69] and believes that, through his anti-terrorism summer camps, "we are fighting on the ideological, philosophical, theological and academic fronts. We are trying to educate young people."[70] Reuters featured Qadri in August 2009 as a leading Sufi scholar who is working to bring the western youth away from extremism towards moderate Islam and to combat extreme tendencies.[71]
  • 92. Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri 90 After the December 2009 Rawalpindi attack he was quoted as saying: "Suicide attacks are not allowed in Islam, these actions are un-Islamic, The slaughter of human beings in any religion or country, and terrorism in all its manifestations, are totally in contradiction with the teachings of Islam."[72] The same view is also held by the majority of mainstream (non-Sufi) Muslims[73] based on the teachings of the Quran 5:32. Division of the World Qadri refutes the division of the world into two categories Dar al-Islam (the abode of Islam) and Dar al-harb (the abode of war) and that the west is the latter;[74] Qadri instead divides the world into five categories.[75] Qadri argues that the word "Dar al-Islam" actually implies "the abode of Peace" rather than the abode of Islam and that all countries under the United Nations (UN), whether Muslim or non-Muslim actually come under Dar al-Ahad (house of treaty) which Qadri says is the same as Dar al-Islam.[76] In his 2010 anti-terrorism summer camp in Britain, Qadri further commented on the issue saying, “ All these Western countries - Britain, Europe, North America, wherever you are living - since you are enjoying all rights, all freedoms ” according to the constitution as other non-Muslim communities are enjoying, there is no difference. And I would have no hesitation in saying you are enjoying the rights and freedoms much better than in many other Muslim and Arab countries. [77] Cartoon Controversy He expressed concern when cartoons depicting the Prophet Muhammad were published in newspapers around Europe and sent out a memorandum called A call to prevent a clash of civilizations.[78][79][80] Fatwa on Terrorism On 2 March 2010, Qadri issued a 600-page Fatwa on Terrorism, which is an "absolute" scholarly refutation of all terrorism without "any excuses or pretexts." He said that "Terrorism is terrorism, violence is violence and it has no place in Islamic teaching and no justification can be provided for it, or any kind of excuses or ifs or buts." Qadri said his fatwa, which declares terrorists and suicide bombers to be unbelievers, goes further than any previous denunciation.[81] The US Congress funded think-tank United States Institute of Peace hosted Qadri in November 2010 to speak about his struggle against radicalism in Islam in light of his Fatwa on Terrorism.[44] The Fatwa on Terrorism has been officially endorsed by Al-Azhar University in Cairo, Egypt.[82][83] Qadri states in his Fatwa on Terrorism: Qadri at a news conference in London explaining the Fatwa on Terrorism.
  • 93. Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri 91 “ The importance Islam lays on the sanctity and dignity of human life can be gauged from the fact that Islam does not allow indiscriminate killing even when Muslim armies are engaged in war against enemy troops. The killing of children, women, the old, infirm, religious leaders and traders is strictly prohibited. Nor can those who surrender their arms, confine themselves to their homes and seek shelter of anyone be killed. The public cannot be massacred. Likewise, places of worship, buildings, crops and even trees cannot be destroyed. On the one hand, there is a clear set of Islamic laws based on extreme discretion, and on the other, there are people who invoke the name of Islam to justify the indiscriminate killing of people, children, and women everywhere, without any distinction of religion or identity. It is a pity that such barbaric people still refer to their activities as Jihad. There can be no bigger discrepancy than this to be seen on earth. It can in no way be permissible to keep foreign delegates under unlawful custody and murder them and other peaceful non-Muslim citizens in retaliation for the interference, unjust activities and aggressive advances of their countries. The one who does has no relation to Islam and the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him). ” [84] —Tahir-ul-Qadri, Fatwa on Terrorism Burning of Quran On 9 September 2010, Qadri wrote a letter to the U.S. President Barack Obama in response to the controversial Burn a Quran Day urging him to stop this incident from happening.[85] Qadri wrote in an article published on the CNN website: "If this event had gone ahead it would not be less than 9/11 in the sense of far-reaching consequences and after-effects." he added: "A handful of individuals, it does not matter whether they are related to mosque or church, cannot be given the right to flippantly play about with peaceful co-existence, and their so-called sentiments cannot be preferred over global peace."[86] Islamic State Qadri views an Islamic state as a Muslim-majority country which respects freedom, the rule of law, global human rights (including religious freedom), social welfare, womens rights and the rights of minorities.[87] He also claims that the Constitution of Medina "declared the state of Madinah as a political unit". He also mentions that the Constitution declared the "indivisible composition of the Muslim nation (Ummah)".[88] With respect to the Constitution of Medina, Qadri says: "This was the constitution, which provided the guarantee of fundamental human rights in our history." He believes that "a constitution is a man-made law and by no means it can be declared superior to a God-made law."[88] He believes in the Sovereignty of God’s law, that the Quran and Sunnah equates to State law, and that Islam encourages political activity. Qadri sees Islam as a faith which allows political participation. He believes in democracy and human rights, and argues that rights are defined in Islam by the Quran and Sunnah. Political career On May 25, 1989, Qadri founded a political party Pakistan Awami Tehreek or PAT. The main aims of this political party are to introduce the culture of true democracy, economic stability, improve the state of human rights, justice and the womens role in Pakistan. The PAT also aims to remove corruption from Pakistani politics. Its official website contains its formal manifesto.[89] In 1990, Pakistan Awami Tehreek (PAT) participated in the national elections just one year after it was founded. In 1991, PAT and TNFJ (Tehreek-e-Nifaz-e-Fiqh-e-Jafria A shia political group ) now known as Tehreek-e-Jafria[90] signed a Communique of Unity in order to promotes social and religious harmony. In another creative move, PAT for the first time in the political history of Pakistan, introduced an idea of "working relationship" between the three national political forces, PAT, TNFJ and Tehreek-e-Istaqlal. From 1989 to 1993, Qadri continuously worked as an opposition leader tying to indicate the governments mistakes and to suggest ways for improving the situation in the political, educational, and economical fields. In 1992 he
  • 94. Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri 92 presented a complete working plan for interest-free banking in Pakistan covering all kinds of national and international transaction which was recognized and appreciated by all sections of the society including industrial and banking professionals. PAT offices were also opened in major foreign countries.[91] Qadri continued his research alongside his political career and, in 1996, he presented a thesis on the utilization of an observatory for moon sighting based on the more recent scientific findings.[92] He was elected as an MNA (Member of the National Assembly) of his Lahore constituent on the Pakistani National Parliament. On 29 November 2004, Qadri announced his resignation as a Member of the National Assembly.[93] Explaining his resignation he cited the Presidents broken promises, political corruption and blackmailing, the undemocratic system, institutional inabilities, failures of accountability, the sabotage of National Assembly, global issues including Pakistan-US relations, international terrorism and US global domination, Israeli aggression, the Iraq war, Islamabad-Delhi relations including the Kashmir dispute and Pakistan-Afghanistan relations. His 41-page resignation statement is available online to read.[94] In a January 2011 address to a meeting of MQI’s Majlis-e-Shura in Lahore, Qadri stated that the current political system of Pakistan protects a 3% ruling elite, while the 97%, who are mainly poor people, have effectively become slaves of this corrupt political system.[95][96] Qadri is still influential in Pakistani politics , on October 6, 2011, Supreme Court of Pakistan ordered action on Karachi violence after the Chief Justice of Pakistan Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry took a suo motu notice on the appeal of Dr Tahir ul Qadri.[95][97] On 19 November 2011, speaking via video to a student rally at Punjab University, Lahore, Qadri requested the people to rise against the current political system like an Egyptian-style revolt.[98] He urged the youth to rebel against the corrupt system and play their role in a Pakistani mass movement.[99] During a press conference via video conference on 24 November, Qadri stated that even 100 elections under the current corrupt political system will not bring any change in Pakistan and announced that his political party will start countrywide peaceful rallies.[100] Published Works He has authored some 400 published works in Arabic, English and Urdu.[101][102] Amongst his recent works are: • “Muqaddima Sira al-Rasul(saw)” is an introduction to his 14 volume Sira of the Prophet Muhammad.[103][104] • “Imam Abu Hanifa: Imam al-A’imma fi al-Hadith” This work argues that Imam Azam Abu Hanifa is the Imam of Hadith of all imams of Hadith including Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim, Imam Tirmidhi, Imam Abu Dawud, Imam Nasa’i etc.[105] • “Dala’il al-Barakat” (10,000 Durood and Salawat in praise of Muhammad, written in the style of the well-read Dala’il al-Khayrat of Imam Jazuli, which was written nearly 1,000 years ago). • “Kitab al-Tawhid’”(a detailed treatise on the concept of the unity of Allah) consisting of 2 large volumes.[106] • “Minhaj al-Sawi’” (A Hadith compendium in 2 volumes compiled in the pattern and style of Imam Nawawi’s “Riyad al-Salihin ‫ ”ﺭﻳﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻟﺤﻴﻦ‬and Khatib Tabrizi’s “Mishkat al-Masabih” Consisting of approximately 1,000 pages). • “Mawlid al-Nabi”, the largest ever written work on the subject of Mawlid, consisting of approximately 1,000 pages. The income from Qadri’s published books and DVDs and CDs of his lectures goes to his organisation Minhaj-ul-Quran International.[107] English works include: • Righteous Character & Social Interactions: Minhaj_us_Sawi (2012)[108] • Prophetic Virtues and Miracles: Minhaj_us_Sawi (2012)[109] • The Glorious Quran English Translation (2011)[110]
  • 95. Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri 93 • Fatwa on Terrorism and Suicide Bombings (2010)[111] • Irfan ul Quran (Modern and Scientific English translation of the Quran) renamed to The Glorious Quran[112] • Beseeching for Help[113] • Peace, Integration and Human Rights[114] • Ijtihad (meanings, application and scope)[115] • Creation of Man[116] • Islamic Concept of Human Nature[117] • Islam and Criminality[118] • Pearls of Remembrance[119] • Islam on Prevention of Heart Diseases[120] • Islamic Concept of Intermediation[121] • The Constitution of Madina (First ever written constitution)[122][123] • Islamic Concept of Knowledge (Al Ilm)[124] • Spiritualism and Magnetism[125] • Creation and Evolution of the Universe[126] • Islam and Freedom of Human Will[127] • Islamic Concept of Law[128] • Greetings and Salutations on the Prophet[129] (‫)ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭ ﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ • Islam and Politics • The Islamic State (True Concept and Eradicating Misconceptions (Khilafah))[130] • The Ghadir Declaration[131] • Virtues of Sayyedah Fatimah[132] • Imam Bukhari & the Love of the Prophet[pbuh] (Al-Hidayah Series)[133] • Hanafi[134] References [1] Tahir-ul-Qadris biography (http:/ / www. tahir-ul-qadri. com/ shaykh-ul-islam) [2] Tahir Qadri lecture for international Sufi conference (http:/ / www. tahirulqadri. net/ dr-tahir-ul-qadri-lecture-for-int-sufi-conf-2011-chittagong-bangladesh) [3] "Tahir-ul-Qadri is a Sufi Muslim" (http:/ / www. washingtontimes. com/ news/ 2010/ mar/ 03/ muslim-leaders-edict-decries-terrorism/ ) [4] Qadri teaches his followers the Sufi dance (http:/ / minhaj. com. pk/ en/ 593/ status-of-sufi-dance-in-islam-by-dr-tahir-ul-Qadri) [5] (http:/ / eprints. hec. gov. pk/ 1475/ ) [6] Religion should not be associated with terror (http:/ / ibnlive. in. com/ news/ religion-should-not-be-associated-with-terror/ 238030-60-119. html) [7] Peace and the prize (http:/ / www. thenews. com. pk/ Todays-News-9-102605-Peace-and-the-prize) [8] Minhaj-ul-Quran - a Sufi organisation (http:/ / media. minhajuk. org/ ?page_id=2) [9] Merry Christmas Interfaith Festival (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ org/ index. php?contents=text& tid=427& lang=en) [10] Minhaj-ul-Quran - Sufi organisation (http:/ / media. minhajuk. org/ ?page_id=2) [11] Minhaj Welfare Foundation (http:/ / www. mwfuk. org) [12] Qadri at 2011 World Economic Forum (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ english/ tid/ 13214/ Multi-pronged-strategy-needed-to-eliminate-terrorism-from-world-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-qadri. htm) [13] Al-Sayyid Muhammad ‘Alawi al-Maliki al-Makki, al-Nur al-Bahir fi Ijaza al-Allama al-Shaykh Muhammad Tahir (1991). [14] Sama‘: The Ulema have stipulated eight methods for the transmission and reception of hadith, of which direct listening (al-sama‘) from a Shaykh, reciting before the Shaykh (al-qira’a) and receiving permission (al-ijaza) are but a few examples. [15] Qadri, Tahir. al-Jawahir al-Bahira fi al-Asanid al-Tahira (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 374/ Al-Jawahir-al-Bahira-fi-al-Asanid-at-Tahira-by-Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-qadri. html). pp. 27. . Retrieved 2012-01-15. [16] Qadri, Tahir. al-Jawahir al-Bahira fi al-Asanid al-Tahira (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 374/ Al-Jawahir-al-Bahira-fi-al-Asanid-at-Tahira-by-Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-Qadri. html). pp. 24. . Retrieved 2012-01-15. [17] http:/ / www. irfan-ul-quran. com/ quran/ english/ tid/ 41/
  • 96. Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri 94 [18] Qadri, Tahir. al-Jawahir al-Bahira fi al-Asanid al-Tahira (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 374/ Al-Jawahir-al-Bahira-fi-al-Asanid-at-Tahira-by-Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-qadri. html). pp. 23. . Retrieved 2012-01-15. [19] Ahmad al-Zubaydi, http:/ / video. google. co. uk/ videoplay?docid=4831100359231050500& q=dr+ tahir [20] Qadri, Tahir. al-Jawahir al-Bahira fi al-Asanid al-Tahira (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 374/ Al-Jawahir-al-Bahira-fi-al-Asanid-at-Tahira-by-Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-Qadri. html). pp. 29. . Retrieved 2012-01-15. [21] Indian News link (http:/ / www. indiannewslink. co. nz/ index. php/ archives_2011/ aug_1_2011/ crusader-against-terrorists-spells-moderate-islam. html) [22] Ph.D in Islamic Law Higher Education Commission (http:/ / eprints. hec. gov. pk/ 1475) [23] Qadri, http:/ / youtube. com/ watch?v=EsUdM6GcJbY [24] (http:/ / www. weforum. org/ contributors/ muhammad-tahir-ul-qadri) [25] A Profile of Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ english/ tid/ 8718/ A-Profile-of-Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-Qadri. html) [26] Shaykh Habib Umer receives Ijazaat from Tahir-ul-Qadri (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ english/ tid/ 3155/ Shaykh-ul-Islam-meets-Shaykh-Habib-Umer-bin-Muhammad-bin-Salim-bin-Hafeez. html) [27] Ijazah given by Tahir-ul-Qadri (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ Shaykh_ul_islam_profile. pdf) [28] Minhaj-ul-Quran - a Sufi-based organisation (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ english/ tid/ 8779/ Preacher-a-voice-for-moderation. html) [29] Qadiriyya sufi saint Tahir Allauddin - spiritual founder of Minhaj-ul-Quran (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ english/ tid/ 9345/ Annual-death-anniversary-of-Qudwa-tul-Aulia-RA-observed. html) [30] Mihaj-ul-Quran - a Sufi-based organisation (http:/ / media. minhajuk. org/ ?page_id=2) [31] Report of the Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations on its 2011 regular session (http:/ / esango. un. org/ paperless/ reports/ report 2011reg sess (E). pdf) [32] About Shaykh-ul-Islam (http:/ / ammanmessage. com/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=40& Itemid=34) [33] Islam on Peace Integration & Human Rights (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ english/ tid/ 3660/ International-conference-Islam-on-Peace-Integration-and-Human-Rights. htm) [34] TV Coverage of Fatwa on Terrorism (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ english/ tid/ 10089/ TV-Coverage-of-600-pages-Fatwa-Against-Terrorism,-Historical-Launching-in-London. html) [35] (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ english/ tid/ 10089/ english/ tid/ 10672/ Al-Jazeera-English-(Interview). html) [36] Muslim leaders edict decries terrorism: U.S. hails taking back Islam (http:/ / www. washingtontimes. com/ news/ 2010/ mar/ 03/ muslim-leaders-edict-decries-terrorism/ ) [37] Sheikh to Terrorists: Go to Hell (http:/ / www. foreignpolicy. com/ articles/ 2010/ 04/ 14/ sheikh_to_terrorists_go_to_hell) [38] Muslim summer camp preaches anti-terror message (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ uk-10905070) [39] Muslim group Minhaj ul-Quran runs anti-terrorism camp (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ uk-10900478) [40] (http:/ / www. irfan-ul-quran. com/ quran/ english/ tid/ 41/ Shaykh-ul-Islam Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri. html) [41] Tahir-ul-Qadri to deliver speech at 2010 Global Peace and Unity event (http:/ / www. presstv. ir/ detail/ 148053. html) [42] (http:/ / www. app. com. pk/ en_/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=120050& Itemid=2) [43] Qadri speaks at the American Institute of Peace (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ english/ tid/ 12858/ Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-Qadri-speaks-at-the-United-States-Institute-of-Peace-American. html) [44] Tahir-ul-Qadri’s Struggle Against Radicalism in Islam (http:/ / www. usip. org/ events/ shaykh-dr-muhammad-tahri-ul-qadri-s-struggle-against-radicalism-in-islam) [45] Indian Express (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ chidambaram-to-tackle-terror-at-davos-economic-forum-meet/ 741135/ ) [46] Participants of U.S.-Islamic World Forum (http:/ / www. usislamicworldforum. org/ 2011-participants) [47] Tahir-ul-Qadri at U.S.-Islamic World Forum (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ english/ tid/ 13852/ OIC-Leaders-Qatari-Foreign-Minister--other-international-dignitaries-meet-Shaykh-ul-Islam-at-US-Islamic-World-Forum-in-Washington-DC. htm) [48] Muslim Scholar to Present Solution to Counter Home-Grown Terrorism and Islamophobia at U.S. Islamic World Forum (http:/ / www. prweb. com/ releases/ prwebMinhaj/ 2011/ prweb5240504. htm) [49] Full Day Hansard Transcript (Legislative Council, 5 August 2011, Corrected Copy) (http:/ / parliament. nsw. gov. au/ prod/ parlment/ hanstrans. nsf/ V3ByKey/ LC20110805?Open& refNavID=HA8_1) [50] Tahir-ul-Qadri at NSW Parliament House in Sydney, Australia (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ english/ tid/ 14456/ Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-Qadri-speaks-on-the-issues-of-terrorism-and-integration-at-NSW-Parliament-House-after-arrival-in-Sydney-Australia. html) [51] Interview With Jim Middleton News Line Australia (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ english/ tid/ 14511/ Terrorism--Troops-withdrawal-in-Afghanistan-Dr-Tahir-ul-Qadris-interview-with-Jim-Middleton-News-Line-Australia. html) [52] SBS TV Interview with Tahir-ul-Qadri (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ english/ tid/ 14517/ SBS-News-TV-Interview-Islamic-Scholar-Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Tahir-ul-Qadri-calls-for-Vigilance. html) [53] (http:/ / www. londondeclaration. com/ ?page_id=111) [54] (http:/ / www. peaceforhumanity. co. uk/ )
  • 97. Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri 95 [55] More than 120 Muslim leaders Commit to the Future of Afghanistan during International Conference in Turkey (http:/ / networkedblogs. com/ r2C4q) [56] Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri speaks at an international conference on Peaceful Future in Afghanistan (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ english/ tid/ 15468/ Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-Qadri-speaks-at-an-international-conference-on-Peaceful-Future-in-Afghanistan. htm) [57] Coming: Pak Islamic scholar who pulls no punches against terror (http:/ / www. expressindia. com/ latest-news/ coming-pak-islamic-scholar-who-pulls-no-punches-against-terror/ 914697/ ) [58] Qadri given honour in India (http:/ / www. nation. com. pk/ pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/ lahore/ 28-Feb-2012/ qadri-given-honour-in-india) [59] Pakistani scholar thanks Modi for security (http:/ / articles. timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ 2012-02-26/ vadodara/ 31100857_1_gujarat-godhra-riots-communal-riots) [60] Terrorism has no place in Islam: Sufi scholar (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ terrorism-has-no-place-in-islam-sufi-scholar/ 915599/ ) [61] Pakistani scholar thanks Modi for security (http:/ / articles. timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ 2012-02-26/ vadodara/ 31100857_1_gujarat-godhra-riots-communal-riots) [62] Islam a Religion of Human Rights: Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri (http:/ / www. newageislam. com/ islamic-world-news/ new-age-islam-news-bureau/ islam-a-religion-of-human-rights--shaykh-ul-islam-dr-muhammad-tahir-ul-qadri/ d/ 6784) [63] Pak scholar debunks Islamic stereotypes (http:/ / www. bangaloremirror. com/ index. aspx?page=article& sectid=10& contentid=2012031120120311015212266fb6744ea) [64] Stay away from communal clashes in future: Pak Islamic scholar (http:/ / ibnlive. in. com/ generalnewsfeed/ news/ stay-away-from-communal-clashes-in-future-pak-islamic-scholar/ 967422. html) [65] Pak scholar to speak on Sufism in dargah (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ city/ jaipur/ Pak-scholar-to-speak-on-Sufism-in-dargah/ articleshow/ 12239857. cms) [66] Adequate security in place for Pak prof’s programme: State (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ english/ oid/ 16375/ Adequate-security-in-place-for-Pak-profs-programme-State. html) [67] Fatwa on Terrorism by Tahir-ul-Qadri | Page 41 (http:/ / www. scribd. com/ doc/ 29876438/ Fatwa-on-Terrorism-by-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-Qadri) [68] Prominent Muslim Cleric Denounces bin Laden (http:/ / www. newsmax. com/ archives/ articles/ 2001/ 10/ 17/ 195606. shtml) [69] Ridgwell, Henry (2010-08-08). "Muslim group holds anti-terrorism summer camp" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ world/ 2010/ aug/ 08/ muslim-anti-terrorism-camp). Guardian News and Media. . [70] "Anti-Terrorism Summer Camp Held In Britain" (http:/ / www1. voanews. com/ english/ news/ europe/ Anti-Terrorism-Summer-Camp-Held-In-Britain-100649109. html). VOAnews. Voice of America. 2010-08-13. . [71] Muslim Camp draws teens to Combat extremism (http:/ / www. reuters. com/ article/ lifestyleMolt/ idUSTRE5792AL20090810) [72] In Pakistan, anguish and questions (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2009/ 12/ 05/ AR2009120503001. html), The Washington Post, 2009-12-6 [73] Fatwa on suicide and on praying for one who has committed suicide (http:/ / islamqa. com/ en/ ref/ 70363/ suicide) [74] Division of Abodes (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ english/ tid/ 13819/ Jihad-Perception--Reality. html) [75] Qadri divides the World into five categories (http:/ / www. commongroundnews. org/ article. php?id=27725& lan=en& sid=1& sp=0& isNew=1) [76] Dar al-Harb (Abode of war) & Dar al-Islam (Abode of Islam) (http:/ / www. islamicreviver. com/ 1720/ dar-al-harb-house-of-war-dar-al-islam-house-of-islam) [77] Anti-Terrorism Summer Camp Held In Britain (http:/ / www1. voanews. com/ english/ news/ europe/ Anti-Terrorism-Summer-Camp-Held-In-Britain-100649109. html) [78] A call to prevent a clash of civilizations by Muhammad Tahir ul Qadri (http:/ / world. mediamonitors. net/ content/ view/ full/ 27484) [79] (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ english/ tid/ 3182/ A-New-Trend-in-Protest. html) [80] (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=n2Hspiq-590) [81] Top Islamic scholar issues absolute fatwa against terror (http:/ / www. nationalpost. com/ news/ story. html?id=2634649) [82] Al-Azhar University Certification (http:/ / www. yanabi. com/ index. php?/ topic/ 415493-drtahir-ul-qadris-histroic-fatwa-cetrtification-from-by-al-azhar-university) [83] Al-Azhar University Certification (http:/ / www. minhajpublications. com/ ?p=33) [84] (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 376/ Fatwa-Suicide-Bombing-and-Terrorism-by-Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-Qadri. html) [85] Archbishop of Canterbury joins Koran burning critics (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ uk-11245480) [86] Quran burning legacy would have lasted generations (http:/ / edition. cnn. com/ 2010/ OPINION/ 09/ 09/ qadri. quran/ index. html) [87] Islam and Politics (http:/ / www. mediamonitors. net/ qadri2. html) [88] The Constitution of Madina (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 194/ The-Constitution-of-Madina-(A-detailed-exposition-of-the-first-ever-written-constitution-in-human-history). html) [89] Manifesto of Pakistan Awami Tehreek (http:/ / pat. com. pk/ download/ PAT_Manifesto_en. pdf) [90] Tehrik-e-Nifaz-e-Fiqa-e-Jafria (http:/ / www. tnfj. org/ )
  • 98. Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri 96 [91] working plan for interest free banking (http:/ / www. islamicreviver. com/ 859/ dr-tahir-ul-qadris-historic-work-on-islamic-economy-interest-free-banking) [92] Moon Visibility & Sighting of the Crescent Moon (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ urdu/ tid/ 12437. html) [93] Qadri sends 41-page resignation to speaker (http:/ / www. dailytimes. com. pk/ default. asp?page=story_30-11-2004_pg7_15) [94] Statement of Resignation from The National Assembly (http:/ / www. minhaj. org/ images-db/ resignation-eng. pdf) [95] Present system backs powerful elite (http:/ / www. thenews. com. pk/ TodaysPrintDetail. aspx?ID=27329& Cat=5) [96] Tahir ul Qadri condemns governing setup (http:/ / www. pakistantoday. com. pk/ 2011/ 01/ tahir-ul-qadri-condemns-governing-setup/ ?printType=article) [97] Pak court orders action on Karachi violence (http:/ / zeenews. india. com/ news/ south-asia/ pak-court-orders-action-on-karachi-violence_735325. html) [98] Qadri urges people to rise against ‘corrupt system’ (http:/ / www. thenews. com. pk/ TodaysPrintDetail. aspx?ID=78407& Cat=5& dt=11/ 20/ 2011) [99] Youth urged to rebel against system (http:/ / nation. com. pk/ pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/ Regional/ Lahore/ 20-Nov-2011/ Youth-urged-to-rebel-against-system) [100] PAT drive announced (http:/ / nation. com. pk/ pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/ Regional/ Lahore/ 25-Nov-2011/ PAT-drive-announced) [101] Books of Dr. Tahir ul Qadri to Read Online (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com) [102] Online Store with Dr. Tahir ul Qadris Urdu, English and Arabic Books (http:/ / www. minhaj. co. uk) [103] prologue on Biography of Muhammad (http:/ / www. islamicreviver. com/ 2700/ dr-tahir-ul-qadris-unprecedented-work-in-islamic-history-on-the-pattern-of-muqaddima-ibn-khaldun) [104] Muqaddima-tus-Sirah ar-Rasul(Vol 1) (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 63/ Muqaddima-tus-Sirah-ar-Rasul-Vol-1-by-Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-Qadri. html) [105] Imam Abu Hanifa:Imam al-A’imma fi’l-Hadith (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 313/ Imam-Abu-Hanifa-Imam-al-Aimma-fil-Hadith-Part-1-by-Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-Qadri. html) [106] Kitab at-Tawhid (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 49/ Kitab-at-Tawhid-vol-1-by-Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-Qadri. html) [107] Notice of his income towards MQI in his book Creation of man page 1 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=uc47fHklYGYC& printsec=frontcover#v=onepage& q& f=false) [108] Righteous Character & Social Interactions: Al-Minhaj Al-Sawi Part 2 (http:/ / www. amazon. co. uk/ Righteous-Character-Social-Interactions-Al-Minhaj/ dp/ 1908229020) [109] Prophetic Virtues and Miracles: Al-Minhaj Al-Sawi Part 1 (http:/ / www. amazon. co. uk/ Prophetic-Virtues-Miracles-Al-Minhaj-Al-Sawi/ dp/ 1908229012) [110] The Glorious Quran (English Translation) (http:/ / www. minhajpublications. com/ ?p=114) [111] Sacred Boundaries: A Historical Fatwa on Terrorism (http:/ / www. amazon. co. uk/ Sacred-Boundaries-Historical-Fatwa-Terrorism/ dp/ 095518889X) [112] Irfan-ul-Quran (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 246/ Irfan-al-Qur’an. html) [113] Beseeching for Help (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 252/ Beseeching-for-Help---Istighathah. html) [114] Peace, Integration and Human Rights (http:/ / www. minhajpublications. com/ ?p=29) [115] (meanings, application and scope) (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 315/ Ijtihad-meanings-application-and-scope-by-Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-Qadri. htmlIjtihad) [116] Creation of Man (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 250/ Creation-of-Man. html) [117] Islamic Concept of Human Nature (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 263/ Islamic-Concept-of-Human-Nature-by-Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-Qadri. html) [118] and Criminality (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 261/ Islam-and-Criminality-by-Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-Qadri. htmlIslam) [119] Pearls of Remembrance (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 316/ Pearls-of-Remembrance. html) [120] Islam on Prevention of Heart Diseases (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 257/ Islam-on-Prevention-of-Heart-Diseases. html) [121] Islamic Concept of Intermediation (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 253/ Islamic-Concept-of-Intermediation---Tawassul. html) [122] The Constitution of Madina (http:/ / www. scribd. com/ doc/ 8915393/ The-Constitution-of-Islamic-State-of-Madina) [123] (http:/ / www. tahir-ul-qadri. com/ constitutions-for-humanity-–-al-hidayah-2009-sitting-05. html) [124] Islamic concept of knowledge (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 311/ Islamic-Concept-of-Knowledge. html) [125] Spiritualism and Magnetism (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 256/ Spiritualism-and-Magnetism-by-Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-Qadri. html) [126] Creation and Evolution of the Universe (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 277/ Creation-and-Evolution-of-the-Universe-by-Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-Qadri. html) [127] Islam and Freedom of Human Will Islam and Freedom of Human Will (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 266/ Islam-and-Freedom-of-Human-Will-by-Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-Qadri. html)
  • 99. Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri 97 [128] Islamic Concept of Law (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 267/ Islamic-Concept-of-Law-by-Shaykh-ul-Islam-Dr-Muhammad-Tahir-ul-Qadri. html) [129] Greetings and Salutations on the Prophet (‫( )ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭ ﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 255/ Greetings-and-Salutations-on-the-Prophet-(SAW). html) [130] The Islamic State (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ books/ images-books/ islamic-state/ islamic-state_1. pdf) [131] The Ghadir Declaration (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 248/ The-Ghadir-Declaration. html) [132] Virtues of Sayyedah Fatimah (http:/ / www. minhajbooks. com/ english/ bookid/ 278/ Virtues-of-Sayyedah-Fatimah. html) [133] Imam Bukhari and the Love of the Prophet [pbuh] (Al-Hidayah Series) (http:/ / www. minhajpublications. com/ ?p=25) [134] Talk on Rafal Yadain where he states he is Hanafi (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=d-phNU8IZwE) External links • Minhaj-ul-Quran Research Institute ( • Translation of the Holy Quran in English & Urdu ( • by Minhaj Ul Quran International- ( • Online Quran Project (,ur-tahir_qadri& show=both,quran-uthmani&format=rows&ver=1.00) includes the English and Urdu Quran translation by Tahir al-Qadri. • Books by Tahir ul Qadri to Read Online ( • Speeches by Tahir ul Qadri to Play & Download ( • The Official Website of Minhaj-ul-Quran ( • Minhaj Encyclopedia (Urdu) ( • Tahir ul-Qadris Legal Opinion against Terror: Fatwa Falls on Deaf Ears ( show_article.php/_c-476/_nr-1306/i.html) • Correct Islamic Faith International Association (CIFIA) ( • Fatwa on Suicide Bombings and Terrorism by Qadri ( • Downloadable lectures by Qadri (
  • 100. Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen 98 Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen Islamic scholar Al Uthaymeen Title Shaykh Born March 9, 1925 Unaizah, Saudi Arabia Died January 5, 2001 (aged 75) Unaizah, Saudi Arabia Ethnicity Arab Region Saudi Arabian scholar Maddhab Hanbali School tradition Salafi Main interests Fiqh Influences Abd ar-Rahman as-Saadi Muhammad Ash-Shanqeeti Abd al-Aziz ibn Baaz Sheikh Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Saalih ibn Muhammad ibn al-Uthaymeen at-Tamimi (Arabic: ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫( )ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﻟﺢ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻤﻲ‬March 9, 1925 – January 10, 2001) was one of the most prominent Sunni Islamic scholars of the latter half of the twentieth century. Born in Saudi Arabia, he memorised the Quran at an early age and studied under well known scholars of the time including: Abd ar-Rahman as-Saadi, Muhammad Ash-Shanqeeti, and Abd al-Aziz ibn Baaz. During his many years of study, he became renowned for his knowledge in fiqh, eventually compiling over fifty books on the subject.
  • 101. Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen 99 Biography Birth His full name was Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Saalih ibn Muhammad ibn al-Uthaymeen at-Tamimi . Sheikh Uthaymeen, as he was most known, was born in the city of Unayzah to a family in the Banu Tamim clan of the Quraysh tribe, in the Qaseem Region of Saudi Arabia on 27th Ramadan 1347 AH (1925 CE). Education He received his education from a number of well known scholars such as: Abd ar-Rahman ibn Naasir as-Saadi, Muhammad Amin ash-Shanqeeti, and Abd al-Aziz ibn Baaz. Career When he entered into teaching, a great number of students from inside and outside Saudi Arabia studied under him. He was known for his own unique style of interpretation and explanation of religious points. He is regarded by Salafis as being from among those scholars who served Islam without any type of religious prejudice and kept themselves away from the limitations of blind-following. According to Salafis, in giving religious verdicts Uthaymeens Fataawa (i.e., rulings/verdicts) are based on the methodology of the Salaf which is evidenced from Quran and Sunnah. He has roughly fifty compilations to his credit. Uthaymeen delivered lectures in the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca for over thirty-five years. His lectures encompassed various subjects including Aqidah, Fiqh, Hadith and Tafsir as well as books of theology by scholars such as Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn al-Qayyim. Before his death, he taught at the Sharia Faculty of Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University, Qaseem branch. He was also a member of the Senior Scholars Committee of Saudi Arabia, and was the imam and Khatib of the grand Mosque of Unayzah. Uthaymeen is regarded as one of the most influential scholars during the later part of the twentieth century, along with Muhammad Nassir ad-Deen al-Albani and Abdul Azeez ibn Abdullaah ibn Baaz. He was awarded the King Faisal International Award in the service to Islam on February 8, 1994. Character and Death He had many students from many countries over the years. Many students from all over the world still continue to benefit from his books and tapes. Uthaymeen died on Wednesday 15 Shawwal, 1421 AH (January 10, 2001 CE) at the age of seventy-five. He was buried in Mecca along with his peers among the scholars, including Abd-al-Aziz ibn Abd-Allah ibn Baaz. Works Shaikh Uthaymeens well known works include:
  • 102. Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen 100 Tafsir (Explanation of the meanings of the Quran) • Tafsir Ayat al-Kursi • Tafsir Juz Amma • Tafsir Surah al-Baqarah • Tafsir Surah al-Kahf Hadith (Sayings and Deeds of the Prophet Muhammad) • Kitab al-Ilm • Sharh Riyadh as-Saaliheen • Mustalahah Hadeeth Aqeedah (Islamic Creed) • Qawaaid Muthla fi Sifaati Allah wa Asmaaihil Husna • Qawl Mufiid ala Kitab al-Tawhid • Sharh al-Aqeedat Al-Hamawiyyah (link to English translation) [1] • Sharh al-Aqeedat Al-Waasittiyah • Sharh Kashf ash-Shubuhaat • Sharh Lumat al-Itiqad • Sharh Usool al-Iman (link to English translation) [2] • Sharh Usool al-Thalaathah (link to English translation) [3] • What you must believe about your Creator (Sharh Hadeeth Jibraeel) [4] • How do we believe in the Last Day? (Sharh Hadeeth Jibraeel) [5] • Are We Forced or do we have Free Will? (Sharh Hadeeth Jibraeel) [6] Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) • Fataawa Arkan Islam • Majmoo al-Fataawa • Ash-Sharh al-Mumti, an explanation of Zaad al-Mustaqni • Umdat al-Ahkam External links • Shaykh Uthaymeens Website [7] (Arabic language) • Some videos of Shaykh Uthaymeen [8] • Assorted Images and Press Clippings Regarding the Death of Shaykh Uthaymeen [9] • Interview with the Wife of Muhammad ibn Uthaymeen Regarding his Life [10] • Biographys Source [11] • Jewels of Guidance (selected words and incidents from the life of Shaykh Uthaymeen) [12] • Comprehensive collection of Shaykh Uthaymeen Articles and Books [13] • Shaykh Uthaymeen on innovations [14] • How Muslims Should Behave in Non-Muslim Societies by Shaykh Uthaymeen [15] • An Erudite and Devout Scholar with an Independent Opinion [16] [1] http:/ / muslimways. com/ library/ general/ aqeedah-belief-/ explanation-of-al-aqeedatul-hamawiyyah. html [2] http:/ / replay. waybackmachine. org/ 20090604013221/ http:/ / www. theclearpath. com/ viewtopic. php?t=24 [3] http:/ / replay. waybackmachine. org/ 20090604013231/ http:/ / www. theclearpath. com/ viewtopic. php?t=29 [4] http:/ / www. qsep. com/ books/ creator. html [5] http:/ / www. qsep. com/ books/ believelastday. html [6] http:/ / www. qsep. com/ books/ areweforced. html
  • 103. Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen 101 [7] http:/ / www. ibnothaimeen. com [8] http:/ / ulamaa. com/ index. php?/ category/ 1 [9] http:/ / www. fatwa-online. com/ scholarsbiographies/ 15thcentury/ ibnuthaymeen_whatthepaperssay. htm [10] http:/ / www. understand-islam. net/ Articles/ InterviewwithSh. Uthaimeen-swife. pdf [11] http:/ / www. famousmuslims. com/ SHEIKH%20MUHAMMAD%20IBN%20SALEH%20AL-UTHAYMEEN. htm [12] http:/ / www. fatwa-online. com/ jewelsofguidance/ ibnuthaymeen/ index. htm [13] http:/ / abdurrahman. org/ scholars/ IbnalUthaimeen. html [14] http:/ / muslimways. com/ library/ guard-your-faith/ bid-ah/ shaykh-uthaymeen-on-innovations. html [15] http:/ / muslimways. com/ islam-against-terrorism/ how-muslims-should-behave-in-non-muslim-societies-by-shaykh-uthaimeen. html [16] http:/ / www. yementimes. com/ article. shtml?i=1258& p=culture& a=2
  • 104. Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah ibn Baaz 102 Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah ibn Baaz Islamic scholar Abd al-‘Azīz ibn Bāz Title Shaykh Born November 21, 1910 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Died May 13, 1999 (aged 88) Ethnicity Arab Region Middle East Maddhab Hanbali Main interests Sharia, Fiqh, Hadith Influences Ibn Abd al Wahhab Influenced Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz (Arabic: ‫( )ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺎﺯ‬November 21, 1910 – May 13, 1999), was a Saudi Arabian Islamic scholar, considered as one of the renowned Muslim scholars of the twentieth century. He was the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia from 1993 until his death in 1999. Youth Ibn Baz was born in the city of Riyadh during the month of Dhu al-Hijjah, 1910 to a family with a reputation for their interest in Islam. His father died when he was only three, placing a big responsibility on his mother to raise him. When asked about his childhood, the sheikh said: “my father died when I was three years old, and I only had my mother who took care of me and educated me encouraging me to learn more about Shariah; she also died when I was twenty six.” By the time he was thirteen he had begun working, selling clothing with his brother in a market. Despite the fact that he helped a great deal in supporting his family, he still found time to study the Qur’an, Hadith, Fiqh, and Tafsir. In 1927, when he was sixteen, he started losing his eyesight after being afflicted with a serious infection in his eyes. By the time he was forty, he had totally lost his sight and had become blind.[1][2] Education At that time, Saudi Arabia lacked a modern, sophisticated university system. However, Ibn Baaz managed to learn a great deal through his constant reading of Islamic literature as well as his association with different scholars from whom he learned. These include:[3][4] • Abdullāh bin Fayrij whom he studied the Quran with at an early age. • Muhammad ibn Zayd, the chief judge in the Eastern region. • Rāshid ibn Sālih al-Khunayn. • Abdul-Latif ibn Muhammad ash-Shudayyid. • Abdullāh bin Abdur-Rahmān ibn Kimar • Abdullāh bin Quood. • Sālih ibn Hussayn al-Irāqi. • Abdul-Rahmān al- Warrāq. • The Mufti of his time, Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Abd al-Latif ash-Shaikh. Ibn Bāz studied under this scholar for ten years. He had studied all the branches of Shariah from him during the years 1927 until 1938. • Muhammad ibn Abd al-Latif ibn Abdur-Rahmān ibn Hassan ibn ash-Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhāb.
  • 105. Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah ibn Baaz 103 • Sa’ad ibn Hamad ibn Atiq, the chief judge of Riyadh at the time. • Hammad ibn Farris, under whom ibn Bāz studied the field of Arabic grammar. • Sa’ad Waqqās al-Bukhāri, one of Makkah’s most renowned scholars in Tajweed. • Sālih ibn Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdur-Rahmān ibn Hasan ibn Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhāb, one of the judges in the city of Riyadh. Career He had assumed a number of posts and responsibilities such as:[5] • The judge of Al Kharj district upon the recommendation of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Lateef ash-Shaikh from 1938 to 1951. • Held a teaching position in Riyadh at the Mahad al-Ilmee in 1951 • In 1951 after spending fourteen years in al-Kharj as a judge, he was transferred to Riyadh where he became a teacher in the Riyadh Institute of Science and taught in the Faculty of Sharia from 1951 to 1961. • In 1961 he was appointed Vice President, and later President, of the Islamic University of Madinah. • In 1970 he became the Chancellor of the University upon the death of Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem Aal ash-Shaykh and he remained chancellor until 1975. • In 1975 a royal decree named him Chairman of the Department of Scientific Research and Ifta with the rank of Minister. • In 1992 he was appointed Grand Mufti of the Saudi Arabia and Head of the Council of Senior Scholars and was granted presidency of the administration for scientific research and legal rulings. • President of the Permanent Committee for Research and Fatawa. • President and member of the Constituent Assembly of the World Muslim League. • President of the Higher World League Council. • President of the Islaamic Fiqh Assembly based in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. • Member of the Higher Council of the Islamic University of Medina. • Member of the Higher Committee for Islaamic Dawah in Saudi Arabia. Over the years, he held a large number of positions as president or member of various Islamic councils and committees, and chaired a number of conferences both within Saudi Arabia and overseas, in addition to writing a great number of books in different fields and issuing a large body of fatwa. In 1981 he was awarded the King Faisal International Prize for Service to Islam.[6][7] He was the only Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia not to come from the Al ash-Sheikh family.[8] Activities Ibn Bāz had undertaken a number of charitable and other activities such as:[6] • His endless support for Dawah organizations and Islamic centers in many parts of the world. • The establishment and supervision of schools for teaching the Quran. • The foundation of an organization that facilitates marriage for Muslim youth. • The popular radio program, Nurun AlaDarb ("light on the path"), in which he discussed many current issues and answered questions from listeners as well as providing fatwa if needed. Ibn Bāz was considered by many to be prolific speaker both in public and privately at his mosque. Like his books, his lectures and sermons were numerous and revolved frequently around the situation of the Muslim world. In addition, much of his time was devoted to the lessons he gave after Fajr prayer, teaching during the day, meeting delegates from Muslim countries and sitting with people after Maghrib prayer to provide counseling and advice on personal matters. He also used to invite people after Isha prayer to share a meal with him.[6]
  • 106. Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah ibn Baaz 104 Ibn Bāz was among the Muslim scholars who opposed regime change using violence.[9] He called for obedience to the people in power unless they ordered something that went against God.[10] Works The number of books written by Ibn Bāz exceeds sixty and the subject matter covered many topics such as Hadith, Tafsir, Faraed, Tawheed, Fiqh and also a great deal of books on Salat, Zakat, Dawah, Hajj and Umrah.[6] Death On Thursday morning, May 13, 1999, Ibn Bāz died at the age of 88. The next day, following Friday prayer, King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz, Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, Sultan bin Abdul Aziz, and hundreds of thousands of people performed the funeral prayer at the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca.[11] King Fahd issued a decree appointing Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh as the new Grand Mufti after Ibn Bāzs death.[12] In his career as the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, he attempted to both legitimize the rule of the ruling family and to support calls for the reform of Islam in line with Salafi ideals. Many criticized him for supporting the Saudi government when, after the Gulf War, it muzzled or imprisoned those regarded as too critical of the government, such as Safar al-Hawali and Salman al-Oudah. When Ibn Bāz died in 1999. The loss of "his erudition and reputation for intransigence" was so great the Saudi government was said to have "found itself staring into a vacuum" unable to find a figure able to "fill ibn Bāzs shoes."[13] His influence on the Salafi movement was large, and most of the prominent judges and religious scholars of Saudi Arabia today are former students of his. Controversies His obituary in The Independent said "His views and fatwas (religious rulings) were controversial, condemned by militants, liberals and progressives alike".[14] According to his obituary in The Economist, Ibn Baz "was an easy man to mock. His pronouncements—that the earth was flat, that photography of a living thing was immoral, that women who studied with men were no better than prostitutes—embarrassed the more liberal princes".[15] He was also criticized by hardline Salafists and Jihadists for supporting the decision to permit U.S. troops to be stationed in Saudi Arabia in 1991.[16] Cosmology In 1966, when Ibn Baz was vice-president of the Islamic University of Medina, he wrote an article denouncing Riyadh University for teaching the "falsehood" that the earth rotates and orbits the sun: "The Holy Quran, the Prophets teaching and the majority of Islamic scientists prove...that the sun is running in its orbit and...that the earth is fixed and stable".[17] King Faisal was reportedly so angered by this statement he ordered the burning of all copies of the article.[17] In 1982 Ibn Baz published a book, Jarayan al-shams wal qamar wa-sukan al-ard ("The Motion of the Sun and the Moon and the Stationarity of the Earth"), in which he repeated his belief that the sun orbited the earth.[18] He threatened all who did not accept his view with a fatwa of takfir, declaring them infidels.[19] Ibn Baz did not change his mind until 1985 when Prince Sultan bin Salman returned home after a week aboard the space shuttle Discovery to tell him that he had seen the earth rotate.[17]
  • 107. Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah ibn Baaz 105 Womens rights Criticism of Ibn Baz includes his harsh and inflexible attitudes towards women[20] and for being a bulwark of restrictions on womens rights.[21] Commenting on the Sharia rule that the testimony in court of one woman was insufficient, Ibn Baz said: "The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) explained that their shortcoming in reasoning is found in the fact that their memory is weak and that their witness is in need of another woman to corroborate it."[21] He also issued a fatwa against women driving cars, which may have been his most well known ruling.[22] He declared: "Depravity leads to the innocent and pure women being accused of indecencies. Allah has laid down one of the harshest punishments for such an act to protect society from the spreading of the causes of depravity. Women driving cars, however, is one of the causes that lead to that."[21] Gulf War During the Gulf War Ibn Bāz issued fatwa allowing the deployment of non-Muslim troops on Saudi Arabia soil to defend the Kingdom from the Iraqi army. Some noted that this was in contrast to his opinion in the 1940s, when he contradicted the government policy of Islamically allowing non-Muslims to be employed on Saudi soil.[23] However, according to The New York Times, his fatwa overruled more radical clerics.[22] In response to criticism, ibn Baz condemned those who "whisper secretly in their meetings and record their poison over cassettes distributed to the people."[22] Osama bin Laden Ibn Baz held the view of righteously following the Salaf (Predecessors)].[14] However, his views were, according to The Independent, not draconian enough for Osama bin Laden who condemned ibn Baz for "his weakness and flexibility and the ease of influencing him with the various means which the interior ministry practices".[14] Ibn Bāz was the subject of Osama bin Ladens first public pronouncement intended for the general Muslim public. This open letter condescendingly criticized him for endorsing the Oslo peace accord between the PLO and Israeli government.[24] Ibn Baz defended his decision to endorse the Oslo Accords by citing the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, saying that a peace treaty with non-Muslims has historical precedent if it can avoid the loss of life.[25][26] References [1] (http:/ / www. bin-baz. org. sa/ aboutbinbaz2. asp) [2] "Ad-Dawah Ilallah wa Akhlaaqud-Duaat" (pp. 37-43) [3] Main Page (http:/ / www. bin-baz. org. sa/ aboutbinbaz3. asp) [4] "Words of Advice Regarding Dawah" by Abdul Azeez ibn Abdullaah ibn Baaz (translated by Bint Feroz Deen and Bint Abd al-Ghafoor), Al-Hidaayah Publishing and Distribution, Birmingham: 1998, Page 9-10 [5] "Words of Advice Regarding Dawah" by Abdul Azeez ibn Abdullaah ibn Baaz (translated by Bint Feroz Deen and Bint Abd al-Ghafoor), Al-Hidaayah Publishing and Distribution, Birmingham: 1998, Page 10-11 [6] Saudi Gazette 14 May 1999 [7] Saudi Gazette (http:/ / www. bin-baz. org. sa/ aboutbinbaz4. asp) [8] AbuKhalil, Asʻad (2004). The battle for Saudia Arabia: royalty, fundamentalism, and global power. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-58322-610-0. [9] ‫( ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﻳﻀﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ‬http:/ / www. bin-baz. org. sa/ Display. asp?f=bz01531. htm) [10] ‫( ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﻻﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‬http:/ / www. bin-baz. org. sa/ Display. asp?f=bz01709. htm) [11] Main Page (http:/ / www. bin-baz. org. sa/ aboutbinbaz8. asp) [12] "New Saudi Grand Mufti" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ middle_east/ 345082. stm), BBC News, May 16, 1999. [13] Kepel, The War for Muslim Minds, 2004, p.186 [14] "Obituary: Sheikh Abdul Aziz bin Baz" (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ arts-entertainment/ obituary-sheikh-abdul-aziz-bin-baz-1093400. html). The Independent. 14 May 1999. . Retrieved 8 August 2011. [15] "Sheikh Bin Baz" (http:/ / www. economist. com/ node/ 207229). The Economist. May 20th 1999. . Retrieved 7 August 2011. [16] Brachman, Jarret (2008). Global jihadism: theory and practice (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=D_L5iDSTt9EC& pg=PA27& dq="bin+ baz"+ criticized+ troops#v=onepage& q& f=false). p. 27. ISBN 978-0-415-45241-0. . Retrieved 7 August 2011. [17] Watson, Mark (2008). Prophets and princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the present. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-470-18257-4. [18] Ruthven, Malise (2004). A fury for God: the Islamist attack on America. p. 148. ISBN 978-1-86207-573-3.
  • 108. Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah ibn Baaz 106 [19] Ruthven, Malise (2004). A fury for God: the Islamist attack on America. p. 149. ISBN 978-1-86207-573-3. [20] AbuKhalil, Asʻad (2004). The battle for Saudia Arabia: royalty, fundamentalism, and global power. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-58322-610-0. [21] Marshall, Paul A. (2005). Radical Islams rules: the worldwide spread of extreme Sharia law. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-7425-4362-1. [22] "Sheik Abdelaziz bin Baz, Senior Saudi Cleric and Royal Ally" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1999/ 05/ 14/ world/ sheik-abdelaziz-bin-baz-senior-saudi-cleric-and-royal-ally. html). The New York Times. May 14, 1999. . Retrieved 9 August 2011. [23] Kepel, The War for Muslim Minds, 2004, p.184 [24] Messages to the World, The Statements of Osama Bin Laden, Edited and Introduced by Bruce Lawrence, Translated by James Howarth, Verso, 2005 [25] al-Muslimoon Magazine, 21st Rajab 1415 AH [26] at-Tawheed Magazine, vol. 23, Issue #10 External links • The Official Site of Abd al-Aziz ibn Baaz ( (Arabic) • Some videos of bin Baaz ( • Biography of Ibn Baaz ( • Biography of Ibn Baaz – 2 ( com/viewtopic.php?t=11) • Assorted Images and Press Clippings Regarding the Death of Ibn Baaz ( scholarsbiographies/15thcentury/ibnbaaz_whatthepaperssay.htm) • Jewels of Guidance (selected words and incidents from the life of Abdul-Aziz ibn Baaz) (http://www. • Fatawa of Bin Baz ( PageNo=1&BookID=14&Rokn=false)
  • 109. Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani 107 Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani See Albani for other uses of that name. Islamic scholar Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albani Title Shaykh Born 1914 Shkodër, Albania Died October 4, 1999 (aged 85) Amman, Jordan Ethnicity Albanian Region Middle Eastern Scholar, originally from Europe School tradition Sunni Islam Main interests Hadith, Hadith sciences Influences Ahmad bin Hanbal, Dawud al-Zahiri, Ibn Hazm, Ibn Taymiyyah, Al-Dhahabi Influenced Rabee Al-Madkhali, Umar Sulayman al-Ashqar, Muqbil al-Wadii, Muhammad bin Jamil Zeno Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani (Arabic: ‫ – 4191( )ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻧﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﻧﻲ‬October 2, 1999) was an influential Albanian Sunni Islamic scholar of the 20th Century; he specialised in the fields of hadith and fiqh. He was also a prolific writer and speaker. Biography Early life Al-Albani was born into a poor family in the city of Shkodër. His father, Nasserudin, had completed Sharia studies in Istanbul and returned to Albania. During the reign of secularist Ahmet Zogu, al-Albanis family disagreed with the Western-influenced views of the government and migrated to Damascus. In Damascus, he completed his early education, and taught himself the Quran, Tajwid, Arabic linguistic sciences, Hanafi Fiqh and further branches of the religion with the help of native scholars.[1] In the meantime, he used to earn his living by working as a watchmaker, a trade he learned from his father.[1]
  • 110. Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani 108 Beginning of hadith studies By the age of twenty al-Albani began specializing in the field of hadith and its related sciences, becoming influenced by articles in Al-Manaar magazine. He began work in this field by transcribing Abd al-Rahim ibn al-Husain al-Iraqis monumental Al-Mughnee an-hamlil-Asfar fil-Asfar fee takhrej maa fil-lhyaa min al-Akhbar.[1] Scholastic career After some time he started giving two weekly classes attended by university students, teaching various books of Aqidah, Fiqh, Usul and Hadith. He also began organizing monthly journeys for dawah to various cities in Syria and Jordan. After a number of his works appeared in print, Al-Albani started to teach Hadith at the Islamic University of Madinah, for three years where he was also a member of the University board. Later he would return to his studies and work in the Az-Zahiriyah library, leaving his shop in the hands of one of his brothers.[1] He visited various countries for preaching and lectures – amongst them Qatar, Egypt, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Spain and the United Kingdom. He was forced to emigrate a number of times moving from Syria to Jordan, then Syria again, then Beirut, then the UAE, then again to Amman, Jordan.[1] Views The scholar Zayd Ibn Fayad said about him:[2] Indeed, Sheikh Muhammad Nasiruddin Al-Albani is from the most prominent and distinguished personalities of this era. He had great concern for the Hadith – its paths of transmission, its reporters and its levels of authenticity or weakness. This is an honorable task from the best things in which hours can be spent and efforts can be made. And he was like any other of the scholars – those who are correct in some matters and err in other matters. However, his devotion to this great science is from that which requires that his prestige be acknowledged and his endeavors in it be appreciated. Another scholar and teacher, Muhibb-ud-Deen Al-Khatib, said:[2][3] And from the callers to the Sunnah who devoted their lives to reviving it was our brother Muhammad Nasiruddin Nooh Najati Al-Albani. Dr. Muied-uz-Zafar of Indian administrated Kashmir has recently been awarded PhD on the contributions of Shaykh Nasir al-Din al-Albani by the Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) India. Zafars research speaks about many novel aspects of al-Albani. The dissertation deals with the life and contribution of the Shaikh to hadith literature at length. The last chapter of the work is exclusively based on the evaluation of the criticism written against Albani and attempts to deal with the issue in a balanced manner.[4] Works His works, mainly in the field of Hadith and its sciences, number over 100 and include:[1] 1. At-Targhib wat-Tarhib (Volumes 1–4) 2. At-Tasfiyyah wat-Tarbiyya 3. At-Tawassulu: Anwauhu wa Ahkamuhu (Tawassul: Its Types & Its Rulings) (link to english translation) [5] 4. Irwa al-Ghalil (Volumes 1–9) 5. Talkhis Ahkam al-Janaez 6. Sahih wa Daif Sunan Abu Dawood (Volumes 1–4) 7. Sahih wa Daif Sunan at-Tirmidhi (Volumes 1–4) 8. Sahih wa Daif Sunan ibn Majah (Volumes 1–4) 9. al-Aqidah at-Tahawiyyah Sharh wa Taliq
  • 111. Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani 109 10. Sifatu Salati An-Nabiyy (link to English translation) [6] 11. Silsalat al-Hadith ad-Daifa (Volumes 1–14) 12. Silsalat al-Hadith as-Sahiha (Volumes 1–11) 13. Salat ut-Tarawih (later an abridgement of this book was published by al-Albani – Qiyamu Ramadhan) 14. Salat an-Nabawi (the prayer of the prophet in the light of authentic hadiths) (link to english translation) [7] References [1] A Brief Biography of Ash-Shaikh Al-Muhaddith Abu Abdir-Rahmaan Muhammad Naasir-ud-Deen Al-Albaani by Dr. Aasim Abdullaah al-Qaryooti [2] al-Asalaah, Issue #23, Pg. 76–77 [3] Biography of Shaikh Muhammad Naasiruddin al-Albaani by Shaykh Ali Hasan al-Halabi [4] "Contribution of Shaykh Nasir al Din Albani to Hadith Literature",PhD thesis of Dr. Muied-uz-Zafar, Department of Islamic Studies, AMU, Aligarh, India, Supervisor: Professor Muhammad Mazhar Yasin Siddiqui, 2005) [5] http:/ / abdurrahman. org/ tawheed/ tawassul-albaani. htm [6] http:/ / www. usc. edu/ dept/ MSA/ fundamentals/ pillars/ prayer/ albaani/ prayer_1. html [7] http:/ / www. qibla. org/ pray. htm External links • Jewels of Guidance (selected words and incidents from the life of Shaykh al-Albani) (http://www.fatwa-online. com/jewelsofguidance/alAlbani/index.htm) • Imam Al-Albanis Subjugation Of Al-Buti ( • Comprehensive collection of al-Albani articles and books in English ( Albanee.html) • Al-Albani website (Arabic language) ( • The Authoratative Guide to Shaikh al-Albaani, Updated Regularly ( • Refutation of the book Al-Albani Unveiled ( • An Albanian fervent scholar of Prophetic Tradition ( aspx?SUB_ID=28799) • Immam al-Albani English site ( task=blogsection&id=11&Itemid=49)
  • 112. Ibn Taymiyyah 110 Ibn Taymiyyah Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiyyah Title Sheikh ul-Islam Born [1] 661 AH, or 1263 CE [2] Harran Died [1] 728 AH, or 1328 (aged 64–65) [2] Damascus Region Middle Eastern Scholar Maddhab Hanbali School tradition Ahl al-Hadith Notable ideas Return to Tawhid, Mills theory, inductive logic, analogical reasoning, critique of syllogism Influenced Ibn al-Qayyim (d 721 AH / 1350 CE), al-Mizzi (d 1341 CE), [3] al-Dhahabi (d 1347 CE), Ibn Muflih (d 1361 CE), [4] Ibn Kathir (d 1373 CE), Ibn Abi al-Izz (d 1390 CE), [1] Ibn Abd al Wahhab (d 1792 CE) Taqi ad-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (January 22, 1263–1328 CE), full name: Taqī ad-Dīn Abu l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm ibn ʿAbd as-Salām Ibn Taymiya al-Ḥarrānī (Arabic: ‫ﺗﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‬ ‫ ,)ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﻧﻲ‬was an Islamic scholar (alim), theologian and logician born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. He lived during the troubled times of the Mongol invasions. He was considered by his followers to be a member of the school founded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal and sought the return of Islam to what he viewed as earlier interpretations of the Quran and the Sunnah.
  • 113. Ibn Taymiyyah 111 Biography Ibn Taymiyya was born in 1263 at Harran into a well-known family of theologians and died in Damascus, Syria, outside of the Muslim cemetery. His grandfather, Abu al-Barkat Majd ad-deen ibn Taymiyyah al-Hanbali (d. 1255) was a reputable teacher of the Hanbali school of law. Likewise, the scholarly achievements of ibn Taymiyyahs father, Shihab al-deen Abd al-Haleem ibn Taymiyyah (d. 1284) were well known. Because of the Mongol invasion, ibn Taymiyyahs family moved to Damascus in 1268, which was then ruled by the Mamluks of Egypt. It was here that his father delivered sermons from the pulpit of the Umayyad Mosque, and ibn Taymiyyah followed in his footsteps by studying with the scholars of his time. Although some claim that he was of Kurdish origin there seems to be no evidence indicating such claim. Ibn Taymiyyah acquainted himself with the secular and religious sciences of his time. He devoted attention to Arabic literature and Image of Ghazan Khan, a historical figure harshly lexicography as well as studying mathematics and calligraphy. rebuked by Ibn Taymiyyah, mainly due to his As for the religious sciences, he studied jurisprudence from his constant state of hostility towards the Mamluks of father and became a representative of the Hanbali school of Egypt. thought. Though he remained faithful throughout his life to that school, whose doctrines he had mastered, he also acquired a knowledge of the Islamic disciplines of the Quran and the Hadith. He also studied theology (kalam), philosophy, and Sufism.[5] He was known for his refutations of the excesses of many Sufis, the Shia and the Christians. His student Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya wrote the famous poem "O Christ-Worshipper" which examined the dogma of the Trinity propounded by many Christian sects. His troubles with government began when he went with a delegation of ulama to talk to Ghazan Khan, the Khan of the Mongol Ilkhans in Iran, to stop his attack on the Muslims. It is reported that none of the ulama dared to say anything to the Khan except Ibn Taymiyyah who said: "You claim that you are Muslim and you have with you Muadhdhins, Muftis, Imams and Shaykhs but Ibn Taymiyyah witnessed conversions to Islam as a you invaded us and reached our country for what? growing trend among many Mongols. While your father and your grandfather, Hulagu were non-believers, they did not attack and they kept their promise. But you promised and broke your promise."[6] Ibn Taymiya was imprisoned several times for conflicting with the ijma of jurists and theologians of his day. He spent his last fifteen years in Damascus. The most famous of his students, Ibn Qayyim, was to share in Ibn Taymiyyahs renewed persecutions. From August 1320 to February 1321 Ibn Taymiyyah was imprisoned on orders from Cairo in the citadel of Damascus for supporting a doctrine that would curtail the ease with which a Muslim man could divorce his wife.
  • 114. Ibn Taymiyyah 112 Death When he was ultimately banned from having any books, papers and pens during the latter stage of his final imprisonment, Ibn Taymiyyah devoted all of his time to worship and reciting the Quran.[7] Ibn Taymiyyah died in prison on 22 Dhu al-Qidah, 728 AH (27 September 1328). Al-Bazzar says, Once the people had heard of his death, not a single person in Damascus who was able to attend the prayer and wanted to, remained until he appeared and took time out for it. As a result, the markets in Damascus were closed and all transactions of livelihood were stopped. Governors, heads, scholars, jurists came out. They say that none of the majority of the people failed to turn up, according to my knowledge - except three individuals; they were well known for their enmity for Ibn Taymiyyah and thus, hid away from the people out of fear for their lives." Views Gods attributes Ibn Taymiyyah rejected the recourse to kalam towards understanding the Asma Wa Sifat (Divine Names and Attributes of God) as that was not the precedence established by the salaf. He argued that the companions and the early generations didnt resort to philosophical explanations towards understanding the Divine Names and Attributes. He further argued that had salaf found any benefit in resorting to kalam they would have done it and encouraged it. Therefore, Ibn Taymiyyah was accused by his opponents that he was anthropomorphic in his stance towards Names and Attributes of God. In fact, in his book Kitabul Wasitiyyah, Ibn Taymiyyah refutes the stance of the Mushabbihah (those who liken the creation with God: anthropomorphism) and those who deny, negate, and resort to allegorical/metaphorical interpretations of the Divine Names and Attributes. He contends that the methodology of the salaf is to take the middle path between the extremes of anthropomorphism and negation/distortion. He further states that salaf affirmed all the Names and Attributes of God without tashbih (establishing likeness), takyeef (speculating as to "how" they are manifested in the divine), tateel (negating/denying their apparent meaning) and without taweel (giving it secondary/symbolic meaning which is different from the apparent meaning). Iby Taymiyyahs highly intellectual discourse at explaining "The Wise Purpose of God, Human Agency, and the Problems of Evil & Justice" using Gods attributes as a means has been illustrated by Dr. Jon Hoover in his work "Ibn Taymiyyahs Theodicy of Perpetual Optimism".[8] Although famous for polemic against Islamic philosophy, theology and rationalizing mysticism, Ibn Taymiyyahs positive theological contribution has not been well understood. Exposition and analysis of Ibn Taymiyyas writings on Gods justice and wise purpose, divine determination and human agency, the problem of evil, and juristic method in theological doctrine show that he articulates a theodicy of optimism in which God in His essence perpetually wills the best possible world from eternity. This sets Ibn Taymiyyas theodicy apart from Ashari divine voluntarism, the free-will theodicy of the Mutazilis, and the essentially timeless God of other optimists like Ibn Sina and Ibn Arabi. Mongol invasion and other struggles What has been called Ibn Taymiyyahs "most famous" fatwā[9] was issued against the Mongols (or Tatars), in the Mamluks war. Ibn Taymiyyah declared that jihad upon the Mongols was not only permissible, but obligatory. He based this ruling his argument that the Mongols could not, in his opinion, be true Muslims despite the fact that they had converted to Sunni Islam because they ruled using what he considered man-made laws (their traditional Yassa code) rather than Islamic law or Sharia. Because of this, he reasoned they were living in a state of jahiliyyah, or pre-Islamic pagan ignorance.[10][11] Apart from that, he led the resistance of the Mongol invasion of Damascus in 1300. In the years that followed, Ibn Taymiyyah was engaged in intensive polemic activity against: 1. the Kasrawan Shia in Lebanon,
  • 115. Ibn Taymiyyah 113 2. the Rifai Sufi order, 3. the ittihadiyah school, a school that grew out of the teaching of Ibn Arabi, whose views were widely denounced as heretical. In 1306 Ibn Taymiyyah was imprisoned in the citadel of Cairo for eighteen months on the charge of anthropomorphism. He was incarcerated again in 1308 for several months. In 2010 a group of Islamic Scholars in Mardin argued that Ibn Taymiyyas fatwa was misprinted into an order to "fight" the ruler who is not applying Islamic law, but rather it means to "treat".[12] They have based their understanding on the original manuscript in the Zaheer Library, and the transmission by Ibn Taymiyyas student Ibn Muflih.[13] Madhhab Ibn Taymiyyah censured the scholars for blindly conforming to the precedence of early jurists without any resort to the Quran and Sunnah. He contended that although juridical precedence has its place, blindly giving it authority without contextualization, sensitivity to societal changes, and evaluative mindset in light of the Quran and Sunnah can lead to ignorance and stagnancy in Islamic Law. Ibn Taymiyyah likened the extremism of Taqlid (blind conformity to juridical precedence or school of thought) to the practice of Jews and Christians who took their rabbis and ecclesiastic as gods besides God. Ibn Taymiyyah held that much of the Islamic scholarship of his time had declined into modes that were inherently against the proper understanding of the Quran and the Sunnah. He strove to: 1. revive the Islamic faiths understanding of true adherence to Tawhid, 2. eradicate beliefs and customs that he held to be foreign to Islam, and 3. to rejuvenate correct Islamic thought and its related sciences. Ibn Taymiyyah believed that the first three generations of Islam (Arabic: Salaf) – Muhammad, his companions, and the followers of the companions from the earliest generations of Muslims – were the best role models for Islamic life. Their practice, together with the Quran, constituted a seemingly infallible guide to life. Any deviation from their practice was viewed as bid‘ah, or innovation, and to be forbidden. He also praised and wrote a commentary on some of the speeches of Abdul-Qadir Gilani.[14] He criticized the views and actions of the Rafaiyah. Non-Muslims Ibn Taymiyyah strongly opposed borrowing from Christianity or other non-Muslim religions. In his text On the Necessity of the Straight Path (kitab iqtida al-sirat al-mustaqim) he preached that the beginning of Muslim life was the point at which "a perfect dissimilarity with the non-Muslims has been achieved." To this end he opposed the celebration of the observance of the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad or the construction of mosques around the tombs of Sufi saints saying: "Many of them [the Muslims] do not even know of the Christian origins of these practices."[15] Intercession Opponents and critics of Ibn Taymiyyah claim that he rejected intercession completely as proved in Quran and Sunnah. However, his proponents argue citing evidence from his writings that the type of intercession Ibn Taymiyyah rejected was the type not sanctioned by the Quran or Sunnah and neither by the conduct of Salaf. In fact, Ibn Taymiya upheld that anyone who rejected the Intercession of Muhammad on the Day of Judgement had indeed disbelieved. He also affirmed that God will allow the martyrs, scholars, memorizers of Quran, and angels to intercede on behalf of the believers on the Day of Judgement. However, what he condemned was asking them while they are no longer alive for their intercession since two conditions of Intercession are that God chooses the intercessor, and chooses the people on whose behalf intercession is possible. Therefore, God should be asked when
  • 116. Ibn Taymiyyah 114 intercession is sought. Furthermore, Ibn Taymiyyah states that types of intercession that are legal are: 1. Intercession through the Names and Attributes of God, 2. Intercession through ones good deed, 3. Intercession through requesting the righteous people who are alive for dua. He further explains that on the day of Judgement, Muhammad and everyone else will be alive and therefore, their intercession can be sought just like in this world, people ask others to make a supplication for them. Ibn Taymiyyah rejected the notion that saints and prophets should be invoked for intercession while they have departed from this world. Shrines Ibn Taymiyyah opposed giving any undue religious honors to shrines (even that of Jerusalem, the Al-Aqsa Mosque), to approach or rival in any way the Islamic sanctity of the two most holy mosques within Islam, Mecca (Masjid al-Haram) and Medina (Al-Masjid al-Nabawi).[16] Ibn Taymiyyah duly eulogized the Ghaznavid ruler, stating that: He commanded that Ahlul Bidah be publicly cursed on the minbars, and as a result the Jahmiyyah, Rafida, Hulooliyah, Mutazilah, and Qadariyah were all publicly cursed, along with the Asharites.[17] Ibahah Muslim jurists have long held that the legal tradition initiated by the Quran includes a principle of permissibility, or Ibahah (Arabic ‫ ,)ﺇﺑﺎﺣﺔ‬especially as applied to commercial transaction. "Nothing in them [voluntary transactions] is forbidden," said Ibn Taymiyyah, "unless God and His Messenger have decreed them to be forbidden." The idea is founded upon two verses in the Quran, 4:29 and 5:1. Analogical reasoning Later, Ibn Taymiyyah argued against the certainty of syllogistic arguments and in favour of analogy (Qiyas). His argument is that concepts founded on induction are themselves not certain but only probable, and thus a syllogism based on such concepts is no more certain than an argument based on analogy. He further claimed that induction itself is founded on a process of analogy. His model of analogical reasoning was based on that of juridical arguments.[18][19] This model of analogy has been used in the recent work of John F. Sowa.[19] Ibn Arabi Ibn Taymiyyahs views on Ibn Arabi, who (though a controversial figure) is often cited as the greatest master of the Islamic gnostic tradition and one of the most influential Islamic thinkers ever, are well-documented. In his book Friends of God and Friends of the Devil, Ibn Taymiyyah brands Ibn Arabi an unbeliever, citing passages from Ibn Arabis Fusus al-Hikam (Bezels of Wisdom), claiming that they show that Ibn Arabi was a supporter of Pharaoh. In fact, the aforementioned passages are often misinterpreted or misunderstood, and Ibn Arabi makes abundantly clear in numerous works (amongst them, his Book of the Fabulous Gryphon of the West) that he considered Pharaoh a tyrant and an unbeliever. Ibn Taymiyyahs attacks on Ibn Arabi drew the ire of many Sufis and even led the famous Sufi and Islamic scholar Ibn Ata Allah al-Iskandari to devote a significant portion of the last years of his life writing refutations of Ibn Taymiyyahs attacks on Ibn Arabi.
  • 117. Ibn Taymiyyah 115 Economic views He elaborated a circumstantial analysis of the market mechanism, with a theoretical insight unusual in his time. His discourses on the welfare advantages and disadvantages of market regulation and deregulation, have an almost contemporary ring to them.[20] Ibn Taymiyyah commenting on the power of supply and demand: "If desire for goods increases while its availability decreases, its price rises. On the other hand, if availability of the good increases and the desire for it decreases, the price comes down."[21] Works Ibn Taymiyyah left a considerable body of work (350 works listed by his student Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya[22] and 500 by his student al-Dhahabi[23]) that has been republished extensively in Syria, Egypt, Arabia, and India. Extant books and essays written by ibn Taymiyyah include: • A Great Compilation of Fatwa—(Majmu al-Fatwa al-Kubra) This was collected centuries after his death, and contains several of the works mentioned below. • Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah—(The Pathway of as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah)—Volumes 1–4 • Al-Aqidah Al-Waasitiyyah—(The Creed to the People of Wāsiṭ) • Darʾ taʿāruḍ al-ʿaql wa al-naql (The rejection of the conflict between reason and revelation)—10 Volumes. Also called Al-Muwāfaqa ("harmony"). • Majmoo al-Fatawa—(Compilation of Fatawa) Volumes 1–36 • al-Aqeedah Al-Hamawiyyah—(The Creed to the People of Hama, Syria) • al-Asma was-Sifaat—(Allahs Names and Attributes) Volumes 1–2 • al-Iman—(Faith) • al-Jawab as Sahih li man Baddala Din al-Masih (Literally, "The Correct Response to those who have Corrupted the Deen (Religion) of the Messiah"; A Muslim theologians response to Christianity)—seven volumes, over a thousand pages. • as-Sarim al-Maslul ‘ala Shatim ar-Rasul—The Drawn Sword against those who insult the Messenger. Written in response to an incident in which Ibn Taymiyyah heard a Christian insulting Muhammad. The book is well-known because he wrote it entirely by memory, while in jail, and quoting more than hundreds of references.[24] • Fatawa al-Kubra • Fatawa al-Misriyyah • ar-Radd ala al-Mantiqiyyin (Refutation of Greek Logicians) • Naqd at-Tasis • al-Uboodiyyah—(Subjection to God) • Iqtida as-Sirat al-Mustaqim—(Following The Straight Path) • al-Siyasa al-shariyya • at-Tawassul wal-Waseela • Sharh Futuh al-Ghayb—(Commentary on Revelations of the Unseen by Abdul-Qadir Gilani) Some of his other works have been translated to English. They include: • The Friends of Allah and the Friends of Shaytan • Kitab al Iman: The Book of Faith • Diseases of the Hearts and their Cures • The Relief from Distress • Fundamentals of Enjoining Good & Forbidding Evil • The Concise Legacy • The Goodly Word
  • 118. Ibn Taymiyyah 116 • The Madinan Way • Ibn Taymiyya against the Greek logicians • Muslims Under Non-Muslim Rule References [1] "Ibn Taymiyyah: Profile and Biography" (http:/ / atheism. about. com/ library/ FAQs/ islam/ blfaq_islam_taymiyyah. htm). 2009-10-29. . Retrieved 2010-06-09. [2] "Ibn Taymiyya, Taqi al-Din (661-728 AH)/ (1263–1328 CE)" (http:/ / www. muslimphilosophy. com/ ip/ rep/ H039. htm). . Retrieved 2010-06-09. [3] Mountains of Knowledge, pg 222 [4] Mountains of Knowledge, pg 220 [5] see aqidatul-waasitiyyah daarussalaam publications [6] "SCHOLARS BIOGRAPHIES 8th Century Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah" (http:/ / www. fatwa-online. com/ scholarsbiographies/ 8thcentury/ ibntaymiyyah. htm). . Retrieved 2010-06-09. [7] Classical and Contemporary Muslim and Islamic Books in English (http:/ / www. bysiness. co. uk/ ulemah/ bioibntaymiyah. htm) [8] Hoover, Jon (2007). Ibn Taymiyyas Theodicy of Perpetual Optimism (http:/ / www. brill. nl/ ibn-taymiyyas-theodicy-perpetual-optimism) ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Leiden: Brill. pp. xii, 276. ISBN 9789004158474. . [9] Janin, Hunt. Islamic law : the Sharia from Muhammads time to the present by Hunt Janin and Andre Kahlmeyer , McFarland and Co. Publishers, 2007 p.79 [10] "Taqi al-Deen Ahmad Ibn Taymiyya" (http:/ / www. pwhce. org/ taymiyyah. html). . Retrieved 2010-06-09. [11] Kepel, Gilles, The Prophet and the Pharaoh, (2003), p.194 [12] al-Turayri,, Shaykh Abd al-Wahhab. "The Mardin Conference – Understanding Ibn Taymiyyah’s Fatwa" (http:/ / muslimmatters. org/ 2010/ 06/ 29/ the-mardin-conference-–-a-detailed-account/ ). MuslimMatters. . Retrieved 29 May 2011. [13] "A religious basis for violence misreads original principles" (http:/ / www. thenational. ae/ thenationalconversation/ comment/ a-religious-basis-for-violence-misreads-original-principles). . Retrieved 2012-10-04. [14] G. F. Haddad (1996-03-20). "IBN TAYMIYYA ON FUTOOH AL-GHAYB AND SUFISM" (http:/ / www. abc. se/ ~m9783/ n/ itaysf_e. html). . Retrieved 2011-03-24. [15] Muhammad `Umar Memon, Ibn Taymiyyas Struggle against Popular Religion, with an annotated translation of Kitab Iqitada, the Hague, (1976) p.78, 210 [16] "A Muslim Iconoclast (Ibn Taymiyyeh) on the Merits of Jerusalem and Palestine", by Charles D. Matthews, Journal of the American Oriental Society, volume 56 (1935), pp. 1–21. [Includes ah, Shaykh al-Jasim, pg. 155 [17] al-Jasim, pg. 155 [18] Ruth Mas (1998). "Qiyas: A Study in Islamic Logic" (http:/ / www. colorado. edu/ ReligiousStudies/ faculty/ mas/ LOGIC. pdf). Folia Orientalia 34: 113–128. ISSN 0015-5675. . [19] John F. Sowa; Arun K. Majumdar (2003). "Analogical reasoning" (http:/ / www. jfsowa. com/ pubs/ analog. htm). Conceptual Structures for Knowledge Creation and Communication, Proceedings of ICCS 2003. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ., pp. 16–36 [20] Baeck, Louis (1994). The Mediterranean tradition in economic thought. Routledge. p. 99. ISBN 0-415-09301-5. [21] Hosseini, Hamid S. (2003). "Contributions of Medieval Muslim Scholars to the History of Economics and their Impact: A Refutation of the Schumpeterian Great Gap". In Biddle, Jeff E.; Davis, Jon B.; Samuels, Warren J.. A Companion to the History of Economic Thought. Malden, MA: Blackwell. pp. 28. doi:10.1002/9780470999059.ch3. ISBN 0-631-22573-0 [22] "Ibn Taimiyah" (http:/ / www. usc. edu/ dept/ MSA/ introduction/ wasiti/ taimiyah_3. html#HEADING3). . Retrieved 2010-06-09. [23] M.M. Sharif, A History of Muslim Philosophy, Pakistan Philosophical Congress, p. 798 [24] "Ibn Taymiyyah wrote the entire book ‘as-Sarim al-Maslul’ from memory!" (http:/ / iskandrani. wordpress. com/ 2008/ 02/ 07/ ibn-taymiyyah-wrote-the-entire-book-as-sarim-al-maslul-from-memory/ ). 2008-02-07. . Retrieved 2010-06-09. Also: • Kepel, Gilles – Muslim extremism in Egypt: The Prophet and pharaoh. With a new preface for 2003. Translated from French by Jon Rothschild. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2003. See p. 194–199. • Little, Donald P. – "Did Ibn Taymiyya have a screw loose?", Studia Islamica, 1975, Number 41, pp. 93–111. • Makdisi, G. – "Ibn Taymiyya: A Sufi of the Qadiriya Order", American Journal of Arabic Studies, 1973 • Sivan, Emmanuel – Radical Islam: Medieval theology and modern politics. Enlarged edition. New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1990. See p. 94–107. • Michot, Yahya – Ibn Taymiyya: Muslims under non-Muslim Rule. Texts translated, annotated and presented in relation to six modern readings of the Mardin fatwa. Foreword by James Piscatori. Oxford & London: Interface Publications, 2006. ISBN 0-9554545-2-2.
  • 119. Ibn Taymiyyah 117 External links • French website devoted to Ibn Taymiyya (His life and his works) ( • Britannica Concise Encyclopedia ( • Collection of internet articles/resources ( • The Life, Struggles, Works and Impact of Shaikh ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah ( php?name=assunnah&d_op=viewarticle&aid=183) • Refutation of Accusation Against Ibn Taymiyya by Abu Rumaysah ( htm) • Shaykh ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyahs letters from prison ( ibn-taymiyyah-s-letters-from-prison.html) • Between Shaykul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah and Contemporary Takfiris On The Issue of Rebellion Against Tyranny and Injustice ( • Diagram of teachers and students of Ibn Taymiyah ( muhammad-ibn-abdullah-lineage-and-family-tree/ students-sheikhs-and-teachers-of-famous-muslim-imams-and-scholars-in-muslim-history.php?id=618) • Shia treatment on Ibn Taymiyyah (
  • 120. Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya 118 Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya Not to be confused with the other Islamic scholar Ibn al-Jawzi. Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah Born AH 691 (AD 1292/3) Damascus Died AH 751 (AD 1349/50) Era Ilkhanid/Mamluk Region Syria School Hanbali Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (also known as Ibn Qayyim ("The son of the principal") or Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah ("Son of the principal of the (school of) Jawziyyah")) (1292-1350CE / 691 AH- 751 AH) was a Sunni Islamic jurist, commentator on the Quran, astronomer, chemist, philosopher, psychologist, scientist and theologian. Although he is sometimes referred to as "the scholar of the heart," given his extensive works pertaining to human behavior and ethics, Ibn Qayyims scholarship was focused on the sciences of Hadith and Fiqh. Name Full name: Title Honorific Father Sons His name Son Fathers Son Grandfathers Country Madhhab of name of name of nameImam Shams-al-Din Abu Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn Abi ibn Sad al-Dimashqi al-Hanbali al-Zari Ibn al-Jawziyyah Bakr Qayyim In correct order: Arabic: ‫ﺷﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑﻲ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ،ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺯﻳﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬ He is Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr (‫ ,)ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑﻲ ﺑﮑﺮ‬son of Ayyub, son of Sad al-Zari, al-Dimashqi (‫,)ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺸﻘﻲ‬ patronymed as Abu Abdullah Shamsu-Deen (‫ ,)ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺷﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﯾﻦ‬and known as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, named after his father who was an attendant (qayyim) at a local school named Al-Jawziyyah. Biography Birth and education Ibn Qayyim was born on the 7th of the Islamic month Safar in the year 691 A.H. (circa Feb. 4, 1292) in the village of Izra in Hauran, near Damascus, Syria. There is little known of his childhood except that he received a comprehensive Islamic education from his father, centered around Islamic jurisprudence, Islamic theology, and Ulum al-Hadith (lit. the science of Hadith) From an early age, he was interested in the field of Islamic sciences, learning from the scholars of his time . He studied under his father who was a principal at of the Madrasah al-Jawziyyah (lit. the Jawziyyah school) one of the few centres devoted to Hanbali school of thought in Damascus, and thereafter pursued his quest for knowledge, studying the works and teachings of scholars known in his time. The Islamic scholar Ibn Kathir described Ibn Qayyims desire for knowledge in his famous work Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah: He acquired from such books what others could not acquire, and he developed a deep understanding of the books of the Salaf (pious predecessors) and of the khalaf (those who came after the Salaf).[1]
  • 121. Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya 119 Teachers Ibn Qayyims teachers included his father, Abu Bakr, Shihaab al-Abir, Taqiyyud-Deen Sulaymaan, Safiyyud-Deen al-Hindee, Ismaaeel Ibn Muhammad al-Harraanee. However, the most notable of his teachers was Ibn Taymiyyah, whom he accompanied and studied under for sixteen years. In eulogizing Ibn Qayyim, Al-Hafidh Ibn Kathir stated: He attained great proficiency in many branches of knowledge; particularly knowledge of tafsir, hadith, and usool. When Shaykh Taqiyyud-Deen Ibn Taymiyyah returned from Egypt in the year 712H (c. 1312), he stayed with the Shaykh until he died; learning a great deal of knowledge from him, along with the knowledge that he had already occupied himself in attaining. So he became a single Scholar in many branches of knowledge.[2] Manners and worship Many of Ibn Qayyims students and contemporaries have bore witness to his manners of worship. For instance, Al-Hafidh Ibn Rajab emphasized : He was constant in worship and performing tahajjud (the night Prayer), reaching the limits in lengthening his Salah (Prayer) and devotion. He was constantly in a state of dhikr (remembrance of Allah) and had an intense love for Allah. He also had a deep love for turning to Allah in repentance, humbling himself to Him with a deep sense of humility and helplessness. He would throw himself at the doors of Divine obedience and servitude. Indeed, I have not seen the likes of him with regards to such matters.[3] Additionally, Ibn Kathir stated that Ibn Qayyim : Was constant in humbly entreating and calling upon his Lord. He recited well and had fine manners. He had a great deal of love and did not harbour any envy or malice towards anyone, nor did he seek to harm or find fault with them. I was one of those who most often kept company with him and was one of the most beloved of people to him. I do not know of anyone in the world in this time, who is a greater worshipper than he is. His Salah used to be very lengthy, with prolonged Ruku (bowing) and prostrations. His colleagues would criticise him for this, yet he never retorted back, nor did he abandon this practice. May Allah bestow His Mercy upon him.[4] Disciple of Sheikh ul Islam Ibn Taymiyah Ibn Qayyim ultimately joined the study circle of the Muslim scholar Sheikh ul-Islam Taqiyyu-Deen Ahmad Ibn Taymiyah, 661H – 728H (1263–1328), who kept him in his company as his closest student, disciple and his successor. Ibn Qayyim was fervent in his devotion to Islam, and he was a loyal student and disciple of Ibn Taymiyah. He defended his religious opinions and approaches, and he compiled and edited most of his works, and taught the same. Because of their views, both the teacher and the student were persecuted, tortured by tyrannic rulers, and humiliated in public by the local authorities, as they were imprisoned in a single cell in the central prison of Damascus, known today as al-Qala.
  • 122. Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya 120 Following the Death of Ibn Taymiyah When Ibn Taymiyyah died, Ibn Qayyim was freed and subsequently furthered his studies, holding study circles and classes. He taught Islamic Jurisprudence at al-Sadriyya school in Damascus, before he held the position of the Imam of the Jawziyyah school. Most of his writings were compilations, although he authored several books and manuscripts with his own handwriting which are preserved in the central Library of Damascus. Among the renowned Muslim scholars who studied under him, include Ibn Abd al-Haadi (d. 744H), al-Fayruz Aabadi (d. 817H), Ibn Rajab (d. 795H), Ibn Kathir, and others who frequented his circles. In praising his teacher, Ibn Kathir stated : He was most friendly and kindhearted, he never envied anyone, he never caused harm to anyone, he never bore prejudice against anyone, and I was the closest to his heart. Furthermore, I do not know anyone who is more devout in his worship than he is in our time.[5] Ibn Qayyim catered to all the branches of Islamic science, and was particularly known and commended for his commentaries. Ibn Rajab spoke of his teacher, noting : : "He was an accomplished scholar of Islamic science, and no one could rival him in his deep understanding of the Quran and prophetic saying, and his interpretations were unique in accuracy." Spiritual Life Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah was an avid and a resolute worshipper. He devoted long hours to his supererogatory nightly prayers, and was in a constant state of remembrance (dhikr ‫ ,)ﺫﮐﺮ‬as he was known for his extended prostrations. During Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyahs imprisonment in al-Qala prison in Damascus, he was constantly reading the Quran, and studying its meanings. Ibn Rajab noted that during that period of seclusion, he gained extensive spiritual success, as well as he developed a great analytical wisdom, knowledge, and understanding of the prophetic traditions. Upon his release, he performed the pilgrimage to Makkah several times, and sometimes he stayed in Makkah for a prolonged period of devotion and circumambulation of the holy Kaba. Death Ibn Qayyim died at the age of sixty, on the 13th night of Rajab, 751 AH (c. September 23, 1350), and was buried besides his father at al-Saghīr Cemetery. Views Natural sciences Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah was also an astronomer and chemist, and a critic of alchemy and astrology. In his Miftah Dar al-SaCadah, he used empirical arguments in astronomy and chemistry in order to refute the practice of alchemy and astrology along with the theories associated with them, such as divination and the transmutation of metals.[6] He recognized that the stars are much larger than the planets, and thus argued:[7] "And if you astrologers answer that it is precisely because of this distance and smallness that their influences are negligible, then why is it that you claim a great influence for the smallest heavenly body, Mercury? Why is it that you have given an influence to al-Ras and al-Dhanab, which are two imaginary points [ascending and descending nodes]?" He also recognized the Milky Way galaxy as "a myriad of tiny stars packed together in the sphere of the fixed stars" and thus argued that "it is certainly impossible to have knowledge of their influences."[7]
  • 123. Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya 121 Legacy Works Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyahs contributions to the Islamic library are extensive, and they particularly deal with the Quranic commentaries, and understanding and analysis of the prophetic traditions (Fiqh-us Sunnah) (‫:) ﻓﻘﻪ‬ • Zad al-Maad (Provision of the hereafter) • Al-Waabil Sayyib minal kalim tayyib – a commentary on hadith about Prophet Yahya ibn Zakariyya. • Ilaam ul Muwaqqieen an Rabb il Aalameen (Information for Those who Write on Behalf of the Lord of the Worlds) • Tahthib Sunan Abi Daud • Madaarij Saalikeen which is a rearrangement of the book by Shaikh Abu Ismail al-Ansari al-Harawi al-Sufi, Manazil-u Saireen (Stations of the Seekers); • Tafsir Muawwadhatain (Tafsir of Surah Falaq and Nas); • Badāʾiʿ al-Fawāʾid (‫ :)ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ‬Amazing Points of Benefit • Ad-Dāi wa Dawā also known as Al Jawābul kāfi liman saala an Dawāi Shaafi • Haadi Arwah ila biladil Afrah • Uddat as-Sabirin wa Dhakhiratu ash-Shakirin (‫)ﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺑﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺫﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻛﺮﻳﻦ‬ • Ighadatu lahfan fi masayid shaytan: Aid for the Yearning One in Resisting the Shayṭān • Rawdhatul Muhibbīn • Ahkām ahl al-dhimma" • Tuhfatul Mawdud bi Ahkam al-Mawlud: A Gift to the Loved One Regarding the Rulings of the Newborn • Miftah Dar As-Saadah • Jala al-afham fi fadhl salati ala khayral anam • Al-Manar al-Munif • Al-Tibb al-Nabawiya – a book on Prophetic Medicine (available in English as "The Prophetic Medicine", printed by Dar al-Fikr in Beirut (Lebanon), or as "Healing with the Medicine of the Prophet (sal allahu `alayhi wa salim)", printed by Darussalam Publications. • Al-Furusiyya[8] • Shifa al-Alil (Healing of the Sick) • Mukhtasar al-Sawaiq • Hadi al-Arwah ila Bilad al-Arfah (Spurring Souls on to the Realms of Joy) Students and intellectual heirs Amongst his most prominent students were: Ibn Kathir (d. 774H or c. 1373), Al-Dhahabi (d. 748H or c. 1347), Ibn Rajab (d. 795H or c. 1393) and Ibn Abdul-Haadee (d. 744H or c. 1343), as well as two of his sons, Ibraaheem and Sharafud-Deen Abdullaah. Sunni view Testaments about Ibn Qayyims comprehensive knowledge and firm adherence to the way of the Salaf (Pious Predecessors) have been given by a number of Scholars. They include: • The famed scholar, Al-Haafidh Ibn Rajab who noted that Ibn Qayyim : Had deep knowledge concerning tafseer and fundamentals of the Religion, reaching the highest degree concerning them both. Similar was the case in the field of hadith, with regards to understanding its meanings, subtleties and deducing rulings from them. Likewise was the case in the field of fiqh and its principles, as well as the Arabic language.[9] • The widely-known muhaddith, Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar, stated that Ibn Qayyim :
  • 124. Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya 122 Possessed a courageous spirit as well as vast and comprehensive knowledge. He had deep knowledge concerning the differences of opinions of the Scholars and about the ways of the Salaf.[10] • The famous Egyptian scholar, Suyuti emphasized : His books had no equal and he strove and traversed the path of the great Imams in (the field of) tafseer, hadith, fundamentals, branches and the Arabic language.[11] • The notable Hanafi scholar, Ali al-Qari, stated : It will be clear to whoever aspires to read the explanation of Manaazilus-Saaireen, that they (i.e. both Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn Qayyim) are from the great ones of Ahl Al-Sunna Wal-Jamaa, and from the righteous of this Ummah.[12] References [1] Dhayl Tabaqaatul-Hanaabilah, 4/449 [2] Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, (14/234) [3] Dhayl Tabaqaatul- Hanaabilah (4/450) [4] Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah (14/234) [5] Al-Bidayah wa Nihayah [6] Livingston, John W. (1971). "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah: A Fourteenth Century Defense against Astrological Divination and Alchemical Transmutation". Journal of the American Oriental Society 91 (1): 96–103. doi:10.2307/600445. JSTOR 600445 [7] Livingston, John W. (1971). "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah: A Fourteenth Century Defense against Astrological Divination and Alchemical Transmutation". Journal of the American Oriental Society 91 (1): 96–103 [99]. doi:10.2307/600445. JSTOR 600445 [8] ed. Nizam al-Din al-Fatih, Madinah al Munawara: Maktaba Dar al-Turath, 1990. [9] Dhayl Tabaqaatul-Hanaabilah (4/448) [10] ad-Durarul-Kaaminah (4/21) [11] Baghiyyatul-Wiaat (1/62) [12] Al-Mirqaat (8/251) External links • "Short Biography of Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya" ( Retrieved 2010-04-12. • "Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah" ( Retrieved 2010-04-12.</ref> • Articles and Book Collection ( • ( • Books (ÇáÌæÒíÉ) • • "IslamWeb" ( IslamWeb. Retrieved 2010-04-12. • "The Hardness of The Heart" ( html). Retrieved 2010-04-12. • islamic-universalism-ibn-qayyim-al-jawziyya-s-salafi-deliberations-on-the-duration-of-hellfire
  • 125. Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab 123 Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb Born 1703 Uyayna, Najd Died 1792 (aged 88–89) Emirate of Diriyah Era 18th century Region Arabian Peninsula School/tradition Hanbali[1] Notable ideas Views on innovations within Islam (bid‘ah), Islamic monotheism (Tawhid) and polytheism (shirk) Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab (Arabic: ‫ 22 – 3071 ;ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ‬June 1792)[2] was an Arabian Islamic theologian and founder of the Khat abusers movement[3] whose pact with Muhammad bin Saud helped to establish the first Saudi state[4] and began a dynastic alliance and power-sharing arrangement between their families which continues to the present day.[5] The descendants of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, the Al ash-Sheikh, have historically led the ulama in the Saudi state,[6] dominating the states clerical institutions.[7] Background Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab is generally acknowledged[8] to have been born in 1703[9] into the Arab tribe of Banu Tamim[10] in Uyayna, a village in the Najd region of the modern Saudi Arabia.[9][11] He was thought to have started studying Islam at an early age, primarily with his father, ʿAbd al-Wahhab[12][13] as his family was from a line of scholars of the Hanbali school of jurisprudence.[14] Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab spent some time studying with Muslim scholars in Basra (in southern Iraq)[12][15] and it is reported that he traveled to the Muslim holy cities of Mecca and Medina to perform Hajj and study with the scholars there.[16][17][18] In Mecca, the Hanbali mufti, Ibn Humaydi, perceived Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab to be a poor student, and arrogant and defiant with his teachers, which upset his father. Consequently, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab did not complete his studies, but whether he was expelled or dropped out is unknown.[19] In Medina, he studied under Mohammad Hayya Al-Sindhi, to whom he was introduced by an earlier tutor.[20] According to Voll, it was Muhammad Hayya who taught Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab to reject the popular veneration of saints and their tombs.[20] Nonetheless, almost all sources agree that his reformist ideas were formulated while living in Basra. He returned to Uyayna in 1740. Following his early education in Medina, Abdul Wahhab traveled outside of the peninsula, venturing first to Basra. He then went to Baghdad, where he married a wealthy bride and settled down for five years. According to Stephen Suleyman Schwartz, in his book "The Two Faces of Islam", “some say that during this vagabondage Ibn Abdul Wahhab came into contact with certain Englishmen who encouraged him to personal ambition as well as to a critical attitude about Islam.” Specifically, Mir’at al Harramin, a Turkish work by Ayyub Sabri Pasha, written in 1888, states that in Basra, Abdul Wahhab had come into contact with a British spy by the name of Hempher, who “inspired in him the tricks and lies that he had learned from the British Ministry of the Commonwealth.”[21] After his return home, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab began to attract followers, including the ruler of Uyayna, Uthman ibn Muammar. With Ibn Muammars support, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab began to implement some of his ideas for reform. First, citing Islamic teachings forbidding grave worship, he persuaded Ibn Muammar to level the grave of Zayd ibn
  • 126. Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab 124 al-Khattab, a companion of Muhammad, whose grave was revered by locals. Secondly, he ordered that all adulterors be stoned to death, a practice that had become uncommon in the area. Indeed, he personally organised the stoning of a woman who confessed that she had committed adultery.[22] These actions gained the attention of Sulaiman ibn Muhammad ibn Ghurayr of the tribe of Bani Khalid, the chief of Al-Hasa and Qatif, who held substantial influence in Najd. Ibn Ghurayr threatened Ibn Muammar that he would not allow him to collect a land tax for some properties that he owned in Al-Hasa if he did not kill Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab. Although Ibn Muammar declined to do so, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab was still forced to leave.[23] Pact with Muhammad bin Saud Upon his expulsion from Uyayna, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab was invited to settle in neighboring Diriyah by its ruler Muhammad bin Saud. Upon arriving in Diriyah, Muhammad bin Saud and Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab concluded an agreement that, together, they would bring the Arabs of the peninsula back to the "true" principles of Islam as they saw it. According to one source, when they first met, bin Saud declared: "This oasis is yours, do not fear your enemies. By the name of God, if all Nejd was summoned to throw you out, we will never agree to expel you." Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab replied, "You are the settlements chief and wise man. I want you to grant me an oath that you will perform jihad (holy war) against the unbelievers. In return you will be imam, leader of the Muslim community and I will be leader in religious matters". —Madawi al-Rasheed, A History of Saudi Arabia: 16 The agreement was confirmed with an oath in 1744.[24] This agreement became a "mutual support pact" and power-sharing arrangement between the Al Saud and the Al ash-Sheikh, which has remained in place for nearly 300 years,[25] providing the ideological impetus to Saudi expansion.[26] Emirate of Diriyah The 1744 pact between Muhammad bin Saud and Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab marked the emergence of the first Saudi state, the Emirate of Diriyah. By offering the Al Saud a clearly defined religious mission, the alliance provided the idealogical impetus to Saudi expansion.[7] First conquering Najd, Sauds forces expanded the Salafi influence to most of the present-day territory of Saudi Arabia,[7] eradicating various popular and Shia practices and propagating the doctrines of ʿAbd al-Wahhab.[7][27] Muhammad bin Saud died in 1765 but his son, Abd al Aziz, continued the Salafi cause.[7] Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab in turn died in 1792 First Saudi State (1744–1818)
  • 127. Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab 125 Teachings Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab considered his movement an effort to purify Islam by returning Muslims to what he believed were the original principles of that religion, as typified by the Salaf and rejecting what he regarded as corruptions introduced by Bidah and Shirk.[28] Although all Muslims pray to one God, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab was keen on emphasising that no intercession with God was possible without Gods permission, which God only grants to whom He wills and only to benefit those whom He wills, certainly not the ones who invoke anything or anyone except Him, as these would never be forgiven.[29] Family While in Baghdad, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab married an affluent woman. When she died, he inherited her property and wealth.[3] Muhammad ibn Abd Al-Wahhab had six sons; Hussain, Abdullah, Hassan, Ali and Ibrahim and Abdul-Aziz who died in his youth. All his surviving sons established religious schools close to their homes and taught the young students from Diriyah and other places.[31] The descendants of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, the Al ash-Sheikh, have historically led the ulama in the Saudi state,[6] dominating the states Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh, religious institutions.[7] Within Saudi Arabia, the family is held in Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, the countrys most prestige similar to the Saudi royal family, with whom they share [30] senior religious authority. power, and has included several religious scholars and officials.[30] The arrangement between the two families, which persists to this day, is based on the Al Saud maintaining the Al ash-Sheikhs authority in religious matters and upholding and propagating Salafi doctrine. In return, the Al ash-Sheikh support the Al Sauds political authority[32] thereby using its religious-moral authority to legitimise the royal familys rule.[33] Consequently, each legitimises the other. Assessment By contemporaries As with the early Salafis, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab was criticised for disregarding Islamic history, monuments, traditions and the sanctity of Muslim life.[19] His own brother, Sulayman, was particularly critical, claiming he was ill-educated and intolerant, classing Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhabs views as fringe and fanatical.[19] Sulayman ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab also suggested his brother was selective with the juristic predecessors, to the point of being ignorantly dismissive towards some and treating others as divinely infallible. Both Sulayman and Ibn Humaydi (the Hanbali mufti in Mecca) suggested Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab was even selective with the works of Ibn Taymiyyah, whose views otherwise closely influenced the Salafi. Despite this, after sometime, his brother (Sulayman) eventually joined him in spreading his teachings.[19]
  • 128. Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab 126 By modern scholars Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab is accepted by Salafi scholars as an authority and source of reference.[34] Works • Kitab at-Tawhid (The Book of the Unity of God)[28] • Kashf ush-Shubuhaat (Clarification Of The Doubts)[29] • Thalaathat-Ul-Usool (The Three Fundamental Principles)[35] • Al-Usool-uth-Thalaatha • Al Qawaaid Al ‘Arbaa’ (The Four Foundations of Shirk) [36] • (The Six Fundamental Principles) • Adab al-Mashy Ila as-Salaa (Manners of Walking to the Prayer) • Usul al-Iman (Foundations of Faith) • Fada`il al-Islam (Excellent Virtues of Islam) • Fada`il al-Quran (Excellent Virtues of the Quran) • Majmu’a al-Hadith ‘Ala Abwab al-Fiqh (Compendium of the Hadith on the Main Topics of the Fiqh) • Mukhtasar al-Iman (Abridgement of the Faith; i.e. the summarised version of a work on Faith) • Mukhtasar al-Insaf wa`l-Sharh al-Kabir (Abridgement of the Equity and the Great Explanation) • Mukhtasar Seerat ar-Rasul (Summarised Biography of the Prophet) • Kitaabu l-Kabaair (The Book of Great Sins) • Kitabu l-Imaan (The Book of Trust) Sources There are two contemporary histories of Muhammed ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab and his religious movement from the point of view of his supporters: Ibn Ghannams Rawdhat al-Afkar wal-Afham or Tarikh Najd (History of Najd) and Ibn Bishrs Unwan al-Majd fi Tarikh Najd. Husain ibn Ghannam (d. 1811), an alim from al-Hasa was the only historian to have observed the beginnings of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhabs movement first-hand. His chronicle ends at the year 1797.[37][38] Ibn Bishrs chronicle, which stops at the year 1854, was written a generation later than Ibn Ghannams, but is considered valuable partly because Ibn Bishr was a native of Najd and because he adds many details to Ibn Ghannams account.[37] A third account, dating from around 1817 is Lam al-Shihab, written by an anonymous Sunni author who respectfully disapproved of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhabs movement, regarding it as a bid‘ah. It is also commonly cited because it is considered to be a relatively objective contemporary treatment of the subject. However, unlike Ibn Ghannam and Ibn Bishr, its author did not live in Najd and his work is believed to contain some apocryphal and legendary material with respect to the details of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhabs life.[14][39]
  • 129. Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab 127 Notes [1] The Salafis consider themselves to be non-imitators or not attached to tradition, and therefore answerable to no school of law at all, observing instead what they would call the practice of early Islam. However, to do so does correspond to the ideal aimed at by Ibn Hanbal, and thus they can be said to be of his school. Glassé 2003: 407 [2] http:/ / www. alahazrat. net/ islam/ wahabi-salafi. php [3] EBO Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb 2011 [4] Hourani 1992: 257-258 [5] Nawaf E. Obaid (Sept. 1999). "The Power of Saudi Arabias Islamic Leaders" (http:/ / www. meforum. org/ 482/ the-power-of-saudi-arabias-islamic-leaders). Middle East Quarterly VI (3): 51–58. . Retrieved 23 June 2011. [6] Abir 1987: 4, 5, 7 [7] Metz 1992 [8] While there is some consensus over these details, the opinion is not unanimous over the specifics in regard to his place and date of birth. Seemingly his recognition with the Banu Tamim tribe thought is in line with the justification by some scholars of being the inheritor of the teachings of Ibn Taymiyyah. [9] Philby 1930: 8 [10] Glassé 2003: 470 [11] EI1: 1086 [12] ibn Ghannam: 75-76 [13] Hopwood 1972: 55 [14] EI2: 677-678 [15] ibn Bishr: 7-8 [16] ibn Hajar: 17-19 [17] ibn Baaz: 21 [18] Official sources on Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhabs life put his visits to these cities in different chronological orders, and the full extent of such travels remains disputed among historians. As well, dates are missing in a great many cases, making it difficult to reconstruct a chronology of his life up until his return to Uyayna in 1740. [19] El Fadl 2007: 56-57 [20] Voll 1975: 32-39 [21] Livingstone, David Terrorism and the Illuminati - A Three Thousand Year History (Charleston, SC, USA: 2007), p. 142. [22] Lacey 1983: 56 [23] ibn Hajar: 28 [24] 2008 [25] Obaid 1999: 51-58 [26] Faksh 1997: 89-90 [27] EBO History of Arabia 2011 [28] Kitab at-Tawhid [29] Kashf ush-Shubuhaat [30] Ottaway 2008: 176 [31] "WAHABISM EXPOSED!" (http:/ / sultan. org/ articles/ wahabism. html) [32] Nyrop 2008: 50 [33] Bligh 1985: 37-50 [34] as-Salafi: 1 [35] Usuulu Thalaatha [36] http:/ / www. qsep. com/ dvd/ fourfoundations. html [37] Vasilʹev 1998: 13 [38] EI2 [39] Vasilʹev 1998: 14
  • 130. Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab 128 References • Abir, Mordechai (1987). Saudi Arabia in the oil era: regime and elites : conflict and collaboration. ISBN 978-0-7099-5129-2. • ibn Baaz, Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah. Imaam Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab - His Life and Mission (http:// • ibn Bishr an-Najdi, Uthman. Unwan al-Majd fi Tarikh Najd. • Bligh, Alexander (1985). "The Saudi religious elite (Ulama) as participant in the political system of the kingdom.". International Journal of Middle East Studies 17. • El Fadl, Khaled M. Abou (23 January 2007). The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from the Extremists (http://books. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-118903-6. Retrieved 27 December 2011. • Faksh, Mahmud A. (1997). The future of Islam in the Middle East. ISBN 978-0-275-95128-3. • ibn Ghannam, Husain. Rawdhat al-Afkar wal-Afham (or Tarikh Najd). • Glassé, Cyril; Smith, Huston (January 2003). The new encyclopedia of Islam ( books?id=focLrox-frUC). Rowman Altamira. ISBN 978-0-7591-0190-6. Retrieved 24 December 2011. • ibn Hajar al-Butami, Ahmad. Shaikh Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. • Hopwood, Derek; University of London. Centre of Middle Eastern Studies; University of Oxford. Middle East Centre (1972). The Arabian peninsula: society and politics ( books?id=hYYNAAAAIAAJ). Allen and Unwin. Retrieved 24 December 2011. • Hourani, Albert (1992). A History of the Arab Peoples. Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-16663-6. • Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1913-1938). M. Th. Houtsma. ed. Encyclopaedia of Islam (1 ed.). Leiden: Brill Publishers. • "King Abdul Aziz (Ibn Saud) Information Resource - First ruler of the House of Saud" (http://www.ibnsaud. info/main/9451.htm). 17 March 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2011. • Lacey, Robert (February 1983). The Kingdom: Arabia & the House of Saʻud ( books?id=OId-wIvHDcUC). Avon. ISBN 978-0-380-61762-3. Retrieved 26 December 2011. • Laoust, Henri (7 December 2007). "Ibn ʿAbd al- Wahhāb , Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Al Wahhāb". In P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs et al. Encyclopaedia of Islam. 3 (2 ed.). Leiden: Brill Publishers. • Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. (1992). "The Saud Family and Salafi Islam" ( htm). Saudi Arabia: A Country Study. GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved 26 December 2011. • Nyrop, Richard F. (2008). Area Handbook for the Persian Gulf States. ISBN 978-1-4344-6210-7. • Obaid, Nawaf E. (September 1999). "The Power of Saudi Arabias Islamic Leaders" ( 482/the-power-of-saudi-arabias-islamic-leaders). Middle East Quarterly VI (3): 51–58. Retrieved 23 June 2011. • David Ottaway (11 November 2008). The kings messenger: Prince Bandar bin Sultan and Americas tangled relationship with Saudi Arabia ( Bloomsbury Publishing USA. ISBN 978-0-8027-1690-3. Retrieved 27 December 2011. • Philby, Harry St. John Bridger (1930). Arabia ( C.Scribners Sons. Retrieved 24 December 2011. • al-Rasheed, Madawi (2010). A History of Saudi Arabia. ISBN 978-0-521-74754-7. • as-Salafi, Abu Iyad, ed. "The Principles of Salafiyyah" ( cfm?subsecID=SLF02&articleID=SLF020001&articlePages=1). Retrieved 27 December 2011. • Vasilʹev, Alekseĭ Mikhaĭlovich (1998). The history of Saudi Arabia ( books?id=NPBtAAAAMAAJ). Saqi Books. ISBN 978-0-86356-935-7. Retrieved 24 December 2011. • Voll, John (1975). Muḥammad Ḥayyā al-Sindī and Muḥammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab: An Analysis of an Intellectual Group in Eighteenth-Century Madīna. 38. Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies. pp. 32–39. JSTOR 614196.
  • 131. Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab 129 • ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, Muhammad. Kitaab At-Tawheed ( International Islamic Publishing House. Retrieved 26 December 2011. • ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, Muhammad. Kashf ush-Shubuhaat [Clarification Of The Doubts: A Decisive Reply To The Doubts And Arguments Of The Associationists] ( htm). International Islamic Publishing House. Retrieved 27 December 2011. • ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, Muhammad. Thalaathat-Ul-Usool [The Three Fundamental Principles] (http:// (PDF). Al-Ibaanah Book Publishing. Retrieved 27 December 2011. • "History of Arabia" ( Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.. 2011. • "Ibn GHannām , Shaykh Ḥusayn b. Ghannām al-Iḥsāʾī". Encyclopaedia of Islam (2 ed.). Leiden: Brill Publishers. 1960-2005. • "Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb" ( Muhammad-ibn-Abd-al-Wahhab). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.. 2011. Further reading • Abualrub, Jalal (January 2003). Muhammad ibn Abdil Wahhab: his life-story and mission ( com/books?id=hbcQAQAAIAAJ). Madinah Publishers and Distributors. ISBN 978-0-9703766-5-7. Retrieved 25 December 2011. • DeLong-Bas, Natana J. (15 July 2004). Wahhabi Islam: from revival and reform to global Jihad (http://books. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516991-1. Retrieved 24 December 2011. • al-Rasheed, Madawi (1 January 2009). Kingdom without borders: Saudi political, religious and media frontiers ( Capstone. ISBN 978-0-231-70068-9. External links • "Shaykhul Islaam Muhammad Ibn Abdul-Wahhaab" ( Retrieved 26 December 2011. List of works by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
  • 132. Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh 130 Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh Abdul Aziz ibn Muhammad ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Abdul lateef Al Shaikh Abd al-Aziz ibn Abdillah āl ash-Shaikh Born 10 February 1940 Riyadh Nationality Saudi Arabian Occupation Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia Religion Sunni Islam Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Abd al-Lateef Aal ash-Shaikh (Arabic: ‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫( )ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻄﻴﻒ ﺁﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ‬born February 10, 1940) is a Muslim scholar and the current Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia.[1] Biography Abdul Aziz al ash-Shaikh was born in 1940, a member of Saudi Arabias leading religious family, the Al ash-Sheikh. He began studying the Quran at the Ahmad Bin Sanaan Mosque. In 1954 he transferred to the Imaam ad-Dawah Institute where he graduated from the Faculty of Sharia in 1962. He then began his active religious life, and worked as a teacher at the Imaam ad-Dawah al-Ilmee Institute until 1971. He then transferred to teaching at the Faculty of Sharia (at the Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University) in Riyadh and continued there until 1991. Whilst at the Faculty of Sharia he supervised university theses, and took part in thesis discussions and debates. Since 1993 he has taken part in responding to questions on the radio program "Noorun alad-Darb". He also used to hold lessons in the Central Mosque of al-Imam Turki bin Abd-llah. He takes part in seminars and lectures alongside his work in the field of dawah in Riyadh and Taif. Since his birth he suffered from weak eyesight, until he lost his sight altogether in 1960.
  • 133. Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh 131 Proclamations Following the Pope Benedict XVI Islam controversy, he called the popes declaration "lies", adding that they "show that reconciliation between religions is impossible".[2] In 2007 he announced plans to demolish the Green Dome and flatten the tombs housed under it, including that of Muhammad.[3] In March 15, 2012 he declared that, "All churches in the Arabian Peninsula must be destroyed". Abdulaziz bin Abdullah cited an Islamic hadith quoting the Prophet Mohammed on his deathbed. [4][5] His declaration about the destruction of churches in the Arabian Peninsula led to negative comments. Roman Catholic bishops in Germany and Austria responded sharply to his fatwa, concerned about the human rights of non Muslims working in the Persian Gulf region. Russian Orthodox Archbishop Mark of Yegoryevsk said the ruling was "alarming". Still, it seemed that most of the world overlooked the statement.[6] Turkey’s, another Muslim countrys, top imam blasted the Saudi grand mufti’s call to “destroy all the churches” in the Gulf region, saying that the announcement totally contradicted to the peaceful teachings of the Muslim religion. Mehmet Görmez, head of the Religious Affairs Directorate, said he cannot accept this Islamic religious order --fatwa -- issued by Grand Mufti Sheikh Abdulaziz Al al Shaikh, adding that the mufti’s declaration run contrary to the centuries-old Islamic teachings of tolerance and the sanctity of institutions belonging to other religions.[7] References [1] Schmitt, Eric; Shanker, Thom (2008-03-18). "U.S. adapts cold-war idea to fight terrorists". New York Times. "Saudi Arabia s top cleric, Grand Mufti Sheik Abdul Aziz al-Asheik, gave a speech last October warning Saudis not to join unauthorized jihadist activities, a statement directed mainly at those considering going to Iraq to fight the American-led forces." [2] "«Hässliche, unglückliche Äußerungen»: Erdogan fordert Entschuldigung des Papstes" (http:/ / www. netzeitung. de/ spezial/ derpapst/ 440836. html), Netzeitung, 17 September 2006 (German) [3] Jerome Taylor (24 Sep 2011). "Mecca for the rich: Islams holiest site turning into Vegas. Historic and culturally important landmarks are being destroyed to make way for luxury hotels and malls, reports Jerome Taylor" (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ world/ middle-east/ mecca-for-the-rich-islams-holiest-site-turning-into-vegas-2360114. html). The Independent. . "A pamphlet published in 2007 by the Saudi Ministry of Islamic Affairs, endorsed by Abdulaziz Al Sheikh, the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, stated that "the green dome shall be demolished and the three graves flattened in the Prophets Masjid"." [4] http:/ / www. cbn. com/ cbnnews/ world/ 2012/ March/ Mufti-All-Arabian-Peninsula-Churches-Must-Be-Destroyed/ All Arabian Peninsula Churches Must Be Destroyed [5] Comment of the Fatwa in Arabic Al-Jazeera online, [[Arabic language|Arabic (http:/ / www. aljazeera. net/ news/ pages/ 86e38a07-d670-4aae-b128-22899589db7e)]: ‫( ]ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻣﻔﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﻮﺍﻩ ﺑﻬﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺎﺋﺲ‬eng.: Criticism of the Mufti of Saudi Arabia for his fatwa to demolish churches); read on 27.03.2012 [6] "Europe bishops slam Saudi fatwa against Gulf churches" (http:/ / english. ahram. org. eg/ NewsContent/ 2/ 8/ 37528/ World/ Region/ Europe-bishops-slam-Saudi-fatwa-against-Gulf-churc. aspx). Reuters. March 24, 2012. . Retrieved April 8, 2012. [7] "Diyanetten Suudi Müftüye Kilise Cevabı (Answer to the Saudi cleric from the Religious Affairs Directorate)" (http:/ / www. dinihaberler. com/ haber/ diyanetten-suudi-muftuye-kilise-cevabi-23536. html). Religious News (Turkish), April 7, 2012. . Retrieved April 8, 2012. External links • Biography of Shaikh Aal ash-Shaikh ( • Some videos of Shaikh Aal ash-Shaikh ( • Corner of the Grand Mufti ( NodeID=1&PageNo=1&BookID=15&Rokn=true)
  • 134. Abd ar-Rahman ibn Nasir as-Sadi 132 Abd ar-Rahman ibn Nasir as-Sadi Islamic scholar Abd ar-Rahman ibn Nasir as-Sadi Title Shaykh Born 1889 Died 1956 Ethnicity Arab Region Saudi Arabian scholar Maddhab Hanbali (Salafi) Influenced Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen Abd ar-Rahman ibn Nasir as-Sadi at-Tamimi (1889–1956) was a prominent Islamic scholar, jurist, exegete, and Arabic grammarian with a great interest in poetry who contributed many works on a variety of subjects. Early life Abd ar-Rahman ibn Nasir as-Sadi was born in the city of Unayzah in the Qasim Province of Saudi Arabia on September 8, 1889 (12th of Muharram 1307 H). His mother died when he was four years old and his father when he was seven. He was raised by his stepmother until he became old enough to live with his brother. As a child, he was known for his intelligence and memorized the Quran by the age of eleven. Even after memorizing the Quran, he continued to seek knowledge from the scholars of his town as well as those who passed through it, giving him experience in many Islamic disciplines. Career By the age of twenty-three, he was teaching students of his own. He was considered an expert in fiqh and usool al-fiqh. Initially, he adhered to the Hanbali school of Islamic law (madhab), as did his early teachers. He went on to study the works of Ibn Taymiyyah (d.1328) and Ibn al-Qayyim (d.1350) extensively, and, as he progressed in his studies, he no longer restricted himself to the Hanbali school, but rather followed the course he believed to be proven by the strongest evidences. He was also an expert in tafsir (Quranic exegesis or commentary), having read many books of tafsir and studied it under his teachers; he later authored a tafsir himself.
  • 135. Abd ar-Rahman ibn Nasir as-Sadi 133 His Teachers and Students His teachers included: • Muhammad Amin as-Shanqiti • Ali Nasir Abu Wadaye • Salih ibn Uthman al-Qadi • Muhammad ibn Abdul Kareem as-Shibil His students include: • Muhammad ibn Saalih al-Uthaymeen • Abdullah ibn Abd al-Aziz ibn Aqeel • Ali ibn Zamal Aslaim • Aludin Kujab Qadaas • Ruzbehan Nurbakhsh • Abdullah Albassam His Works Books and treatise written by as-Sadi include: • Taysir al-Karim ar-Rahman fee Tafsir al-Quran - Tafsir of the Quran and his most famous work • Manhaj al-Salikin • al-Qawaaid wal-Usool al-Jaamiah wal-Furooq wat -Taqaaseem al-Badeeah an-Naafiah - Explanation of the principles in Usool al-Fiqh • Haashiyah Fiqhiyyah • Deewaan Khutab • al-Qawaaid al-Hisaan • Tanzeeh ad-Deen • Radd alaa al-Qaseemee • al-Braansi Waaghir va-Jinna • al-Haqq al-Waadhih al-Mubayyin • Bahjatu Quloob al-Abraar • ar-Riyaadh an-Naadhirah • al-Durrat al-Fakhira (The Exquisite Pearl) ISBN 0-9542166-0-1 Death as-Sadi died at the age of 69 on a Thursday in the year 1956 C.E. of complications arising from an unidentified illness that he suffered from for approximately five years. He was buried in the city of Unayzah; his funeral prayer took place after the Dhuhur prayer in the grand mosque of that city, with numerous people attending. Notes External links • Biography of Abd ar-Rahman ibn Naasir as-Sadi ( BasingRulingsandFoundationsofFiqh-1.pdf)
  • 136. Ibn Jurayj 134 Ibn Jurayj Ibn Jurayj Died AH 150 (c. AD 767) Era Medieval era Region Hijazi scholar Ibn Jurayj (Arabic: ‫( )ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ‬died AH 150, c. AD 767) was an Islamic scholar. He is counted among the Taba at-Tabiin and narrated many Israiliyat. Name Abd al-Malik ibn Abd al-Aziz ibn Jurayj (Jurayj is Arabic transliteration of Gregory or George) Biography His father was a Muslim scholar and his grandfather Jurayj (Gregorius, or Georgius) was a Roman Christian. His life is described in Tahdhib al-Tahdhib by Ibn Hajar Asqalani. He collected hadith in Mecca[1] One of his most quoted sources is Ata ibn Abi Rabah, his teacher. Legacy Works • Musannaf of ibn Jurayj His narrations are quoted in Sunan Abu Daud In the The Muwatta of Muhammed Ibn al-Hasan Introduction, it is stated: “ sometimes said, The first book composed in Islam was that of Ibn Jurayj, and some said, the Muwatta of Malik, and some others said, The first man to compile and arrange according to chapters was Rabi ibn Sabih in Basra. ” Sunni view Sunnis praise him with the title imam. Al-Dhahabi, a 14th century Sunni Islamic scholar writes: “ The scholar of Mecca, Abu Walid stated Abdul Malik bin Abdul Aziz bin Jurayj was a servant of the Banu Umayya and was amongst the Fuqaha of Mecca, he has many appellations, and is counted amongst the great ulama, he was born a few years after 70 Hijri, and he met the great Sahaba. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal said "Ibn Jurayj was a treasure of knowledge". Jarir commented that Ibn Jurayj deemed Mutah to be permissible, and he contracted Mutah with 70 women. Ibn Abdul Hakim stated "heard from Imam Shafii says Ibn Jurayj contracted Mutah with 90 women". [2] ” “ Abdul Malik Ibn Jurayj was one the great men of knowledge, he was Thiqa (reliable) and authoritative, he performed Mutah with seventy women, deeming this practise to be halaal. [3] ” Abu Uwana narrated in his Sahih that Ibn Jurayj said in Basra about Mutah: "Bear witness that I have reverted back from it (from allowing it)", after he told them 18 narrations that it is okay.[4]
  • 137. Ibn Jurayj 135 Non-Muslim view Harald Motzki, a 21st century Non-Muslim Islamic scholar states: “ Such a diversity can hardly be the result of systematic forgery, but, rather, must have developed over the course of time. We must therefore-until the contrary is proven-start from the assumption that the traditions for which Ibn Jurayj expressly states a person as his source really came from that informant, and thus Ibn Jurayjs transmission, in my opinion, should be regarded as authentic. ” References [1] Kashf al-zunun, p.637. Tassi al-shi`ah, pp.278-279. Dehkhuda, Loghatnameh, p.298. Taqrib al-tahdhib , p. 333. Wafayat al-a`yan, p.338. Fjr al-Islam, p. 265. (http:/ / www. hawza. org. uk/ index. php?option=content& task=view& id=59& Itemid=27) [2] Tadhkirat al-huffaz Volume 1 pages 170 -171 [3] Tadheeb al Tadheeb of Al-Dhahabi, Volume 6 p. 06 [4] Talkhis al-Habeer, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, vol 3, page 160, printed in Medina in 1964. External links • ::: ULUM AL-QURAN #3 - THE HISTORY OF TAFSIR ::: ( islam/2002/07/q18072002.html) • Turath Publishing :: Protecting The Intellectual Legacy of Islam :: Homepage ( index.php/articles/thesearticles/22)</ref> and is widely regarded to be the first Sunni hadith collector. • Hadith Books (
  • 138. Al-Dhahabi 136 Al-Dhahabi Al-Dhahabi Born 673 AH / 1274 Died [1] 748 AH / 1348 Era Medieval era Region Syrian scholar School Shafii Main interests History Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn `Uthman ibn Qaymaz ibn `Abd Allah, Shams al-Din Abu `Abd Allah al-Turkmani al-Diyarbakri al-Fariqi al-Dimashqi al-Dhahabi al-Shafi`i (Arabic: ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﻮﻡ ، ﺃﺑﻮ‬ ‫ ,)ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺷﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻲ‬known as Al-Dhahabi (1274–1348[2]), a Shafii Muhaddith and historian of Islam. Biography Al-Dhahabi was born in Damascus in 1274 CE/673 AH, where his family had lived from the time of his grandfather `Uthman. He sometimes identified himself as Ibn al-Dhahabi (son of the goldsmith) in reference to his fathers profession. He began his study of hadith at age eighteen, travelling from Damascus to Baalbek, Homs, Hama, Aleppo, Nabulus, Cairo, Alexandria, Jerusalem, Hijaz, and elsewhere, after which he returned to Damascus, where he taught and authored many works and achieved wide renown as a perspicuous critic and expert examiner of the hadith, encyclopedic historian and biographer, and foremost authority in the canonical readings of the Quran. He studied under more than 100 women.[3] His most important teacher at Baalbek included a woman, Zaynab bint ʿUmar b. al-Kindī. [4] He lost his sight two years before he died, leaving three children: his eldest daughter Amat al-`Aziz and his two sons `Abd Allah and Abu Hurayra `Abd al-Rahman. The latter taught the hadith masters Ibn Nasir al-Din al-Dimashqi[5] and Ibn Hajar, to whom he transmitted several works authored or narrated by his father. Teachers Among al-Dhahabis most notable teachers in hadith, fiqh and aqida: • ʿAbd al-K̲h̲āliḳ b. ʿUlwān • Zaynab bint ʿUmar b. al-Kindī • Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Mas‘ud ibn Nafis al-Musali • Taqi ad-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah. • Ibn al-Zahiri, Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Abd Allah al-Halabi • Sharaf al-Din al-Dimyati, `Abd al-Mumin ibn Khalaf, the foremost Egyptian authority on hadith in his time • Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Daqiq al-`Id, whom he identified in his youth as Abu al-Fath al-Qushayri, later as Ibn Wahb.[6] • Jamal al-Din Abu al-Ma`ali Muhammad ibn `Ali al-Ansari al-Zamalkani al-Dimashqi al-Shafi`i (d. 727), whom he called "Qadi al-Qudat, the Paragon of Islam, the standard-bearer of the Sunna, my shaykh". • Al-Abarquhi, Ahmad ibn Ishaq ibn Muhammad al-Misri (d. 701), from which al-Dhahabi received the Suhrawardi Sufi path.[7]
  • 139. Al-Dhahabi 137 Works He authored nearly a hundred works, some of them of considerable size: • Tarikh al-Islam al-kabir. (Major History of Islam); Ibn Hajar received it from Abu Hurayra ibn al-Dhahabi.[8] • Siyar a`lam al-nubala. (The Lives of Noble Figures), 23 volumes, a unique encyclopedia of biographical history. • Tadhhib Tahdhib al-Kamal, an abridgement of al-Mizzis abridgement of al-Maqdisees Al-Kamal fi Asma al-Rijal, a compendium of historical biographies for hadith narrators cited in the Six major Hadith collections. • Al-Kashif fi Ma`rifa Man Lahu Riwaya fi al-Kutub al-Sitta, an abridgment of the Tadhhib. • Al-Mujarrad fi Asma Rijal al-Kutub al-Sitta, an abridgment of the Kashif. • Mukhtasar Kitab al-Wahm wa al-Iham li Ibn al-Qattan. • Mukhtasar Sunan al-Bayhaqi, an abridgement of Bayhaqis Sunan al-Kubara. • Mukhtasar al-Mustadrak li al-Hakim, an abdridgement of Hakims Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain. • Al-Amsar Dhawat al-Athar (Cities Rich in Historical Relics), which begins with the description of Madina al-Munawwara. • Al-Tajrid fi Asma al-Sahaba, a dictionary of the Companions. • Tadhkirat al-huffaz. (The Memorial of the Hadith Masters), a chronological history of the biography of hadith masters. Ibn Hajar received it from Abu Hurayra ibn al-Dhahabi.[9] • Al-Mu`in fi Tabaqat al-Muhaddithin, a compendium of hadith scholars (Muhaddithin). • Tabaqat al-Qurra (Biography-Layers of the Quranic Scholars). • Duwal al-Islam, a condensed history with emphasis on political figures and events. • Al-Kabair (The Enormities) • Manaaqib Al-imam Abu Hanifa wa saahibayhi Abu Yusuf wa Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan (The Honoured status of Imam Abu Hanifa and his two companions, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan) • A letter to Ibn Taymiyya[10], although its attribution to al-Dhahabi is disputed.[11] References [1] USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts (http:/ / www. usc. edu/ dept/ MSA/ fundamentals/ hadithsunnah/ scienceofhadith/ asa3. html) [2] Hoberman, Barry (September–October 1982). "The Battle of Talas", Saudi Aramco World, p. 26-31. Indiana University. [3] The Female Teachers of the Historian of Islam: al-Ḏh̲ahabī (http:/ / www. al-athariyyah. com/ media/ pdf/ sisters/ female_teachers. pdf), [4] " al-Ḏh̲ahabī." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online , 2012. Reference. Princeton University Library. 09 June 2012 (http:/ / referenceworks. brillonline. com/ entries/ encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/ al-dhahabi-COM_0159), [5] al-Sakhawi, al-Daw al-Lami` (8:103). [6] Cf. al-`Uluw (Abu al-Fath) and al-Muqiza (Ibn Wahb). [7] Siyar A`lam al-Nubala [SAN] (17:118–119 #6084, 16:300–302 #5655). [8] Ibn Hajar, al-Mu`jam (p. 400 #1773) [9] Ibn Hajar, al-Mu`jam (p. 400 #1774). [10] http:/ / www. masud. co. uk/ ISLAM/ misc/ dhahabi. htm [11] http:/ / www. waqfeya. com/ book. php?bid=3380
  • 140. Yusuf al-Qaradawi 138 Yusuf al-Qaradawi Islamic scholar Yusuf Abdullah al-Qaradawi ‫ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺿﺎﻭﻱ‬ Title Shaykh Born 9 September 1926 Region Egypt School tradition Sunni Works Fiqh az Zakat, The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, Fiqh al Jihad, and others Influences Hassan al Banna Influenced Rashid Al-Ghannushi Yusuf al-Qaradawi (Arabic: ‫ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺿﺎﻭﻱ‬Yūsuf al-Qaraḍāwiy; born 9 September 1926) is a controversial[1] Egyptian Islamic theologian. He is best known for his programme, ash-Shariah wal-Hayat ("Shariah and Life"), broadcast on Al Jazeera, which has an estimated audience of 60 million worldwide.[2][3] He is also well known for IslamOnline, a popular website he helped found in 1997 and for which he now serves as chief religious scholar.[4] Al-Qaradawi has published more than 120 books,[3] including The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam and Islam: The Future Civilization. He has also received eight international prizes for his contributions to Islamic scholarship,[5] and is considered one of the most influential such scholars living today.[2][6][7] Al-Qaradawi has long had a prominent role within the intellectual leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood,[8] an Egyptian political organization, but twice (in 1976 and 2004) turned down offers for the official role in the organization.[2][9] Some of al-Qaradawis views have been controversial in the West: he was refused an entry visa to the United Kingdom in 2008,[10] and barred from entering France in 2012.[11] As of 2004, al-Qaradawi was a trustee of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies.[12] He also served as a technical consultant for an epic movie in English on Muhammad.[13][14]
  • 141. Yusuf al-Qaradawi 139 Biography Al-Qaradawi was born in Safat Turab village in the Nile Delta, Egypt, in a poor family of devout Muslim peasants. He became an orphan at the age of two, when he lost his father. Following his fathers death, he was raised by his uncle. He read and memorized the entire Quran by the time he was nine years old.[15] He then joined the Institute of Religious Studies at Tanta, and graduated after nine years of study. He moved on to study Islamic Theology at the Al-Azhar University in Cairo, from which he graduated in 1953. He earned a diploma in Arabic Language and Literature in 1958 at the Advanced Arabic Studies Institute. He enrolled in the graduate program in the Department of Quran and Sunnah Sciences of the Faculty of Religions Fundamentals (Usul al-Din), and graduated with a Masters degree in Quranic Studies in Al-Qaradawi, during his days 1960.[16] In 1962, he was sent by Al-Azhar University to Qatar to head the Qatari at Azhari Institute at Tanta Secondary Institute of Religious Studies. He completed his PhD thesis titled Zakah and its effect on solving social problems in 1973 with First Merit, and was awarded his PhD degree from Al Azhar. In 1977, he laid the foundation for the Faculty of Shariah and Islamic Studies in the University of Qatar and became the facultys dean. In the same year he founded the Centre of Seerah and Sunna Research.[15][17][18][19] He also served at the Institute of Imams, Egypt under the Egyptian Ministry of Religious Endowments as supervisor before moving back to Doha as Dean of the Islamic Department at the Faculties of Shariah and Education in Qatar, where he continued until 1990.[20] His next appointment was in Algeria as Chairman of the Scientific Council of Islamic University and Higher Institutions in 1990–91. He returned to Qatar once more as Director of the Seerah and Sunnah Center at Qatar University, a post he still occupies today.[18] Al-Qaradawi is the head of the European Council for Fatwa and Research,an Islamic scholarly entity based in Ireland.[21] He also serves as the chairman of International Union for Muslim Scholars (IUMS).[22] He was imprisoned under King Farouq in 1949, then three times during the reign of former President Gamal Abdul Nasser, until he left Egypt for Qatar in 1961.[18] He returned to Egypt in 2011 in the wake of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution.[23] Al-Qaradawi is a principal shareholder and former Sharia adviser to Bank Al-Taqwa, a member bank of the Lugano-Switzerland Al-Taqwa group, a bank that the U.S. states finances terrorism and that the UN Security Council had listed as associated with Al Qaeda.[24] On 2 August 2010, the bank was removed from a list of entities and individuals associated with Al Qaeda maintained by the Security Council.[25][26] Al-Qaradawi has three sons and four daughters,[27] three of whom hold doctorates from British Universities.[28][29] His daughter, Ilham Yousef Al-Qaradawi, is an internationally recognized nuclear scientist.[30][31] While his son, Abdurrahman Yusuf al-Qaradawi, is a poet and a political activist in Egypt.[32] In 2008, in an online poll, Yusuf al-Qaradawi was voted the 3rd most intellectual person in the world on the list of Top 100 Public Intellectuals by Prospect Magazine (UK) and Foreign Policy (United States).[33] 2011 return to Egypt After the 2011 Egyptian Revolution Qaradawi made his first public appearance in Egypt after 1981.[34] In Tahrir Square he led Friday prayers on 18 February, addressing an audience estimated to exceed two million Egyptians.[35] It began with an address of “Oh Muslims and Copts,” referring to Egypt’s Coptic Christian minority instead of the customary opening for Islamic Friday sermons “Oh Muslims”.[36] He was reported to have said,“Egyptian people are like the genie who came out of the lamp and who have been in prison for 30 years.” He also demanded the release of political prisoners in Egyptian prisons, praised the Copts for protecting Muslims in their Friday prayer, and called for the new military rulers to quickly restore civilian rule.[37]
  • 142. Yusuf al-Qaradawi 140 On 21 February 2011, he talked about the protests in Libya and issued a fatwa against Muammar Gaddafi:[38] “ ...To the officers and the soldiers who are able to kill Muammar Gaddafi, to whoever among them is able to shoot him with a bullet and to free the country and [God’s] servants from him, I issue this fatwa (uftî): Do it! That man wants to exterminate the people (sha‘b). As for me, I protect the people (sha‘b) and I issue this fatwa: Whoever among them is able to shoot him with a bullet and to free us from his evil, to free Libya and its great people from the evil of this man and from the danger of him, let him do so! It is not permissible (lâ yajûzu) to any officer, ” be he a officer pilot, or a ground forces officer, or an air forces officer, or any other, it is not permissible to obey this man within disobedience (ma‘siya) [to God], in evil (sharr), in injustice (zulm), in oppression (baghî ‘alâ) of [His] servants. He also called on Libyan ambassadors around the world to distance themselves from Gaddafi’s regime.[39][40] In the Jerusalem Post, Barry Rubin drew a parallel between Qaradawis sermon and the Ayatollah Khomeini returning to Iran. He also said that Qaradawi was encouraging the Muslim Brotherhood to suppress opposition when he made reference to hypocrites in his sermon.[41] Brookings Institution member Shadi Hamid says that Qaradawi is in the mainstream of Egyptian society, and that he also has appeal among Egyptians who are not Islamist.[42] In the Eurasia Review, Princeton University Professor Aaron Rock dismisses claims that Qaradawi is the Khomeini of Egypt, but he does see his influence as a sign that Islam will play a significant role in the shaping of Egypts politics. He writes, "Neither Qaradawi’s popularity nor his rhetoric should distract from the fact that Egyptian revolution’s grievances were based on a desire for political liberty and economic opportunity. That said, Islam remains an important framework for public debate and a reservoir of political symbolism".[43] Views and statements Religious and sectarian views Muslim sects Al-Qaradawi has written about the danger of extremist groups of Islam, especially when done through blind obedience. He released a dissertation on the subject. He listed indications of extremism: 1. The 1st indication of extremism include bigotry and intolerance, which make a person adamantly devoted to his own opinions and prejudices, as well as rigidity, which deprives him of clarity of vision regarding the interests of other human beings, or the purposes of Shariah, or the circumstances of age. Such a person does not allow any opportunity for dialogue with others so that he may compare his opinion with theirs, and chooses to follow what appears to him most sound. 2. The 2nd indication of extremism manifests in a continuous commitment to excessiveness, and in attempts to force others to do likewise, despite the fact that Allah has not commanded it, and the existence of good reasons to make things easy. A person motivated by piety and caution may however, if he so wishes, choose a hard-line opinion in some matters and on certain occasions. But this should not become so habitual that he rejects advice when he needs it. 3. The 3rd indication of extremism is the out-of-time and out-of-place religious excessiveness and overburdening of others, i.e. when applying Islamic principles to people in non-Muslim countries or to people who have only recently converted to Islam, as well as to newly committed Muslims. With all these, emphasis should not be put on either minor or controversial issues, but on fundamentals. Endeavours should be made to correct their concepts and understanding of Islam before anything else. 4. The 4th indication of extremism manifests itself in harshness in the treatment of people, roughness in the manner of approach, and crudeness in calling people to Islam, all which are contrary to the teachings of the Quran and Sunnah. Sufism Al-Qaradawi has been an avid caller to what he calls "Islamic Sufism", praising those who practice it as pious.[44]
  • 143. Yusuf al-Qaradawi 141 Shiites Al-Qaradawi has also described Shiites as heretics ("mubtadioun").[45] Fellow member of International union of Muslim Scholars, Mohammad Salim Al-Awa criticized Qaradawi for promoting divisions among Muslims.[46] In response, the Iranian Press Agency has described Qaradawi as "a spokesman for “international Freemasonry and rabbis".[47] Qaradawi accused what he called "heretical" Shias of "invading" Sunni countries.[48] Non-Muslims Al-Qaradawi has called for dialogue with Non-Muslims. He also puts emphasis on conversations with the West, including Jews, Christians, and secularists. He writes that this effort should differentiate itself from a debate, for the latter does not often result in mutual cooperation. Regarding the rights and citizenship of non-Muslim minorities, Qaradawi has said, "those people who live under the protection of an Islamic government enjoy special privileges. They are referred to as the Protected People (dhimmi)... In modern terminology, dhimmies are "citizens" of the Islamic state. From the earliest period of Islam to the present day, Muslims are in unanimous agreement that they enjoy the same rights and carry the same responsibilities as Muslims themselves, while being free to practice their own faiths." In his book titled The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, al-Qaradawi wrote, "Islam does not prohibit Muslims to be kind and generous to peoples of other religions, even if they are idolaters and polytheists, ... it looks upon the People of the Book, that is, Jews and Christians, with special regard, whether they reside in a Muslim society or outside it. The Quran never addresses them without saying, "O People of the Book" or "O You who have been given the Book," indicating that they were originally people of a revealed religion." Jews In May 2008, al-Qaradawi told visiting Rabbis from the Haredi, Anti-zionist Neturei Karta sect, “ There is no enmity between Muslims and Jews....Jews who believe in the authentic Torah are very close to Muslims. ” He expressed his belief that relations between Muslims and Jews became strained with the emergence of Zionism and the establishment of Israel. “ Muslims are against the expansionist, oppressive Zionist movement, not the Jews. ” He also said that Muslims and Jews were subjected to the same persecution following the fall of Islamic rule in Andalusia, now Spain. However, al-Qaradawi has also made statements that some critics charge are anti-Semitic. In a 9 January 2009, sermon during the Gaza War, shown on Al-Jazeera, Qaradawi prayed (as translated by MEMRI): “ Oh Allah, take your enemies, the enemies of Islam. Oh Allah, take the Jews, the treacherous aggressors. Oh Allah, take this profligate, cunning, arrogant band of people. Oh Allah, they have spread much tyranny and corruption in the land. Pour Your wrath upon them, oh our God. Lie in wait for them. Oh Allah, You annihilated the people of Thamoud at the hand of a tyrant, and You annihilated the people of Aad with a fierce, icy gale, and You destroyed the Pharaoh and his soldiers – oh Allah, take this oppressive, tyrannical band of people. Oh Allah, down to the very last one. [49] ” take this oppressive, Jewish Zionist band of people. Oh Allah, do not spare a single one of them. Oh Allah, count their numbers, and kill them, Also, in August 2005, the Wall Street Journal reported that the Dublin-based European Council for Fatwa and Research, of which al-Qaradhawi is president, had used the anti-semitic Protocols of the Elders of Zion in its theological deliberations.[50] Al-Qaradawis remarks were sharply criticized by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL),
  • 144. Yusuf al-Qaradawi 142 which accused him of inciting violence against Jews.[51][52][53][54] Support for Adolf Hitler and the Holocaust In a statement which aired on Al-Jazeera TV on 28 January 2009 during the Gaza war, al-Qaradawi said the following regarding Adolf Hitler and the Holocaust:[55][56][57][58][59][60] “ Throughout history, Allah has imposed upon the Jews people who would punish them for their corruption...The last punishment was carried out by [Adolf] Hitler. By means of all the things he did to them – even though they exaggerated this issue – he managed to put them in their place. This was divine punishment for them...Allah Willing, the next time will be at the hand of the believers. ” Apostasy Al-Qaradawi says that apostasy — Muslims leaving Islam – is a grave danger to the Muslim community and that it is the duty of all Muslims "is to combat apostasy in all its forms and wherefrom it comes, giving it no chance to pervade in the Muslim world.""[61] With regards to the punishment of apostasy, al-Qaradawi supports the classical Islamic tradition on some points but differs on others. He considers execution as a penalty in principle, but the only apostates that are to be executed are those that combine other crimes with apostasy (e.g. "incit[ing] a war against Islam"). He also advocates that the apostates to be executed should be given a chance to repent. Finally, he believes that "hidden apostasy" (where the apostate does not "proclaim" his conversion) may be left to the judgement of God in the Hereafter.[62] While al-Qaradawi believes that the Muslim community is not allowed to punish "intellectual apostasy", where the apostates do not "swagger" about their conversion, he still strongly condemns it. He says "These people are not noticed when they invade or begin to disseminate their falsehood, but they are mostly felt when they affect the minds. They do not use guns in their attacks, however, their attacks are fierce and cunning." Nevertheless, he concedes that "Erudite scholars and well versed jurists ... can not take an action in face of such professional criminals who have firmly established themselves and have not left a chance for law to be enforced on them."[63] Political views Freedom and democracy Al-Qaradawi has spoken in favor of democracy in the Muslim world,[64] speaking of a need for reform of political climates in the Middle East specifically.[65] On 22 February 2011, he held an exclusive interview with, dismissing the allegation that he wanted a religious state established in Egypt: “ On the contrary, my speech supported establishing a civil state with a religious background, I am totally against theocracy. We are not a state for mullahs. [66] ” Terrorism After the September 11 attacks, al-Qaradawi urged Muslims to donate blood for the victims and stated,[67] Islam, the religion of tolerance, holds the human soul in high esteem, and considers the attack against innocent human beings a grave sin; this is backed by the Quranic verse which reads: Who so ever kills a human being for other than manslaughter or corruption in the earth, it shall be as if he has killed all mankind, and who so ever saves the life of one, it shall be as if he had saved the life of all mankind," (Al-Maidah:32). The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, is reported to have said, A believer remains within the scope of his religion as long as he doesnt kill another person illegally Islam never allows a Muslim to kill the
  • 145. Yusuf al-Qaradawi 143 innocent and the helpless. He denies that Palestinian suicide bombing attacks constitute terrorism, claiming that "when Palestinians face such unjust aggression, they tend to stem bloodletting and destruction and not to claim the lives of innocent civilians", but qualifies that with "I do agree with those who do not allow such martyr operations to be carried out outside the Palestinian territories." Al-Qaradawi has suggested the legitimate use of (defensive) suicide bombings against enemy combatants in modern times if the defending combatants has no other means of self-defense.[17] The Malaysian Islamic Scholar, Dr.Muhammad Afifi al-Akiti, rules that there is no Islamic legal for this view and that female soldiers can only be killed in direct combat. With regards to suicide bombings he says that they are "breaching the scholarly consensus . . . because to endanger ones life is one thing and to commit suicide during the attack is obviously another".[68] With regards to male soldiers he states, it goes without saying that they are considered combatants as soon as they arrive on the battlefield even if they are not in direct combat – provided of course that the remaining conventions of war have been observed throughout, and that all this is during a valid war when there is no ceasefire... [69] Western governments have met al-Qaradawi to request release of European civilians kidnapped in Iraq and have thanked him officially, praising his cooperation. The French Foreign Minister Michel Barnier wrote to al-Qaradawi: "With such a clear condemnation of the abduction of the French hostages you have sent a clear-cut message demonstrating respect for the tenets of Islam."[70] Israeli-Palestinian conflict Al-Qaradawi condones Palestinian attacks on Israelis. A resolution issued by The Islamic Fiqh Council affiliated to the Muslim World League in its 14th session, held in Doha (Qatar) on 11–16 January 2003 has upheld his views on the matter. Defending bombings against Israeli civilians, al-Qaradawi told BBC Newsnight in 2005 that: • "An Israeli woman is not like women in our societies, because she is a soldier." • "I consider this type of martyrdom operation as an evidence of Gods justice." • "Allah Almighty is Just; through His infinite Wisdom He has given the weak a weapon the strong do not have and that is their ability to turn their bodies into bombs as Palestinians do".[17] He supports suicide attacks on all Israelis, including women[71][72] since he views the Israeli society as a "completely military" society that did not include any civilians.[73] He also considers pregnant women and their unborn babies to be valid targets on the ground that the babies could grow up to join the Israeli Army.[74] At the press conference held by the organizations sponsoring his visit to London, al-Qaradawi reiterated his view that suicide attacks are a justified form of resistance to Israeli occupation of the rightfully Palestinian Territories. He has also justified his views by stating that all Israeli civilians are potential soldiers, since Israel is a "militarized society." Because of these views, al-Qaradawi has been accused by Western countries and Israel of supporting terrorism. Al-Qaradawi is opposed to attacks outside of the Palestinian Territories and Israel, and against non-Israeli targets. For example, on 20 March 2005, he condemned a car bombing that had occurred in Doha, Qatar the previous day. One Briton, Jon Adams was killed. Al-Qaradawi issued a statement that said Such crimes are committed by insane persons who have no religious affiliation and play well into the hands of the enemies... I urge all Qataris to stand united in facing such an epidemic and uproot it to nip the infection in the bud, otherwise it will spread like wildfire. I, in the name of all scholars in Qatar, denounce such a horrendous crime and pray that it would be the last and implore God to protect this secure country.
  • 146. Yusuf al-Qaradawi 144 According to IslamOnline, Qaradawi released a fatwa on 14 April 2004 stating boycott of American and Israeli products was an obligation for all who are able. The fatwa reads in part : If people ask in the name of religion we must help them. The vehicle of this support is a complete boycott of the enemies goods. Each riyal, dirham …etc. used to buy their goods eventually becomes bullets to be fired at the hearts of brothers and children in Palestine. For this reason, it is an obligation not to help them (the enemies of Islam) by buying their goods. To buy their goods is to support tyranny, oppression and aggression. Buying goods from them will strengthen them; our duty is to make them as weak as we can. Our obligation is to strengthen our resisting brothers in the Sacred Land as much as we can. If we cannot strengthen the brothers, we have a duty to make the enemy weak. If their weakness cannot be achieved except by boycott, we must boycott them.... American goods, exactly like "Israeli" goods, are forbidden. It is also forbidden to advertise these goods. America today is a second Israel. It totally supports the Zionist entity. The usurper could not do this without the support of America. "Israels" unjustified destruction and vandalism of everything has been using American money, American weapons, and the American veto. America has done this for decades without suffering the consequences of any punishment or protests about their oppressive and prejudiced position from the Islamic world. Iraq war In an address aired on Qatar TV on 5 January 2007, al-Qaradawi questioned the trial of Saddam Hussein under American supervision in Iraq, but agreed to it if it were conducted by the Iraqi people "after liberating Iraq from American colonialism". He also suggested that the trial was "an act of vengeance by the Americans" for his missile attacks on Israel. He strongly criticized the way Saddam was hanged:[75] “ A human soul must be respected. These people did not respect the human soul. The man was calm and kept his cool. He refused to be blindfolded, and insisted upon facing death with open eyes.. and said the two parts of the shahada....The man died saying: There is no God but Allah....Anybody whose last words are There is no God but Allah goes to Paradise. The thing that improves [the record] of Saddam Hussein is that in his final years – as the brothers in Iraq tell us – he was a changed man. He began to strictly observe the prayers, to read the Quran, and to do charitable work. He would hasten to do anything that may help people. He would help build mosques, and would say that if anybody wants to build a mosque, the government should pay half the cost of the building materials. When they entered his secret hideout and caught him, they found a prayer carpet and an open Quran. ” Hezbollah In response to Muslim scholar Abdullah Ibn Jibreens fatwa declaring that it was forbidden for Muslims to support or pray for Hezbollah because they are Shia, al-Qaradawi issued a contrary fatwa, stating that it was mandatory for all Muslims to support Hezbollah in its fight against Israel, claiming that "Shias agree with the Sunnis in the main principles of Islam while the differences are only over the branches." In this fatwa, he also called upon the Sunnis and Shia of Iraq to end the civil war.[76] Arab Spring Qaradawi declared his support for the rebels led by the National Transitional Council in the 2011 Libyan civil war, urging Arab nations to recognize them and “to confront the tyranny of the regime in Tripoli". He suggested weapons be sent to the rebels to assist the, and said “Our Islamic nation should stand against injustice and corruption and I urge the Egyptian government to extend a helping hand to Libyan people and not to Gaddafi.”[77] In response to the 2011 Bahrain protests, Qaradawi was reluctant to give support:" The protests in Bahrain are sectarian in nature. The Shias are revolting against the Sunnis". He claimed that Shia protesters attack Sunnis and occupied their mosques. He acknowledged that the Shia majority had legitimate concerns in regards to fairness with the Sunnis:"I want them to be real citizens of their country".[78] Qaradawi said that all Arabs should back up the protesters in the 2011 Syrian uprising, saying "Today the train of revolution has reached a station that it had to reach: The Syria station", and "It is not possible for Syria to be
  • 147. Yusuf al-Qaradawi 145 separated from the history of the Arab community".[79] He declared his support for the protests against what he called Syrias "oppresive regime", claiming "atrocities" were committed by it. He called for victory against the ruling Baath party and claimed the army would be the major factor in the revolt. He claimed that when he offered to mediate negotiations between the Muslim Brotherhood and the Syrian regime,someone deliberately sabotaged it. Qaradawi also expressed his support for the No Fly zone put in place by western nations over Libya, saying "The operation in Libya is to protect the civilians from Gaddafis tyranny" and slamming Arab League leader Amr Moussa for criticism of it.[80] Women and gender issues Commenting on the role women played in social active issues: Although over sixty year have passed since the Movement emerged into existence, no women leaders have appeared that can confront secular and Marxist trends single-handedly and efficiently. This has come about as a result of mens unrelenting attempts to control womens movement, as men have never allowed women a real chance to express themselves and show special leadership talents and abilities that demonstrate their capability of taking command of their work without mens dominance. I believe that womens Islamic work will succeed and prove itself in the arena of the Islamic Movement only when it gives birth to female Islamic leaders in the fields of Call, thought, science, literature and education. Accordingly, women as well as men can dedicate themselves to Allah, and play a role in jihad.[81] I do not think that this is impossible or even difficult. There are genius women just as there are genius men. Ingenuity is not a monopoly for men. It is not in vain that the Holy Quran tells us the story of a woman who led men wisely and bravely and made her people fare the best end: it is the Queen of Sheba, whose story with Solomon is told in Surat Al Naml. I have observed in the University of Qatar that girls make better students than boys. Rape In 2004 The Daily Telegraph reported that IslamOnline was asked the following question "Are raped women punished in Islam?", and a panel headed by Qaradawi replied: "To be absolved from guilt, the raped woman must have shown some sort of good conduct... Islam addresses women to maintain their modesty, as not to open the door for evil... The Koran calls upon Muslim women in general to preserve their dignity and modesty, just to save themselves from any harassment... So for a rape victim to be absolved from guilt, she must not be the one that opens... her dignity for deflowering...If, after trying her best to resist the attack, she gets overcome by the assailants, she is totally absolved from punishment... any woman, who, despite doing her utmost to resist these thugs and their ilk, is raped, is not guilty of any sin."[82] The report by the Sunday Telegraph was challenged by the Muslim Association of Britain, who believed the article falsely attributed the comments to al-Qaradawi and was part of a "right-wing media" attempt to "stoke up the flames of hate" against al-Qaradawi. They demanded that the Telegraph issue a full apology as well as the resignation of the two writers of the article. IslamOnline denied that al-Qaradawi wrote the answer, and claimed that they clearly stated raped women were not punished.[83] Wife beating Al-Qaradawi told The Guardian that wife beating was neither "obligatory nor desirable" but that he "accepts it as a method of last resort – though only lightly".[84] He stated on Channel 4 News that it was justifiable in certain circumstances[85] but the "ideal was for Muslim men never to beat their wives, and if husbands wrongly beat their wives, they have the right to fight back."[86] The British newspaper The Daily Telegraph writes that al-Qaradawi, in his book The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, states that wife-beating is permissible after the failure of all other means of persuasion. In such circumstances, a husband may beat his wife "lightly with his hands, avoiding her face
  • 148. Yusuf al-Qaradawi 146 and other sensitive areas."[85][87][88][89] Female circumcision While stating that female circumcision is "not required" in his book,Modern Fatwas, he adds that "whoever finds it serving the interest of his daughters should do it, and I personally support this under the current circumstances in the modern world."[90] However, he believes that it is prohibited when it harms females physically or psychologically.[91] Homosexuality Al-Qaradawi believes that homosexuality should be punishable by death.[92] In his online site, Al-Qaradawi says, "it should be clear that this man committed two heinous crimes: 1) homosexuality, and 2) murder. Each crime is sufficient to warrant death penalty. In addition, this man has severed ties of kinship by seducing and killing his nephew." (what man?) On 5 June 2006, on the Al Jazeera program Sharia and Life, al-Qaradawi (a regular on the program) reiterated orthodox views on homosexuality.[93] When asked about the punishment for people who "practise liwaat (sodomy) or sihaaq (lesbian activity)", al-Qaradawi replied: "The same punishment as any sexual pervert – the same as the adulterer." (MEMRI translation).[94] The punishment for adultery is stoning.[92] In an interview with Der Spiegel, Qaradawi said that his attitude towards homosexuality is the same as that found in Christianity. In the interview he stated, "One year ago, there was a demonstration against me in London because I spoke out against homosexuality. People seem to have forgotten that it wasnt me who came up with this mindset. Its part of Gods order spoken of by Moses and even mentioned by Jesus."[95] Other Views Wailing wall On the subject of the Wailing Wall, Qaradawi said: “ The Jews claim to Al-Buraq Wall dates back only to recent times. The longest reign of the Jews lasted for 434 years. Their reign in Palestine dates back to the times of Kings Saul, David and Solomon. Solomon’s sons split after his decease: Jude headed for Jerusalem while the state of Israel was established in Shechem, that is Nablus. The Jewish state in Nablus lasted for 298 years and the former for 434. This is the longest period that the Jews reigned. So those who claim that they have a long history in Israel are liars. That history lasted for only 434 years. The Arabs, on the other hand, have been present in Palestine since the days of the Jebusites and the Canaanites, that is 30 centuries before the birth of Christ. Their history under the umbrella of Islam lasted for more than 14 centuries or even longer. Before the advent of Islam, there had been no Jews in Palestine because since 70 C.E. there had been no trace of Jews or Israelis in Palestine. ” Mecca Time In April 2008, at a conference in Qatar titled "Mecca: the Center of the Earth, Theory and Practice", al-Qaradawi advocated the implementation of Mecca Time to replace the Greenwich Meridian as the basis of the world time zone system.[96] Muhammed Cartoon Controversy Al-Qaradawi called for a "Day of Anger" over the cartoons,[97] but condemned violent actions in response to them. Amman Message Al-Qaradawi is one of the Ulama signatories of the Amman Message, which gives a broad foundation for defining Muslim orthodoxy.[98] Salman Rushdie Al-Qaradawi endorsed Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeinis call to execute novelist Salman Rushdie for blasphemy in regared to his novel The Satanic Verses, stating that "Rushdie disgraced the honor of the Prophet and his family and defiled the values of Islam."[99]
  • 149. Yusuf al-Qaradawi 147 Muslim Brotherhood Al-Qaradawi was a follower of Hasan al-Banna during his youth and a longtime member of the Muslim Brotherhood.[17] He has twice turned down offers to be its leader.[100] In an interview on the Dream channel, al-Qaradawi states the following about his relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood (MB):[101] “ I joined the Muslim Brotherhood Group and worked with Imam al-Banna. I was influenced by al-Banna’s moderate thoughts and principles ...(Later) MB asked me to be a chairman, but I preferred to be a spiritual guide for the entire nation... MB consider me their Mufti, but I don’t have a relation with the organization, because being an MB chairman is something difficult requiring a highly sophisticated wisdom, and I prefer to be devoted to the entire nation, and I feel comfortable with this decision. I like MB and consider them the nearest group to be righteous. ” Views of other scholars Muslim academics In 2004, 2,500 Muslim academics from Saudi Arabia, Iraq and from the Palestinian territories condemned al-Qaradawi, and accused him of giving "Islam a bad name." with regard to his views on the rights of Palestinians to defend themselves against Israelis.[102][103] Islamic scholars Qaradawis methodology has been analysed by other Islamic scholars. Pakistani scholar, Muhammad Taqi Usmani stated, "There is no doubt that I—as the lowest student of Islamic Fiqh—with my benefitting from the books of the outstanding Dr al-Qaradāwī to a very large extent, and my supreme wonderment at the majority of [his works], have found myself, in some particular issues, not in agreement with him in the results the he has arrived at, but these sorts of differences (ikhtilāf) in views based on juristic judgement (ijtihādī) are natural, and cannot be the [sole] basis for judging [their author] so long as the people of knowledge do not deem [the bearers of such opinions] to be weak intellectually, or in religion, and [in any case] the importance of these books and their value in scholarship and da‘wa are not affected by this to even the slightest, most insignificant degree." In addition, he refers to some modern scholars by writing, "What we see today, very unfortunately, is that the one who brings forward elevated ideas in his writings and lofty theories in his speech and his sermons often does not rise above the level of the layman" but exempts Qardawi by saying, "As for the outstanding, erudite scholar, Dr Yūsuf al-Qaradāwī, may God (Most High) preserve him, God (Most High) has indeed made me fortunate enough to accompany him in travels and in residence, and sit with him and closely associate with him in long and repeated meetings. [From this] I found him manifest in his personality exemplary Islamic qualities, for he is a human being before he is a Muslim, and a devoted Muslim before he is a caller to Islam (dā‘iya), and a caller to Islam before he is a scholar and jurist."[104]
  • 150. Yusuf al-Qaradawi 148 Controversy Disagreement with Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy "But, the Sheikh Tantawy entered, or was pushed to enter, the area of Fiqh Islamic jurisprudence. He did not prepare himself for the task. He did not study, practise, or write in Fiqh. He did not train himself in navigating through the deep waters of Fiqh. Therefore, he was not successful in many of his hard-hitting opinions. This was the reason of my disagreement with him despite the old friendship between us."[105] Entry into western countries Al-Qaradawi has been banned from entering the United States since 1999 and the United Kingdom since 2008,[10] though he visited London in 2004.[106] In July 2003 he visited Stockholm, Sweden, for a conference at the Stockholm Mosque arranged by the Muslim Association of Sweden. During the conference al-Qaradawi expressed his support for suicide attacks against Israeli civilians, calling the fight against the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian Territories a "necessary Jihad".[107] France announced in March 2012 it will not let him enter.[108] Fatwa controversy with MEMRI The Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI) (citing Asharq Al-Awsat), alleges that al-Qaradawi issued a Fatwa following the Iraqi insurgency, saying, All of the Americans in Iraq are combatants, there is no difference between civilians and soldiers, and one should fight them, since the American civilians came to Iraq in order to serve the occupation. The abduction and killing of Americans in Iraq is a [religious] obligation so as to cause them to leave Iraq immediately. The mutilation of corpses [however] is forbidden in Islam.[109] Al-Qaradawi, however, denies this allegation: I have not published a Fatwa on this issue. At the Egyptian Journalists Union a few days ago I was asked about the permissibility of fighting against the occupation in Iraq, and I answered that it is permitted. Afterwards I was asked concerning the American civilians in Iraq and I merely responded with the question – are there American civilians in Iraq? It is a matter of common knowledge that in Fatwas such as these I do not use the word "killing" but rather I say "struggle," which is a more comprehensive word than the word "killing" and whose meaning is not necessarily to kill. In addition, I have condemned the taking of hostages on a number of occasions in the past and have demanded that they be released and that their lives not be threatened.[110] Shaker Al-Nabulsi, a former Muslim[111] who writes for the liberal site Ethal, called for the creation of a petition to the UN calling to put Qaradawi and his like on trial for incitement and support of terrorism.[111] Alcohol fatwa controversy Al-Qaradawi issued a fatwa in 2008 stating that the consumption of tiny amounts of alcohol (<0.5% concentration or 5/1000) was acceptable for Muslims.[112] The statement was made regarding energy drinks, where fermentation occurs naturally as part of the production process. This does not contradict with the widespread view that consuming alcohol is totally forbidden to Muslims. (chapter 5: verses 90–91). The fermentation in this process is natural and unavoidable, similarly it is an extremely small proportion.[113]
  • 151. Yusuf al-Qaradawi 149 Awards and recognition Al-Qaradawi has been awarded by various countries and institutions for his contributions to Islamic society. Among them are • The Islamic Development Bank (IDB) Prize in Islamic Economics – 1991[114] • King Faisal International Prize for Islamic Studies – 1994[115] • Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah (Sultan of Brunei) Award for Islamic Jurisprudence – 1997[15] • Sultan Al Owais Award for Cultural & Scientific Achievements – 1998–1999[19] • Dubai International Holy Quran Award for Islamic Personality of the Year – 2000[15] • The State Acknowledgement Award for contributions in the field of Islamic Studies from the Government of Qatar – 2008[116] • Tokoh Maal Hijrah (Hijra of the Prophet) award by the Malaysian Government −2009[117] The Qatar Faculty of Islamic Studies, part of the Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development, instituted the "Sheikh Yusuf Al Qaradawi Scholarships" in 2009, awarding them to five students each year for post-graduate studies.[118] It also named after him its newly established research centre, The Qaradawi Center for Islamic Moderation and Renewal.[119][120] He is a trustee of the Oxford University Center for Islamic Studies[12] and has been named as the technical consultant for a multi-million dollar English-language film about Prophet Muhammed produced by Barrie Osborne.[13][14] A 2008 Foreign Policy online poll put him at No.3 in the list of the Top 20 Public Intellectuals worldwide.[121] Books Fiqh az Zakat Al -Qaradawi has authored more than 80 books and his academic style and objective thought are considered to be some of the main characteristics of his works.[29] His most famous work is The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam. Professor Mustafa al-Zarqa declared that owning a copy of it was "the duty of every Muslim family." His book Fiqh al-Zakat is considered by some as the most comprehensive work in the area of zakat. Abul Ala Maududi commented on it as "the book of this century in Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh)"[15][29] The prominent Deobandi Islamic scholar Muhammad Taqi Usmani, said this about the work:[122] The first book that read in its entirety of his works is his valuable book Fiqh al-Zakat, and I benefitted much from this great, encyclopedic, rewarding work through which the author did a great service to the second of the pillars of Islam, in a way that the umma needs today, when it comes to the application of zakat at the level of the individual and the group. Indeed this work manifested the genius of its author, and his inventive methodology, not only in the clarification of issues pertaining to zakat and their compilation, but in stimulating research in contemporary topics that no one before him had touched upon, and basing them upon the principles fiqh and its jurisprudential theory. Fiqh al Jihad His book Fiqh al-Jihad has been widely commented on. The Guardians writes:[123] Instead Qaradawi encourages a "middle way" conception of jihad: "solidarity" with the Palestinians and others on the front line, rather than violence, is an obligatory form of jihad. Financial jihad, which corresponds with the obligation of alms giving (zakat), counts as well. And Muslims should recognise that technological change means that media and information systems are as much a part of the jihadist repertoire as are guns. Indeed, as long as Muslims are free to use media and other resources to press their case, there is no justification for using force to "open" countries for Islam.
  • 152. Yusuf al-Qaradawi 150 This book has also been analyzed by University of Michigan professor Sherman Jackson and Tunisian reformer Rachid Ghannouchi.[124] His views on jihad have attracted criticism from some hard line groups: Now, any Sunni knows that the purpose of jihaad is to make the word of Allaah supreme, and that is none other than worshipping Him alone, and establishing and spreading Tawheed. So if the Qaradawite think tank and its theoreticians claim that this is not the motive and reason, and it is but land, then the land in the view of Qaradawite Thought, is more lofty and more noble and more worthy than the Islamic aqidah.[125] Major works Some of al-Qaradawis major works are: • Time in the life of the Muslim [126] • Priorities of the Islamic Movement in the Coming Phase [127] • Towards a Sound Awakening [128] • The Status of Women in Islam [129] • Islamic Awakening between Rejection and Extremism [130] • The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam [131] • Diversion and Arts In Islam [132] (in progress) • Islam: Modern Fatwas on Issues of Women and the Family (Fatawa Muasira fi Shuun al-Mara wa al-Usrah) (Dar al-Shihab, Algeria, 1987) He has also published some excerpts of his poetry in the book Nafahat wa Lafahat. Al-Qaradawi has also been the subject of the book The Global Mufti: The Phenomenon of Yusuf al-Qaradawi published by Columbia University Press.[133] He is also profiled as one of the leading liberal voices in contemporary Islam in Charles Kurzmans book Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook, published by Oxford University Press.[134] Notes [1] Controversial preacher with star status (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ 3874893. stm) BBC article, by agdi Abdelhadi on 7 July 2004 [2] No.9 Sheikh Dr Yusuf al Qaradawi, Head of the International Union of Muslim Scholars – "The 500 most influential muslims in the world 2009" ,Prof John Esposito and Prof Ibrahim Kalin – Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University [3] The Voice of Egypts Muslim Brotherhood (http:/ / www. spiegel. de/ international/ world/ 0,1518,745526,00. html) article in Spiegel, by Alexander Smoltczyk on 15 February 2011 [4] "Alexa site info Ranking#3880 Mar 1 2010" (http:/ / www. alexa. com/ siteinfo/ islamonline. net#). 16 February 2010. . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [5] "Qaradawi Wins Hijra Award" (http:/ / www. islamonline. net/ servlet/ Satellite?c=Article_C& cid=1260257992606& pagename=Zone-English-News/ NWELayout) ION, 15 December 2009 [6] "Product Description: The Global Mufti: The Phenomenon of Yusuf Al-Qaradawi (Paperback)by Bettina Graf (Author, Editor), Jakob Skovgaard-Petersen (Editor) C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd (20 July 2009)" (http:/ / www. amazon. co. uk/ dp/ 1850659397). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [7] Raymond William Baker, Islam Without Fear: Egypt and the New Islamists (2003), p.4 [8] Olivier Guitta (20 February 2006). "The Cartoon Jihad: The Muslim Brotherhoods project for dominating the West" (http:/ / www. weeklystandard. com/ Content/ Public/ Articles/ 000/ 000/ 006/ 704xewyj. asp). The Weekly Standard. pp. Volume 11, Issue 22. . [9] "Al-Qaradawi Turns Down Offer to Assume Leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood" (http:/ / www. cesnur. org/ 2004/ qaradawi. htm). al-Jazeera. 12 January 2004. . [10] "Muslim cleric not allowed into UK" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ 7232398. stm). BBC News. 7 February 2008. . Retrieved 8 February 2008. [11] "France bars Muslim clerics from entering France" (http:/ / www. cbsnews. com/ 8301-501714_162-57406376/ france-bars-muslim-clerics-from-entering-france). CBS News. 29 March 2012. . Retrieved 29 March 2012. [12] Owen Bowcott and Faisal al Yafai (9 July 2004). "Scholar with a streetwise touch defies expectations and stereotypes" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ politics/ 2004/ jul/ 09/ religion. immigrationpolicy). The Guardian (London). . Retrieved 11 April 2010.
  • 153. Yusuf al-Qaradawi 151 [13] "Qatar firm plans film on Prophet" (http:/ / www. zawya. com/ Story. cfm/ sidZAWYA20091102120242/ Qatar Firm Plans Film On Prophet/ ). 17 December 2009. . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [14] Xan Brooks and agencies (2 November 2009). "Matrix producer plans Muhammad biopic" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ film/ 2009/ nov/ 02/ matrix-producer-plans-muhammad-biopic). The Guardian (London). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [15] "Home > English > DIHQA Programs > The Islamic Personality > Fourth Session" (http:/ / www. quran. gov. ae/ en/ DIHQAPrograms/ IslamicPersonality/ Pages/ FourthSession. aspx). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [16] Al Qaradawi in Al Azhar (http:/ / www. aawsat. com/ english/ news. asp?section=3& id=13430) Asharq Aawsat 17/7/2008 [17] Abdelhadi, Magdi (7 July 2004). "BBC World News Profile of Sheikh Yusuf Qaradawi" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ 3874893. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [18] Hamed, Ayman (17 July 2008). "Al Qaradawi in Al Azhar" (http:/ / www. aawsat. com/ english/ news. asp?section=3& id=13430). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [19] "Dr. Yousef Al Qaradhawi winner Cultural & Scientific Achievements Sixth Circle 1998–1999" (http:/ / www. alowaisnet. org/ en/ winnersbio/ abijjffgihfdfhfbej. aspx). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [20] "Profile of Qaradawi" (http:/ / www. quran. gov. ae/ en/ News/ Lists/ News Center/ DispForm. aspx?ID=82). 26 August 2009. . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [21] The European Council for Fatwa and Research (http:/ / www. e-cfr. org/ en/ ECFR. pdf) [22] IUMS About us (http:/ / www. iumsonline. net/ about-us/ head. html) [23] "Egypt Revolution Unfinished, Qaradawi Tells Tahrir Masses" (http:/ / www. csmonitor. com/ World/ Middle-East/ 2011/ 0218/ Egypt-revolution-unfinished-Qaradawi-tells-Tahrir-masses). Christian Science Monitor. 18 February 2011. . [24] Islamic Banking in Britain (http:/ / www. brusselsjournal. com/ node/ 1898) [25] 10 Taliban taken off UN terror list (http:/ / news. asiaone. com/ News/ AsiaOne+ News/ World/ Story/ A1Story20100803-230121. html) [26] The UN -The Consolidated List September 2009 (http:/ / www. un. org/ sc/ committees/ 1267/ consolidatedlist. htm) [27] "Google Translate" (http:/ / translate. google. com/ translate?js=y& prev=_t& hl=en& ie=UTF-8& layout=1& eotf=1& u=http:/ / www. el-wasat. com/ persons. php?person=11& sl=ar& tl=en). Google. . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [28] "Livingstone Demands UK Media Apology for Qaradawi" (http:/ / www. islamonline. net/ English/ News/ 2005-01/ 11/ article05. shtml). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [29] "SHAYKH YUSUF AL-QARADAWI: PORTRAIT OF A LEADING ISLAMIC CLERIC Ana Belén Soage* Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 12, No. 1 (March 2008) Page 59" (http:/ / www. globalpolitician. com/ 24328-islam). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [30] "Advisory Committee to the WNU RI School Al-QARADAWI Ilham" (http:/ / www. world-nuclear-university. org/ about. aspx?id=25736& terms=ilham). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [31] "Curriculum Vitae Ilham AlQaradawi" (http:/ / www. qu. edu. qa/ artssciences/ mathphysta/ documents/ CVs/ Ilham_AlQaradawi_2008. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [32] Abdurrahman Yusuf al-Qaradawi: new branches of National Association for Change Will open soon in Europe and the United States (http:/ / www. masrawy. com/ News/ Egypt/ Politics/ 2010/ april/ 17/ baradei. aspx?ref=moreclip) [33] http:/ / www. prospectmagazine. co. uk/ prospect-100-intellectuals/ [34] http:/ / www. alarabiya. net/ articles/ 2011/ 02/ 17/ 138093. html [35] For a complete English translation, see: The Tahrir Square Sermon of Shaykh Yûsuf al-Qaradâwî. Translation by Yahya M. Michot with the collaboration of Samy Metwally, on http:/ / www. hartsem. edu/ [36] Kirkpatrick, David D. (18 February 2011). "After Long Exile, Sunni Cleric Takes Role in Egypt" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2011/ 02/ 19/ world/ middleeast/ 19egypt. html). The New York Times. . [37] Egypt revolution unfinished, Qaradawi tells Tahrir masses (http:/ / www. csmonitor. com/ World/ Middle-East/ 2011/ 0218/ Egypt-revolution-unfinished-Qaradawi-tells-Tahrir-masses) [38] For a complete English translation, see: The fatwa of Shaykh Yûsuf al-Qaradâwî against Gaddafi. Translation by Yahya M. Michot with the collaboration of Samy Metwally, on http:/ / www. scribd. com/ doc/ 51219918/ Qadhafi/ [39] Sunni cleric says Gaddafi should die (http:/ / www. iol. co. za/ news/ africa/ sunni-cleric-says-gaddafi-should-die-1. 1030016), IOL News, 21 February 2011 [40] Egyptian cleric: Kill Gaddafi (http:/ / www. presstv. ir/ detail/ 166411. html), PressTV, 22 February 2011 [41] The Region: Egypt gets its Khomeini (http:/ / www. jpost. com/ Opinion/ Columnists/ Article. aspx?id=209102) [42] Egypt revolution unfinished, Qaradawi tells Tahrir masses (http:/ / www. csmonitor. com/ World/ Middle-East/ 2011/ 0218/ Egypt-revolution-unfinished-Qaradawi-tells-Tahrir-masses/ (page)/ 1) [43] Rock, Aaron (20 March 2011). "Qaradawis Return And Islamic Leadership in Egypt" (http:/ / www. eurasiareview. com/ qaradawis-return-and-islamic-leadership-in-egypt-analysis-20032011/ ). Eurasia Review. . Retrieved 20 March 2011. [44] "On Tassawuf Shaykh Yusuf al-Qaradawi" (http:/ / www. sunnah. org/ tasawwuf/ scholr39. htm). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [45] "The politics of sects" (http:/ / weekly. ahram. org. eg/ 2008/ 916/ eg5. htm). 5 October 2008. . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [46] ibid. [47] Try to be nice about each other, A Sunni preacher upsets the Shias (http:/ / www. economist. com/ research/ backgrounders/ displaystory. cfm?story_id=12305381) 25 Sep 2008, CAIRO, From The Economist print edition
  • 154. Yusuf al-Qaradawi 152 [48] (AFP) (18 Sep 2008). "Inflential Sunni cleric speaks of Shiite invasion" (http:/ / afp. google. com/ article/ ALeqM5g-I5N5oznQqpvBVxaDnjD-uJyswA). AFP. . Retrieved 15 February 2011. [49] Sheikh Yousef Al-Qaradhawi On Al-Jazeera Incites Against Jews, Arab Regimes, and the U.S.; Calls on Muslims to Boycott Starbucks and Others; Says Oh Allah, Take This Oppressive, Jewish, Zionist Band of People... And Kill Them, Down to the Very Last One (http:/ / www. memri. org/ bin/ articles. cgi?Page=archives& Area=sd& ID=SP218309), MEMRI – Special Dispatch No. 2183 January 12, 2009. [50] Islamic Justice Finds a Foothold In Heart of Europe (http:/ / www. zmo. de/ pressekit/ material/ Wall_Street_BG. pdf) Wall street Journal, 4 August 2005, Vol nr. 24 [51] Sheik Yusuf al-Qaradawi: Theologian of Terror (http:/ / www. adl. org/ NR/ exeres/ 788C5421-70E3-4E4D-BFF4-9BE14E4A2E58,DB7611A2-02CD-43AF-8147-649E26813571,frameless. htm), Anti-Defamation League, 4 August 2009. [52] Muslim Brotherhood Ideologue Incites Violence Against Jews and Israel (http:/ / www. adl. org/ main_Terrorism/ qaradawi_gaza_threats. htm), Anti-Defamation League (ADL), 2 February 2009. [53] Multiculturalists diminish rough beast ravaging Islam (http:/ / www. lfpress. com/ comment/ columnists/ rory_leishman/ 2009/ 10/ 31/ 11588271-sun. html) by By Rory Leishman,, 31 October 2009. [54] The bond between Nazis and Islam (http:/ / www. theaustralian. com. au/ news/ opinion/ the-bond-between-nazis-and-islam/ story-e6frg6zo-1225890936552) by Paul Berman, The Australian, 13 July 2010. [55] #2005 – Sheik Yousuf Al-Qaradhawi: Allah Imposed Hitler upon the Jews to Punish Them – "Allah Willing, the Next Time Will Be at the Hand of the Believers" (http:/ / www. memritv. org/ clip/ en/ 2005. htm),, Clip no. 2005, Al-Jazeera TV (Qatar) – 28–30 January. [56] "Analysis: Yusuf al-Qaradawi – a ‘man for all seasons’" (http:/ / www. jpost. com/ MiddleEast/ Article. aspx?ID=208978& R=R). Jerusalem Post. . [57] Qaradawis Extremism Laid Bare (http:/ / www. investigativeproject. org/ 992/ qaradawis-extremism-laid-bare), Investigative Project on Terrorism, IPT News, 6 February 2009. [58] Intellectual Double Standards on Islamists (http:/ / www. jewishworldreview. com/ people/ emerson050610. php3) by Steve Emerson, Jewish World Review, 6 May 2010 / 22 Iyar 5770. [59] Islamist movements casts shadow over Egypt (http:/ / washingtonjewishweek. com/ m/ Articles. aspx?ArticleID=16491) by Robert Wistrich, Washington Jewish Week, January 18, 2012. [60] Militant Islamism, Islamism, Islam (http:/ / www. nationalreview. com/ articles/ 288476/ militant-islamism-islamism-islam-clifford-d-may) by Clifford D. May, National Review, January 19, 2012. [61] "Source of the Punishment for Apostasy" (http:/ / webcache. googleusercontent. com/ search?q=cache:n6vYB-lD6-wJ:www. islamonline. net/ servlet/ Satellite?c=Article_C& cid=1178724001992& pagename=Zone-English-Living_Shariah/ LSELayout+ site:islamonline. net+ "Apostasy"+ qaradawi& cd=1& hl=en& ct=clnk& gl=ca& source=www. google. ca). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [62] "Apostasy and its Classification in Yusuf Al-Qardawis View" (http:/ / www. islamopediaonline. org/ fatwa/ apostasy-and-its-classification-yusuf-al-qardawis-view). Islamopedia. . [63] "Fatwa on Intellectual Apostasy" (http:/ / www. onislam. net/ english/ ask-the-scholar/ crimes-and-penalties/ apostasy/ 175287. html). . Retrieved 1 March 2011. [64] Muslim world needs democracy, says Qaradawi (http:/ / www. muslimnews. co. uk/ news/ news. php?article=11311) – The Muslim News – Saturday, 8 July 2006 [65] Reform according to Islam (http:/ / english. aljazeera. net/ English/ archive/ archive?ArchiveId=3779). Al Jazeera English (http:/ / english. aljazeera. net/ ) [66] (http:/ / www. onislam. net/ english/ news/ africa/ 451164-govt-pressures-ban-qaradawi-from-egypt-tv. html) Govt pressure bans Qaradawi [67] "Qaradawi Condemns Attacks Against Civilians: Forbidden in Islam" (http:/ / www. islam-online. net/ English/ News/ 2001-09/ 13/ article25. shtml). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [68] Hasan, Mehdi (5 November 2009). "Suicide attacks are un-Islamic" (http:/ / www. newstatesman. com/ religion/ 2009/ 11/ mehdi-hasan--islam-suicide). New Statesman. . Retrieved 8 May 2011. [69] Afifi al-Akiti, Muhammad. "Al-Akiti of Oxford University and author at Living Islam prohibits targeting Israeli civilians, permits attacking soldiers in times of no recognized cease fire in Palestine" (http:/ / www. islamopediaonline. org/ fatwa/ al-akiti-oxford-university-and-author-living-islam-prohibits-targeting-israeli-civilians-permi). Islamopedia Online. . Retrieved 8 May 2011. [70] "Qaradawi Is Welcome Peter Roberts Labour Left Briefing, December 2004" (http:/ / www. whatnextjournal. co. uk/ Pages/ Politics/ Welcome. html). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [71] Mark Oliver and Anushri Patel (19 July 2005). "Controversy over clerics visit grows" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ uk/ 2005/ jul/ 19/ july7. uksecurity3). The Guardian (London). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [72] "Yusuf Al-Qaradawi tells BBC Newsnight that Islam justifies suicide bombings" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ pressoffice/ pressreleases/ stories/ 2004/ 07_july/ 07/ newsnight. shtml). BBC. . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [73] "Qaradawi Criticizes Al-Azhar for Condemning Jerusalem Attacks" (http:/ / www. islamonline. net/ English/ News/ 2001-12/ 05/ article6. shtml). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [74] "Stop Terror Sheikhs, Muslim Academics Demand" (http:/ / archive. arabnews. com/ ?page=4& section=0& article=53683& d=30& m=10& y=2004). . Retrieved 11 April 2010.
  • 155. Yusuf al-Qaradawi 153 [75] "Middle East Media Research Institute" (http:/ / www. memri. org/ bin/ articles. cgi?Page=countries& Area=iraq& ID=SP142707). MEMRI. . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [76] Qaradawi urges Muslims to support Hezbollah (http:/ / www. gulf-times. com/ site/ topics/ article. asp?cu_no=2& item_no=99984& version=1& template_id=36& parent_id=16). Gulf Times [77] "Recognise Libyan rebels: Qaradawi" (http:/ / www. gulf-times. com/ site/ topics/ article. asp?cu_no=2& item_no=421411& version=1& template_id=36& parent_id=16). Gulf Times. 11 March 2011. . Retrieved 20 March 2011. [78] "Bharaini Sunnis, Shias should talk to resolve issues: Qaradawi" (http:/ / www. thepeninsulaqatar. com/ qatar/ 146271-bharaini-sunnis-shias-should-talk-to-resolve-issues-qaradawi. html). The Peninsula. 20 March 2011. . Retrieved 30 March 2011. [79] "Protests in Syrias Daraa city, journalists banned" (http:/ / www. monstersandcritics. com/ news/ middleeast/ news/ article_1628710. php/ Protests-in-Syria-s-Daraa-city-journalists-banned). Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 25 Mar 2011. . Retrieved 26 March 2011. [80] Nour Abuzant (26 March 2011). "Qaradawi condemns atrocities against protesters in Syria" (http:/ / www. gulf-times. com/ site/ topics/ article. asp?cu_no=2& item_no=424384& version=1& template_id=57& parent_id=56). Gulf Times. . Retrieved 26 March 2011. [81] Advisory opinion of the scholar Dr. Yusuf al-Qaradawi on womens participation in martyrdom operations (http:/ / www. palestine-info. info/ arabic/ fatawa/ alamaliyat/ qaradawi1. htm) [82] Syal, Rajeev (11 July 2004). "For her to be absolved from guilt, a raped woman must have shown good conduct" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ uknews/ 1466715/ For-her-to-be-absolved-from-guilt-a-raped-woman-must-have-shown-good-conduct. html). The Telegraph (London). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [83] "UK Group To Sue Telegraph Over "False" Qaradawi Story" (http:/ / www. turks. us/ article. php?story=20040715063807607). Daily News. 15 July 2004. . Retrieved 8 March 2011. [84] Madeleine Bunting (29 October 2005). "Friendly fire Madeleine Bunting meets Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi in Qatar" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ world/ 2005/ oct/ 29/ religion. uk1). The Guardian (London). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [85] "Red Ken and the Conservative Cleric" (http:/ / www. whatnextjournal. co. uk/ Pages/ Politics/ Brettlock. html). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [86] "Why the Mayor of London will maintain dialogues with all of London’s faiths and communities – Page 14 – Womens rights" (http:/ / legacy. london. gov. uk/ news/ docs/ qaradawi_dossier. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [87] McCartney, Jenny (11 July 2004). "Livingstone lauds the man who defends the killing of gays" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ comment/ columnists/ jennymccartney/ 3608294/ Livingstone-lauds-the-man-who-defends-the-killing-of-gays. html). The Daily Telegraph (London). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [88] Syal, Rajeev (11 July 2004). "For her to be absolved from guilt, a raped woman must have shown good conduct" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ uknews/ 1466715/ For-her-to-be-absolved-from-guilt-a-raped-woman-must-have-shown-good-conduct. html). The Daily Telegraph (London). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [89] Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf. The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam, Chapter 3:The Halal And The Haram In Marriage And Family Life -> Divorce -> Rebelliousness and Strife [90] "The Odd Couple: Red Ken and the Conservative Cleric" (http:/ / www. whatnextjournal. co. uk/ Pages/ Politics/ Brettlock. html). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [91] Qaradawi Calls On Ending Female Circumcision, Considers It Banned In Islamic Law (http:/ / www. ikhwanweb. com/ article. php?id=19661) [92] "". [93] "" (http:/ / www. aljazeera. net/ NR/ exeres/ E3A7EEFB-4016-485A-8D6A-7AA9FD75CBD9. htm). . Retrieved 18 June 2007. [94] "" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20061002053939/ http:/ / www. memritv. org/ search. asp?ACT=S9& P1=1170#). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. memritv. org/ search. asp?ACT=S9& P1=1170#) on 2 October 2006. . Retrieved 18 June 2007. [95] "SPIEGEL Interview with Al-Jazeera Host Yusuf Al-Qaradawi" (http:/ / www. spiegel. de/ international/ 0,1518,376954,00. html). SPIEGEL International. . Retrieved 1 March 2011. [96] Abdelhadi, Magdi (21 April 2008). "BBC:Muslim call to adopt Mecca time" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ middle_east/ 7359258. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [97] Rennie, David (3 February 2006). "Daily Telegraph" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ main. jhtml?xml=/ news/ 2006/ 02/ 03/ wcart03. xml). The Daily Telegraph (London). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [98] Al-Qaradawis official reply to Amman Message 12 June 2005 (http:/ / ammanmessage. com/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=74& Itemid=42& limit=1& limitstart=0) [99] ""Spiegel Interview with Al-Jazeera Host Yusuf Al-Qaradawi: God Has Disappeared"([[Der Spiegel (http:/ / www. spiegel. de/ international/ 0,1518,376954,00. html)], September 27, 2005)"]. 27 September 2005. . Retrieved 23 February 2011. [100] moreorless (12 January 2004). ""Al-Qaradawi Turns Down Offer to Assume Leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood"(al-Jazeera, January 12, 2004)" (http:/ / www. cesnur. org/ 2004/ qaradawi. htm). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [101] "Qaradawi: "MB asked me to be a chairman" –" (http:/ / www. ikhwanweb. com/ article. php?id=3537). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [102] "Stop Terror Sheikhs, Muslim Academics Demand" (http:/ / www. arabnews. com/ ?page=4& section=0& article=53683& d=30& m=10& y=2004). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [103] "be merciful". "Be merciful to Qaradawi" (http:/ / www. ikhwanweb. com/ article. php?id=15874). . Retrieved 11 April 2010.
  • 156. Yusuf al-Qaradawi 154 [104] Uthmani, Muhammad Taqi. "Yūsuf al-Qaradāwī, as I Have Known Him" (http:/ / www. suhaibwebb. com/ islam-studies/ yusuf-al-qaradawi-as-i-have-known-him-by-mufti-taqi-uthmani-h/ ). . Retrieved 28 June 2011. [105] By Alaa Bayoumi (17 March 2010). "Focus – The battle for Al-Azhar" (http:/ / english. aljazeera. net/ focus/ 2010/ 03/ 201031763554123901. html). Al Jazeera English. . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [106] Militant Ideology Atlas (http:/ / ctc. usma. edu/ atlas/ Atlas-ResearchCompendium. pdf), Combating Terrorism Center, West Point [107] Malm, Fredrik (21 August 2003). "Massmordspredikan i svensk moské" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20041104021932/ http:/ / www. dn. se/ DNet/ jsp/ polopoly. jsp?d=572& a=172705) (in Swedish). Dagens Nyheter. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. dn. se/ DNet/ jsp/ polopoly. jsp?d=572& a=172705) on 4 November 2004. . [108] France election: Sarkozy vows ban on militant preachers (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ world-europe-17512436), BBC News, 2012-03-26 [109] "" (http:/ / www. memri. org/ bin/ articles. cgi?Page=subjects& Area=jihad& ID=SP79404#_edn1). . Retrieved 18 June 2007. [110] MEMRI as above, citing al-Hayat [111] "Reactions to Sheikh Al-Qaradhawis Fatwa Calling for the Abduction and Killing of American Civilians in Iraq" (http:/ / www. memri. org/ bin/ articles. cgi?Page=subjects& Area=jihad& ID=SP79404#_edn20). . Retrieved 13 October 2008. [112] Harrison, Frances (11 April 2008). "Alcohol fatwa sparks controversy" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ middle_east/ 7342425. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [113] "Quran Chapter 50: Al Maeda, verse 90" (http:/ / www. usc. edu/ dept/ MSA/ quran/ 005. qmt. html#005. 090). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [114] "The IDB Prize in Islamic Economics and Islamic Banking" (http:/ / www. isdb. org/ irj/ go/ km/ docs/ documents/ IDBDevelopments/ Internet/ English/ IRTI/ CM/ About IRTI/ IDB_Prize. html). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [115] "Winners" (http:/ / www. menofia. edu. eg/ announcements/ faisal/ files/ PDF_Files/ English/ KFIP-Winners-per-Years. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [116] "H.H. The Amir presents the State Acknowledgement Award to Dr. Sheikh Yusuf Al Qaradawi for his contributions in the field of Islamic Studies" (http:/ / www. diwan. gov. qa/ english/ the_amir/ the_amir_activities_88. htm). . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [117] "Work together to enhance cooperation, Sultan Abdul Halim tells Muslims" (http:/ / thestar. com. my/ news/ story. asp?file=/ 2009/ 12/ 19/ nation/ 5334691& sec=nation). 19 December 2009. . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [118] Qatar Faculty of Islamic Studies (QFIS) (http:/ / www. qfis. edu. qa/ files/ pdf/ Microsoft Word - QFIS_Scholarships 2009-2010. pdf) [119] "Qatar centre spreads moderate Islam, dialogue" (http:/ / www. arabianbusiness. com/ 572720-qatar-centre-spreads-moderate-islam-dialogue). 7 November 2009. . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [120] "Qaradawi centre vows to fight extremism" (http:/ / www. gulf-times. com/ site/ topics/ article. asp?cu_no=2& item_no=314242& version=1& template_id=57). 9 December 2009. . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [121] "The World’s Top 20 Public Intellectuals" (http:/ / www. foreignpolicy. com/ articles/ 2008/ 06/ 16/ the_world_s_top_20_public_intellectuals). 16 June 2008. . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [122] Yūsuf al-Qaradāwī, as I Have Known Him (http:/ / www. suhaibwebb. com/ islam-studies/ yusuf-al-qaradawi-as-i-have-known-him-by-mufti-taqi-uthmani-h/ ) [123] Yusuf Qaradawis jihad (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ commentisfree/ belief/ 2009/ aug/ 17/ islam-jihad-qaradawi) [124] Rethinking Jihad: Ideas, Politics and Conflict in the Arab World and Beyond Conference Report (http:/ / www. casaw. ac. uk/ conf/ rj2009/ documents/ ReThinkingJihad2009Report. pdf) [125] Some Mistakes Of Yusuf Al-Qaradawi (http:/ / www. islamicweb. com/ beliefs/ misguided/ qaradawi. htm) [126] http:/ / www. newvision. tc/ ?zSystem=eShop& Lang=& sc=E083 [127] http:/ / www. witness-pioneer. org/ vil/ Books/ Q_Priorities/ index. htm [128] http:/ / www. witness-pioneer. org/ vil/ Books/ Q_awake/ index. htm [129] http:/ / www. witness-pioneer. org/ vil/ Books/ Q_WI/ default. htm [130] http:/ / www. witness-pioneer. org/ vil/ Books/ Q_RE/ index. htm [131] http:/ / www. witness-pioneer. org/ vil/ Books/ Q_LP/ [132] http:/ / www. returntoislam. com/ wiki/ index. php/ Diversion_and_Arts_In_Islam [133] "The Global Mufti: The Phenomenon of Yusuf al-Qaradawi (Columbia/Hurst)" (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ 0231700709). 9 September 2009. . Retrieved 11 April 2010. [134] "Liberal Islam, 1998 Edition, Chapter 22 Yusuf Al-Qaradawi" (http:/ / www. amazon. co. uk/ dp/ 0195116224). . Retrieved 11 April 2010.
  • 157. Yusuf al-Qaradawi 155 External links • On Islam ( • Personal website ( (in Arabic) • Works by or about Yusuf al-Qaradawi ( in libraries (WorldCat catalog) • Al-Qaradawis books translated into English and French ( • Wolfgang G. Schwanitz: Global Mufti al-Qaradawi, Webversion 12-2010 ( pdf-dateien/2011_04_26/Bettina Graef Jakob Skovgaard-Petersen Global Mufti.pdf) • "Shaykh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi: Portrait of a leading Islamist cleric" ( pdf/5.pdf), Ana Belén Soage, Middle East Review of International Affairs, 12/1 (March 2008), pp. 51–65 • Yusuf al-Qaradawi and Minorities: Learned Intolerance ( _c-478/_nr-1007/i.html), • Daily Assembly 14 September 2005 ( Assembly (Mayors Question Time)/20050914/Minutes/Transcript PDF.pdf), Mayor of London about Qardawi and Pope John XXIII, pp. 12–13, Greater London Authority Rashid Rida Muhammad Rashid Rida (September 23, 1865, Ottoman Syria - August 22, 1935, Egypt) is said to have been "one of the most influential scholars and jurists of his generation" and the "most prominent disciple of Muhammad Abduh" [1] Rida was born near Tripoli in Al-Qalamoun, now in Lebanon but then part of Ottoman Syria within the Ottoman Empire). His early education consisted of training in "traditional Islamic subjects". In 1884-5 he was first exposed to al-`Urwa al-wuthqa, the journal of the Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh. In 1897 he left Syria for Cairo to collaborate with Abduh and the following year they launched al-Manar, a weekly and then monthly journal comprising Quranic commentary[1] at which Rida worked until his death in 1935. Rida was an early Islamic reformer, whose ideas would later influence 20th-century Islamist thinkers in developing a political philosophy of an "Islamic state". Reformist ideas Like his predecessors, Rida focused on the relative weakness of Muslim societies vis-à-vis Western colonialism, blaming Sufi excesses, the blind imitation of the past (taqlid), the stagnation of the ulama, and the resulting failure to achieve progress in science and technology. He held that these flaws could be alleviated by a return to what he saw as the true principles of Islam - salafiyya Islam which was purged of impurities and Western influences — albeit interpreted (ijtihad) to suit modern realities.[2] This alone could he believed save Muslims from subordination to the colonial powers.[3] The corruption and tyranny of Muslim rulers ("caliphs") throughout history was a central theme in Ridas criticisms. Rida, however, celebrated the rule of Mohammad and the Rightly Guided Caliphs, and leveled his attacks at subsequent rulers who could not maintain Mohammads example. He also criticized the clergy ("ulama") for compromising their integrity - and the integrity of the Islamic law ("sharia") they were meant to uphold - by associating with worldly corrupt powers.[4] Towards the end of his life, Rida became a staunch defender of the Saudi regime and an advocate of Wahhabism, saluting Abd al-Wahhab as the "renewer of the XII century (of the Hijra)". In fact, he died on his way back to Cairo from Suez, where he had gone to see Ibn Saud off. [5]
  • 158. Rashid Rida 156 Contributions to Islamist political thought Ridas ideas were foundational to the development of the modern "Islamic state". He "was an important link between classical theories of the caliphate, such as al-Mawardis, and 20th-century notions of the Islamic state".[6] Rida promoted a restoration or rejuvenation of the Caliphate for Islamic unity, and "democratic consultation on the part of the government, which he called "shura"."[2] In theology, his reformist ideas, like those of Abduh, were "based on the argument that sharia consists of `ibadat (worship) and muamalat (social relations). Human reason has little scope in the former and Muslims should adhere to the dictates of the Quran and hadith. The laws governing muamalat should conform to Islamic ethics but on specific points may be continually reassessed according to changing conditions of different generations and societies.[1] Although he did not call for the revolutionary establishment of an "Islamic state" itself, rather advocating only gradual reform of the existing Ottoman government, Rida preceded Abul Ala Maududi, Sayyid Qutb, and later Islamists in declaring adherence to Sharia law as essential for Islam and Muslims, saying `those Muslim [rulers] who introduce novel laws today and forsake the Sharia enjoined upon them by God ... They thus abolish supposed distasteful penalties such as cutting off the hands of thieves or stoning adulterers and prostitutes. They replace them with man-made laws and penalties. He who does that has undeniably become an infidel.`[3] References [1] Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, Thompson Gale (2004), p.597 [2] Glasse, Cyril, The New Encyclopedia of Islam, Altamira Press, 2001, p.384 [3] Emmanuel Sivan, Radical Islam: Medieval Theology and Modern Politics, enl. Ed. (New Have: Yale University Press, 1990), p.101 [4] Rida, Muhammad Rashid. 1934. Al-Khilafa aw al-Imama al-Uzma [The caliphate or the great imamate]. Cairo: Matbaat al-Manar bi-Misr, p. 57-65. [5] Soage, Ana Belén. 2008. "Rashid Ridas Legacy". The Muslim World 98/1, p. 57-65. [6] Eickelman, D. F., & Piscatori, J. (1996). Muslim politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, p. 31. External links • Short biography ( • Rashid Rida Hometown Website (
  • 159. Muhammad Abduh 157 Muhammad Abduh Muhammad Abduh Religion Islam Personal Born January 1, 1849 Nile Delta, Egypt Died July 11, 1905 (aged 56) Alexandria Muhammad Abduh (or Mohammed Abduh) (Arabic: ‫( )ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ‬Nile Delta, 1849 – Alexandria, July 11, 1905) was an Egyptian jurist, religious scholar and liberal reformer, regarded as the founder of Islamic Modernism. A book titled Islam and Liberty regarded Muhammad Abduh as the founder of the so-called Neo-Mutazilism.[1] Biography Muhammad Abduh was born in 1849 into a family of peasants in Lower Egypt. He was educated by a private tutor and a reciter of the Quran. When he turned thirteen he was sent to the Aḥmadī mosque which was one of the largest educational institutions in Egypt. A while later Abduh ran away from school and got married. He enrolled at al-Azhar in 1866.[2] Abduh studied logic, philosophy and mysticism at the Al-Azhar University in Cairo. He was a student of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani,[3] a philosopher and religious reformer who advocated Pan-Islamism to resist European colonialism. Under al-Afghanis influence, Abduh combined journalism, politics, and his own fascination in mystic spirituality. Al-Afghani taught Abduh about the problems of Egypt and the Islamic world and about the technological achievements of the west. In 1877, Abduh was granted the degree of Alim and he started to teach logic, theology and ethics at al-Azhar. He was appointed professor of history at Cairos teachers training college Dār al-ʿUlūm in 1878. He was also appointed to teach Arabic at the Khedivial School of Languages.[4] Abduh was appointed editor and chief of al-Waqāʾiʿ al-Miṣriyya, the official newspaper of the state. He was dedicated to reforming all aspects of Egyptian society. He believed that education was the best way to achieve this goal. He was in favor of a good religious education which would strengthen a child’s morals and a scientific education which would nurture a child’s ability to reason. In his articles he criticized corruption, superstition, and the luxurious lives of the rich.[5]
  • 160. Muhammad Abduh 158 He was exiled from Egypt in 1882 for six years, for supporting the Urabi Revolt. He had stated that every society should be allowed to choose a suitable form of government based on its history and its present circumstances.[6] Abduh spent several years in Lebanon where he helped establish an Islamic educational system. In 1884 he moved to Paris, France where he joined al-Afghani in publishing The Firmest Bond (al-Urwah al-Wuthqa), an Islamic revolutionary journal that promoted anti-British views. Abduh also visited Britain and discussed the state of Egypt and Sudan with high-ranking officials. In 1885, he returned to Beirut and was surrounded by scholars from different religious backgrounds. During his stay there he dedicated his efforts toward furthering respect and friendship between Islam, Christianity and Judaism.[7] When he returned to Egypt in 1888, Abduh began his legal career. He was appointed judge in the Courts of First Instance of the Native Tribunals and in 1890, he became a consultative member of the Court of Appeal. In 1899, he was appointed Mufti of Egypt and he held this position until he died. While he was in Egypt, Abduh founded a religious society, became president of a society for the revival of Arab sciences and worked towards reforming al-Azhar by putting forth proposals to improve examinations, the curriculum and the working conditions for both professors and students. He travelled a great deal and met with European scholars in Cambridge and Oxford. He studied French law and read a great many European and Arab works in the libraries of Vienna and Berlin. The conclusions he drew from his travels were that Muslims suffer from ignorance about their own religion and the despotism of unjust rulers.[8] Muhammad Abduh died on 11 July 1905. People from all around the world sent their condolences. Thought “ I went to the West and saw Islam, but no Muslims; I got back to the East and saw Muslims, but not Islam. ” — Muhammad Abduh Muhammad Abduh argued that Muslims could not simply rely on the interpretations of texts provided by medieval clerics, they needed to use reason to keep up with changing times. He said that in Islam man was not created to be led by a bridle, man was given intelligence so that he could be guided by knowledge. According to Abduh, a teacher’s role was to direct men towards study. He believed that Islam encouraged men to detach from the world of their ancestors and that Islam reproved the slavish imitation of tradition. He said that the two greatest possessions relating to religion that man was graced with were independence of will and independence of thought and opinion. It was with the help of these tools that he could attain happiness. He believed that the growth of western civilization in Europe was based on these two principles. He thought that Europeans were roused to act after a large number of them were able to exercise their choice and to seek out facts with their minds.[9] His Muslim opponents refer to him as an infidel; however, his followers called him a sage, a reviver of religion and a reforming leader. He is conventionally graced with the epithets “al-Ustādh al-Imām” and “al-Shaykh al-Muftī”. In his works, he portrays God as educating humanity from its childhood through its youth and then on to adulthood. According to him, Islam is the only religion whose dogmas can be proven by reasoning. Abduh does not advocate returning to the early stages of Islam. He was against polygamy and thought that it was an archaic custom. He believed in a form of Islam that would liberate men from enslavement, provide equal rights for all human beings, abolish the religious scholar’s monopoly on exegesis and abolish racial discrimination and religious compulsion.[10] Mohammad Abduh made great efforts to preach harmony between Sunnis and Shias. Broadly speaking, he preached brotherhood between all schools of thought in Islam. However, he criticized what he perceived as errors such as superstitions coming from popular Sufism.[11] Abduh regularly called for better friendship between religious communities. As Christianity was the second biggest religion in Egypt, he devoted special efforts toward friendship between Muslims and Christians. He had many
  • 161. Muhammad Abduh 159 Christian friends and many a time he stood up to defend Copts.[12] During the Urabi revolt, some Muslim mobs had misguidedly attacked a number of Copts resulting from their anger against European colonialism. Works • Peak of Eloquence with comments Other works by Muhammad `Abduh • (1897), Risālat al-tawḥīd (“Theology of unity;” first edition) • (1903), Tafsir Surat al-`Asr, Cairo. • (1904), Tafsir juz’ `Amma, al-Matb. al-Amiriyya, Cairo. • (1927), Tafsir Manar, 12 volumes • (1944), Muhammad Abduh. Essai sur ses idées philosophiques et religieuses, Cairo • (1954–1961), Tafsir al-Quran al-Hakim al-Mustahir bi Tafsir al-Manar, 12 vols. with indices, Cairo. • (1962 or 1963) (Islamic year 1382), Fatihat al-Kitab, Tafsir al-Ustadh al-Imam…, Kitab al-Tahrir, Cairo. • (no date), Durus min al-Quran al-Karim, ed. by Tahir al-Tanakhi, Dar al-Hilal, Cairo. • (1966), The Theology of Unity, trans. by Ishaq Musaad and Kenneth Cragg. London. References • Benzine, Rachid (2008). Les nouveaux penseurs de lislam. Paris: Albin Michel. ISBN 978-2-226-17858-9. • Black, Antony (2001). The History of Islamic Political Thought. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-93243-2. • Sedgwick, Mark (2009). Muhammad Abduh. Oxford: Oneworld. ISBN 978-1-85168-432-8. • Watt, W. Montgomery (1985). Islamic Philosophy and Theology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-0749-8. Notes [1] Ahmed H. Al-Rahim (January 2006). "Islam and Liberty", Journal of Democracy 17 (1), p. 166-169. [2] Kügelgen, Anke von. "ʿAbduh, Muḥammad." Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Edited by: Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson. Brill, 2009. Brill Online. Syracuse University. 23 April 2009 <> [3] Kedourie, E. (1997). Afghani and Abduh: An Essay on Religious Unbelief and Political Activism in Modern Islam, London: Frank Cass. ISBN 071464355. [4] Kügelgen, Anke von. "ʿAbduh, Muḥammad." Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Edited by: Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson. Brill, 2009. Brill Online. Syracuse University. 23 April 2009 <> [5] Kügelgen, Anke von. "ʿAbduh, Muḥammad." Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Edited by: Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson. Brill, 2009. Brill Online. Syracuse University. 23 April 2009 <> [6] Kügelgen, Anke von. "ʿAbduh, Muḥammad." Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Edited by: Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson. Brill, 2009. Brill Online. Syracuse University. 23 April 2009 <> [7] Kügelgen, Anke von. "ʿAbduh, Muḥammad." Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Edited by: Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson. Brill, 2009. Brill Online. Syracuse University. 23 April 2009 <> [8] Kügelgen, Anke von. "ʿAbduh, Muḥammad." Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Edited by: Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson. Brill, 2009. Brill Online. Syracuse University. 23 April 2009 <> [9] Gelvin , J. L. (2008). The Modern Middle East (2nd ed., pp. 161-162). New York: Oxford university Press. [10] Kügelgen, Anke von. "ʿAbduh, Muḥammad." Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Edited by: Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson. Brill, 2009. Brill Online. Syracuse University. 23 April 2009 <> [11] Benzine, Rachid. Les nouveaux penseurs de lislam, p. 43-44. [12] Benzine, Rachid. Les nouveaux penseurs de lislam, p. 44.
  • 162. Muhammad Abduh 160 External links • Center for Islam and Science: Muhammad `Abduh ( Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani Jamal-ad-Din (al-Afghani) Religion political Islam (perhaps Shia) Personal Born 19 June 1838 Asadabad, Afghanistan Died September 1, 1897 (aged 59) Istanbul, Ottoman Empire Sayyid Jamāl-ad-Dīn al-Afghānī[1][2][3][4] (Persian: ‫ ,)ﺍﻟﺪﯾﻦ ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﯽﺳﯿﺪ ﺟﻤﺎﻝ‬also known as Sayyid Jamal-ad-Din Asadabadi (Persian: ‫ – 8381( ,)ﺁﺑﺎﺩﯼﺍﻟﺪﯾﻦ ﺍﺳﺪﺳﯿﺪ ﺟﻤﺎﻝ‬March 9, 1897), was a political activist and Islamic ideologist in the Muslim world during the late 19th century, particularly in the Middle East, South Asia and Europe. One of the founders of Islamic modernism[4][5] and an advocate of pan-Islamic unity,[6] he has been described as "less interested in theology than he was in organizing a Muslim response to Western pressure."[7] Surprisingly, some sources highlight that he was a British intelligence agent.[8] Throughout his forty-year career as a British intelligence agent, Jamal ad-Din Afghani was guided by two British Islamic and cult specialists, Wilfred Scawen Blunt and Edward G. Browne.[8] E. G. Browne was Britain’s leading Orientalist of the nineteenth century, and numbered among his protégés at Cambridge University’s Orientalist department Harry “Abdullah” St. John B. Philby, a British intelligence specialist behind the Wahhabi movement.[9] Wilfred S. Blunt, another member of the British Orientalist school, was given the responsibility by the Scottish Rite Masons to organize the Persian and the Middle East lodges. Jamal ad-Din Afghani was their primary agent. [10][9]
  • 163. Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani 161 Early life and origin He claimed to be of Afghan origin most of his life but some evidence shows that he was in fact born in Iran.[3][11] Although some older sources claim that al-Afghani was born in a district of Kunar Province in Afghanistan which is also called Asadabad,[12][13] overwhelming documentation (especially a collection of papers left in Iran upon his expulsion in 1891) now proves that he was born in Iran, in the village of Asadābād, near the city of Hamadān into a family of Sayyids.[1][2][11] Records indicate that he spent his childhood in Iran and was brought up as a Shia Muslim.[1][2] According to evidence reviewed by Nikki Keddie, he was educated first at home then taken by his father for further education to Qazvin, to Tehran, and finally, while he was still a youth, to the Shia shrine cities in Iraq.[11] It is thought that followers of Shia revivalist Shaikh Ahmad Ahsai had an influence on him.[14] An ethnic Persian, al-Afghani claimed to be an Afghan in order to present himself as a Sunni Muslim[14][15] and escape oppression by the Iranian ruler Nāṣer ud-Dīn Shāh.[2] One of his main rivals, the sheikh Abū l-Hudā, called him Mutaʾafghin ("the one who claims to be Afghan") and tried to expose his Shia roots.[16] Other names adopted by al-Afghani were al-Kābulī ("[the one] from Kabul") and al-Istānbulī ("[the one] from Istanbul"). Especially in his writings published in Afghanistan, he also used the pseudonym ar-Rūmī ("the Roman" or "the Anatolian").[11] Political activism At the age of 17 or 18 in 1855–56, al-Afghani travelled to British India and spent a number of years there studying religions. In 1859, a British spy reported that al-Afghani was a possible Russian agent. The British representatives reported that he wore traditional cloths of Noghai Turks in Central Asia and spoke Persian, Arabic and Turkish language fluently.[17] After this first Indian tour, he decided to perform Hajj or pilgrimage at Mecca. His first documents are dated from Autumn of 1865, where he mentions leaving the "revered place" (makān-i musharraf) and arriving in Tehran around mid-December of the same year. In the spring of 1866 he left Iran for Afghanistan, passing through Mashad and Herat. After the Indian stay, all sources have Afghānī next take a leisurely trip to Mecca, stopping at several points along the way. Both the standard biography and Lutfallāhs account take Afghānīs word that he entered Afghan government service before 1863, but since document from Afghanistan show that he arrived there only in 1866, we are left with several years unaccounted for. The most probably supposition seems to be that he may spent longer in India than he later said, and that after going to Mecca he travelled elsewhere in the Ottoman Empire. When he arrived in Afghanistan in 1866 he claimed to be from Istanbul, and he might not have made this claim if he had never even seen the city, and could be caught in ignorance of it.[18] —Nikki R. Keddie, 1983 He was spotted in Afghanistan in 1866 and spent time in Qandahar, Ghazni, and Kabul.[1] He became a counsellor to the King Dost Mohammad Khan (who died, however, on June 9, 1863) and later to Mohammad Azam. At that time he encouraged the king to oppose the British but turn to the Russians. However, he did not encourage Mohammad Azam to any reformist ideologies that later were attributed to al-Afghani. Reports from the colonial British Indian and Afghan government stated that he was a stranger in Afghanistan, and spoke the Persian language with Iranian accent and followed European lifestyle more than that of Muslims, not observing Ramadan or other Muslim rites.[17] In 1868, the throne of Kabul was occupied by Sher Ali Khan, and al-Afghani was forced to leave the country.[2] He travelled to Istanbul, passing through Cairo on his way there. He stayed in Cairo long enough to meet a young student who would become a devoted disciple of his, Muhammad Abduh.[19] In 1871, al-Afghani moved to Egypt and began preaching his ideas of political reform. His ideas were considered radical, and he was exiled in 1879. He then travelled to different European and non-European cities: Istanbul, London, Paris, Moscow, St. Petersburg and Munich. In 1884, he began publishing an Arabic newspaper in Paris entitled al-Urwah al-Wuthqa ("The Indissoluble Link"[1]) with Muhammad Abduh. The newspaper called for a return to the original principles and ideals of Islam, and for
  • 164. Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani 162 greater unity among Islamic peoples. He argued that this would allow the Islamic community to regain its former strength against European powers. al-Afghani was invited by Shah Nasser ad-Din to come to Iran and advise on affairs of government, but fell from favour quite quickly and had to take sanctuary in a shrine near Tehran. After seven months of preaching to admirers from the shrine, he was arrested in 1891, transported to the border with Ottoman Mesopotamia, and evicted from Iran. Although al-Afghani quarrelled with most of his patrons, it is said he "reserved his strongest hatred for the Shah," whom he accused of weakening Islam by granting concessions to Europeans and squandering the money earned thereby. His agitation against the Shah is thought to have been one of the "fountain-heads" of the successful 1891 protest against the granting a tobacco monopoly to a British company, and the later 1905 Constitutional Revolution.[20] Political and religious views al-Afghanis ideology has been described as a welding of "traditional" religious antipathy toward non-Muslims "to a modern critique of Western imperialism and an appeal for the unity of Islam", urging the adoption of Western sciences and institutions that might strengthen Islam.[15] Although called a liberal by the contemporary English admirer, Wilfrid Scawen Blunt,[21] Jamal ad-Din did not advocate constitutional government. In the volumes of the newspaper he published in Paris, "there is no word in the papers theoretical articles favoring political democracy or parliamentarianism," according to his biographer. Jamal ad-Din simply envisioned "the overthrow of individual rulers who were lax or subservient to foreigners, and their replacement by strong and patriotic men."[22] According to another source al-Afghani was greatly disappointed by the failure of the Indian Mutiny and came to three principal conclusions from it: • that European imperialism, having conquered India, now threatened the Middle East • that Asia, including the Middle East, could prevent the onslaught of Western powers only by immediately adopting the modern technology of the West • and that Islam, despite its traditionalism, was an effective creed for mobilizing the public against the imperialists.[23] He believed that Islam and its revealed law were compatible with rationality and, thus, Muslims could become politically unified while still maintaining their faith based on a religious social morality. These beliefs had a profound effect on Muhammad Abduh, who went on to expand on the notion of using rationality in the human relations aspect of Islam (muamalat) .[24] According to a report, from a man who must have been an Afghan with the local government, Jamal ad-Din Afghani was: "…well versed in geography and history, speaks Arabic and Turkish fluently, talks Persian like an Irani. Apparently, follows no particular religion." [25] In 1881 he published a collection of polemics titled Al-Radd ala al-Dahriyyi (Refutation of the Materialists), agitating for pan-Islamic unity against Western Imperialism. It included one of the earliest pieces of Islamic thought arguing against Darwins then-recent On the Origin of Species; however, his arguments incorrectly caricatured evolution, provoking criticism that he had not read Darwins writings.[26] In his later work Khatirat Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani (The Ideas of al-Afghani), he accepted the validity of evolution, asserting that the Islamic world had already known and used it. Although he accepted abiogenesis and the evolution of animals, he rejected the theory that the human species is the product of evolution, arguing that humans have souls.[26] Among the reasons why al-Afghani thought to have had a less than deep religious faith was his lack of interest in finding theologically common ground between Shia and Sunni (despite the fact that he was very interested in political unity between the two groups),[27] and his failure to marry. He is said to have "picked up female companionship when he wanted it without any show of religious scruples.", probably practising the temporary
  • 165. Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani 163 marriage (nikah al-muta) that only Shia communities recognize as licit (halal).[28] Death and legacy Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani died on March 9, 1897 in Istanbul and was buried there. In late 1944, due to the request of the Afghan government, his remains were taken to Afghanistan and laid in Kabul inside the Kabul University, a mausoleum was erected for him there. In Tehran, the capital of Iran, there is a square named after him (Asad Abadi Square). Works "Asad Abadi square" in Tehran, Iran • Sayyid Jamāl-ad-Dīn al-Afghānī: ", Continued the statement in the history of Afghans Egypt, original in Arabic: ‫ﺗﺘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻷﻓﻐﺎﻥ‬ Tatimmat al-bayan fi tarikh al-Afghan, 1901 ( Mesr, 1318 Islamic lunar jear (calendar)[29] • Sayyid Jamāl-ad-Dīn al-Afghānī: Brochure about Naturalism or materialism, original in Persian language : ‫ﺭﺳﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫( ﻧﯿﭽﺮﯾﻪ‬Ressalah e Natscheria) translatr of Muhammad Abduh in Arabic. References [1] "Jamāl ad-Dīn al-Afghānī" (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ ebc/ article-9368411). Elie Kedourie. The Online Encyclopædia Britannica. . Retrieved 2010-09-05. [2] "Afghani, Jamal-ad-Din" (http:/ / www. iranicaonline. org/ articles/ afgani-jamal-al-din). N.R. Keddie. Encyclopædia Iranica. December 15, 1983. . Retrieved 2010-09-05. [3] "Afghani, Jamal ad-Din al-" (http:/ / www. oxfordislamicstudies. com/ article/ opr/ t243/ e8?_hi=5& _pos=1). Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies. Oxford University Press. . Retrieved 2010-09-05. [4] "Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani" (https:/ / www. jewishvirtuallibrary. org/ jsource/ biography/ Afghani. html). Jewish Virtual Library. . Retrieved 2010-09-05. [5] "Sayyid Jamal ad-Din Muhammad b. Safdar al-Afghani (1838–1897)" (http:/ / www. cis-ca. org/ voices/ a/ afghni. htm). Saudi Aramco World. Center for Islam and Science. 2002. . Retrieved 2010-09-05. [6] Ludwig W. Adamec, Historical Dictionary of Islam (Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2001), p. 32 [7] Vali Nasr, The Shia Revival: How Conflicts within Islam Will Shape the Future (New York: Norton, 2006), p. 103. [8] Dreyfuss, Robert, "Hostage to Khomeini", (New Benjamin Franklin House Publishing Company, Inc., New York, USA: 1980), p. 113. [9] Dreyfuss, Robert, "Hostage to Khomeini", (New Benjamin Franklin House Publishing Company, Inc., New York, USA: 1980), p. 121 and 123. [10] Livingstone, David Terrorism and the Illuminati - A Three Thousand Year History (Charleston, SC, USA: 2007), p. 163. [11] Keddie, Nikki R (1983). An Islamic response to imperialism: political and religious writings of Sayyid Jamāl ad-Dīn "al-Afghānī" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ThR-B9BmWdYC& dq=Al-Afghan+ was+ Afghan+ by+ birth). United States: University of California Press. p. 212. ISBN 0-520-04774-5, 9780520047747. . Retrieved 2010-09-05. [12] From Reform to Revolution, Louay Safi, Intellectual Discourse 1995, Vol. 3, No. 1 LINK (http:/ / lsinsight. org/ articles/ 1998_Before/ Reform. htm) [13] Historia, Le vent de la révolte souffle au Caire, Baudouin Eschapasse, LINK (http:/ / www. historia. presse. fr/ data/ thematique/ 105/ 10502401. html) [14] Edward Mortimer, Faith and Power, Vintage, (1982)p.110 [15] "Arab awakening and Islamic revival By Martin S. Kramer" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=SRkTJCcyn00C& pg=PA143& lpg=PA143& dq=kramer+ al-afghani& source=bl& ots=17FMWFJMcG& sig=JxEgQwqt9BCy24w0Lac2WTPQj98& hl=en& ei=PpXrSYjOBovGMtnWme4F& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1). . Retrieved 2012-06-08. [16] A. Hourani: Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798–1939. London, Oxford University Press, p. 103–129 (108) [17] Molefi K. Asante, Culture and customs of Egypt, Published by Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, ISBN 0-313-31740-2, ISBN 978-0-313-31740-8, Page 137 [18] Keddie, Nikki R (1983). An Islamic response to imperialism: political and religious writings of Sayyid Jamāl ad-Dīn "al-Afghānī" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ThR-B9BmWdYC& dq=Al-Afghan+ was+ Afghan+ by+ birth). United States: University of California Press. p. 212. ISBN 0-520-04774-5, 9780520047747. . Retrieved 2010-09-05. [19] Albert Hourani, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age (Cambridge: Cambride UP, 1983), pp. 131–2
  • 166. Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani 164 [20] Roy Mottahedeh, The Mantle of the Prophet: Religion and Politics in Iran (Oxford: One World, 2000), pp. 183–4 [21] Wilfrid Scawen Blunt, Secret History of the English Occupation of Egypt (London: Unwin, 1907), p. 100. [22] Nikki R. Keddie, Sayyid Jamal ad-Din “al-Afghani”: A Political Biography (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972), pp. 225–26. [23] Ervand Abrahamian, Iran Between Two Revolutions (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982), pp. 62–3 [24] Albert Hourani, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age (Cambridge: Cambride UP, 1983), pp. 104–125 [25] Livingstone, David Terrorism and the Illuminati - A Three Thousand Year History (Charleston, SC, USA: 2007), p. 165. [26] The Comparative Reception of Darwinism, edited by Thomas Glick, ISBN 0-226-29977-5 [27] Nasr, The Shia Revival, p.103 [28] Mottahedeh, The Mantle of the Prophet, p. 184 [29] "Tatimmat al-bayan fi tarikh al-Afghan" (http:/ / www. archive. org/ stream/ tatimmatalbayanf00afghuoft#page/ 193/ mode/ 2up). . Retrieved 2012-06-08. In late 1944, due to the request of the Afghan government, his remains were taken to Afghanistan by Abdul Rahmon Popal and laid in Kabul inside the Kabul University Further reading • Bashiri, Iraj, Bashiri Working Papers on Central Asia and Iran ( Afghani/Afghani.html), 2000. • Black, Antony (2001). The History of Islamic Political Thought. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-93243-2. • Cleveland, William (2004). A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-4048-9. • Keddie, Nikki Ragozin. Sayyid Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani: A Political biography. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972. ISBN 978-0-520-01986-7 • Watt, William Montgomery (1985). Islamic Philosophy and Theology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-0749-8. • Mehrdad Kia, Pan-Islamism in Late Nineteenth-Century Iran, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 30–52 (1996). External links • Jamal-ad-Din Afghani (, a comprehensive article in Encyclopædia Iranica. • Sayyid Jamal ad-Din Muhammad b. Safdar al-Afghani (1838–1897) ( htm), a complete biography.
  • 167. Al-Suyuti 165 Al-Suyuti Muslim scholar Abu al-Fadl Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti Title Ibn al Kutb (Son of Books) Born 1445 CE/ Rajab of 849 AH Died 1505/911 Ethnicity Arab Region Egypt Maddhab Shafii,Ash`ari,Shadhilli Main interests Tafsir, Sharia, Fiqh. Hadith Works Tafsir Jalalyn Influences Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Siraj-ud-din al-Bulqini, Sharaf-ud-din al-Munawi, Ibn Arabi, etc. Influenced Abd Al-Wahhab bin Ahmad Al-Misri Al-Sharani, al-Dawudi, Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri. etc. Jalaluddin Al-Suyuti (Arabic: ‫( )ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‬c. 1445–1505 AD) also known as Ibn al-Kutub (son of books) was an Egyptian writer, religious scholar, juristic expert and teacher whose works deal with a wide variety of subjects in Islamic theology. He was precocious and was already a teacher in 1462. In 1486, he was appointed to a chair in the mosque of Baybars in Cairo. He adhered to the Shafii Madhab and is one of the latter-day authorities of the Shafii School, considered to be one of the Ashabun-Nazzar (Assessors) whose degree of Ijtihad is agreed upon. Biography Name, lineage and birth His full name was Abu al-Fadl Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr, Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti. Al-Suyuti is an ascription to a town in Upper Egypt called Asyut. One of his grandfathers built a school there and donated money to it. His father, Al-Kamaal, was born there in Asyut, so that is why Jalàl al-Din ascribes himself to that town. Both his grandfathers were men of leadership and prestige and his father was a Jurist of the Shafii Madhhab, as Al-Suyuti stated in Husn-ul-Muhaadarah. When his father died, Al-Kamaal Ibn Al-Hamaam, a Hanafi jurist, was one of the people that his father left Al-Suyuti entrusted to. He was born in the month of Rajab 849H [1445 AD] in Cairo (Egypt), and was raised as an orphan after his father died while he was only 5 years old. He memorized the entire Quran when he was barely eight. Then he went on to memorize Al-Umdah and Minhaaj Al-Fiqh wal-Usool and Alfiyyah Ibn Malik. He began to engross himself in religious knowledge starting from 864H, at the age of 15.
  • 168. Al-Suyuti 166 Education He took knowledge of Fiqh and Arabic grammar from a large number of teachers. He studied the laws of inheritance at the hands of the great scholar, who was the most knowledgeable in this subject during his time, Shaikh Shihaab-ud-Deen Al-Shaar Masaahee, who lived to a very old age. He studied his explanation of Al-Majmoo under him. He accompanied Ilm al-Din al-Balqini studying Fiqh under him until he died. Ilm-ud-Deen Al-Balqeenee, authorized him to teach and give fatwa in 876H. Likewise, he accompanied Shaikh Sharaf-ud-Deen Al-Manaawee and benefited from him in the fields of Fiqh and Tafsir. Al-Suyuti moved on to study under Al-Manawee after the death of Ilm-ud-Deen Al-Balqeenee in 878H. Ironically, Sharaf Al-Deen Al-Manaawee was the grandfather of Abdur-Raoof Al-Manaawee, the scholar who wrote the work Faid-ul-Qadeer, which was an explanation of As-Suyutis Al-Jaami-us-Sagheer. He studied the sciences of Hadith and the Arabic language under the Imam, Taqee-ud-Deen Al-Shumnee Al-Hanafi, who wrote some eulogies for him. He also attended the gatherings of the great scholar, Al-Kaafeejee, for the length of fourteen years and learned from him the subjects of Tafsir, Usul al-fiqh, and Maaanee. And he received ijazah, religious authorization, from him. He also benefited from the classes of Saif-ud-Deen Al-Hanafi on Tafsir and Balaghah, eloquence. The number of teachers from whom he received ijazah, religious authorization, studied under and heard from reaches one hundred and fifty shaykhs, as has been compiled by both himself and his student after him, Al-Dawudi, who arranged them in alphabetical order. In his book Husn-ul-Muhaadarah, Al-Suyuti gives the number of teachers who narrated to him from those he heard from and those who gave him the ijazah, saying: "As for my teachers who narrated to me, whom I heard from and who gave me the religious authorization, ijazah, then they are many. I have mentioned them in the lexicon I have compiled about them, and I counted them to number about 150." As-Suyuti traveled to Sham, Hijaz, Yemen, India and Morocco, and settled down towards the end of his life in his homeland of Egypt. Death Al-Suyuti withdrew from the people and remained in his house, busying himself with knowledge, research and writing until he caught a sickness that lasted for seven days, ending in his death. This happened in Jumada al-awwal, 911 AH. Career Al-Suyuti held various positions in his lifetime such as that of teacher of the Arabic language in 866H, he was authorized to give fatwa in 876H and he taught and dictated hadith at the University of Ibn Tuloon. He was a prolific writer, and a well-known author of the latter times. He has left behind at least a book in every branch of Islamic science that include both short monographs of few pages and tomes spanning volumes. Some of his books are also first of their kind – and standards for those that were written after. Many of his books are published; they are easily and widely available. The first book he wrote was Sharh Al-Istiaadha wal-Basmalah in 866H, when he was seventeen years old. Ibn Ímād writes: "Most of his works become world famous right in his lifetime. His ability to write was phenomenal. His student Dawudi says: "I was with the Shaykh Suyuti once, and he wrote three volumes on that day. He used to dictate annotations on ĥadīth, and answer my objections at the same time. He was the most knowledgeable scholar in his time of the ĥadīth and associated sciences, knowledge of the narrators including the uncommon ones, the text of the hadith matn, its chain of narrators isnad, the derivation of ruling from hadith. He has himself told me, that he had
  • 169. Al-Suyuti 167 memorized Two Hundred Thousand hadith."[23] In his lifetime, Suyuti claimed to have reached a level of independent reasoning in the derivation of jurisprudence (mujtahid), which caused much controversy in the scholarly factions in his days. He was criticized and maligned by some scholars of his time because of this claim of his which was misunderstood by most. Among these scholars was Al-Sakhawi (one of the foremost students of Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani), who had also been his teacher. It is said that one of the reasons for his spending the last 20 years of his life in seclusion was his sadness over the scholars reactions to his claims. Students The most famous of Al-Suyutis students and it is possible to say the most outstanding student of As-Suyuti was the Imam, the historian, Al-Dawudi (died 945H) – author of the book Tabaqaat Al-Mufassireen and other works. Then there was his other student, the famous historian, Ibn Iyaas, author of the book Badaai-uz-Zuhoor (died 930H). Some other of his students were the Imam, the Haafidh Ibn Tuloon Al-Hanafi (died 935H), author of the three Fahaaris, indexes as well as many other works and the Imam Al-Sharaanee, author of the book Al-Tabaqaat (died 973H), Imam Abdul Qadir Shadhili, who listed his books and read their names before him, some months prior to his death, Imam Hussam-ud-din Ali Muttaqi al Hindi, who is the celebrated author of the huge hadith compendium called Kanz ul Ummal and many others. Works His books and treatises have been counted to number almost 500 works altogether. Suyuti listed 283 of his own works in Husn al-Muhađarah. Some of the more famous works he produced were: • Tafsir al-Jalalayn (Arabic:‫)ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺠﻼﻟﻴﻦ‬ • Al-Jaami al-Kabîr (Arabic: ‫)ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬ • Al-Jaami al-Saghîr (Arabic: ‫)ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬ • Dur al-Manthur (Arabic: ‫ )ﺩﺭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺜﻮﺭ‬in tafsir • Alfiyyah al-Hadith [1] • Tadrib al-Rawi (Arabic: ‫ )ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ‬both in hadith terminology • History of the Caliphs (Arabic:Tarikh al-khulafa) • The Khalifas who took the right way (Arabic Al-Khulafah Ar-Rashidun) • Tabaqat al-huffaz an appendix to al-Dhahabis Tadhkirat al-huffaz • Nuzhat al-julasāʼ fī ashʻār al-nisāʼ (Arabic: ‫)ﻧﺰﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺃﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎء‬ • Khasaais-e-Kubra which mentions the miracles of Muhammad • Al-Muzhir. (linguistics). References [1] "USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080102023930/ http:/ / www. usc. edu/ dept/ MSA/ fundamentals/ hadithsunnah/ scienceofhadith/ asa1. html). 2008-01-02. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. usc. edu/ dept/ MSA/ fundamentals/ hadithsunnah/ scienceofhadith/ asa1. html) on 2008-01-02. . Retrieved 2010-03-18. External links • Dhanani, Alnoor (2007). "Suyūṭī: Abū al‐Faḍl ʿAbd al‐Raḥmān Jalāl al‐Dīn al‐Suyūṭī" (http://islamsci.mcgill. ca/RASI/BEA/Suyuti_BEA.htm). In Thomas Hockey et al. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. New York: Springer. pp. 1112–3. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0. ( PDF version ( BEA/Suyuti_BEA.pdf)) •
  • 170. Al-Suyuti 168 • • Imam Suyuti Biography and Works at SunniPort ( imam_jalaluddin_suyuti_v1.0.pdf)
  • 171. Article Sources and Contributors 169 Article Sources and Contributors Al-Kutub al-Sittah  Source:  Contributors: AA, Aalamin, Abuubaydullah, Ar-ras, Asikhi, Cloj, Closedmouth, Colonel Plop, Dar-Ape, Dinalislam, Edin1, Editor2020, Eras-mus, Fhasan86, GorgeCustersSabre, Greatmuslim10, Hmaism, InverseHypercube, Islami, Jackol, Jeff3000, Kharelt, Lanov, Leviel, Lord Chamberlain, the Renowned, Materialscientist, Mustafaa, Mystìc, Nepaheshgar, Neutron Jack, Pajjar, Pass a Method, PhnomPencil, Riddleme, Saudahmed66, Sharik Purkar, Spasage, Striver, Supertouch, Vague Rant, Érico Júnior Wouters, 34 anonymous edits History of hadith  Source:  Contributors: Abd r Raheem al Haq, Al-Andalusi, Allens, Amandajm, CambridgeBayWeather, Colonies Chris, Cookielady357, Courcelles, Eastlaw, Fallenfromthesky, Farhanizzle, Frankie816, Haymouse, Iwanttoeditthissh, Jagged 85, JamesBWatson, Kapitop, Khateeb88, Kwamikagami, MatthewVanitas, MattieTK, Mike33, Naval Scene, Naveedhussain1, Neutron Jack, Pharos, PhnomPencil, Prester John, Qomak, Razocky, RekonDog, Riccardo.fabris, Robina Fox, Sazzadur, Shaad lko, Someone65, SonnyCash786, Striver, Supertouch, Wiqi55, Woohookitty, 35 anonymous edits Muhammad al-Bukhari  Source:  Contributors: 07fan, 1053walk3r, AA, Afghana, Ahmad2099, Al-Andalusi, Al-Mujahid Fi Sabil Allah, Alaexis, Alphachimp, Alphapeeler, Amir khalilov, Anas Salloum, Anna Lincoln, Anonymous editor, Arawiki, Arrow740, Asikhi, Attilios, Azaz202, BalancingAct, BhaiSaab, Bluerain, Bobo192, Brenont, CJLL Wright, Cabolitae, CambridgeBayWeather, Cdecoro, Charles Matthews, Chem1, Chunky Rice, Cloj, Columbe, Courcelles, Cunado19, DKleinecke, Danish 23jan, Diyako, Dougweller, Dp462090, EagerToddler39, EastArabianWarrior, FayssalF, Flustamo, Freestylefrappe, Gaius Cornelius, Grenavitar, Gurch, HJ Mitchell, Hadith786, Hellrazor haz, Holis-inson, Hotbosscool, IMPOSSIBLEMAN, Intellibeing, Inuit18, Inwind, Iranway, Irishpunktom, Islam786, Islami, Itaqallah, Jacobolus, Jibran1, Jim1138, Joseph Solis in Australia, Jztinfinity, KWR500, Kansas Bear, Kbahey, Keith Edkins, Ketabtoon, Khalid!, Kitabparast, Kripkenstein, LatinoMuslim, Leena, Lixshan, M.Imran, MChew, MECU, Majilis, Malik Al Assad, Manicsleeper, Maqivi, Mardavich, MatthewVanitas, Mboverload, Mc saiid, Merbabu, MezzoMezzo, Mujahid7ia, Mujib7, Mustafaa, Nkv, Obayd, Olivier, Pass a Method, Pepsidrinka, PetertheVenerable, Politicallyincorrectliberal, Qbobdole, Rami.b, Reedy, Rjwilmsi, Saforcer, Salam horani, Salvio giuliano, Smooth0707, Stereotek, Striver, Studentoftruth, Supertouch, THEunique, Tahmasp, Tanbircdq, The prophet wizard of the crayon cake, The sealed nectar, Thingg, Timothy Usher, Torroking, Umars, Unflavoured, Unixer, UthmanMarwandi, Victoria15, WegianWarrior, West2East, Wik, Wikipidian, Wiqi55, Woohookitty, Yahia.barie, Zazaban, Zereshk, Zfr, Zigger, ‫ 482 ,ﻋﻠﯽ ﻭﯾﮑﯽ‬anonymous edits Sahih Muslim  Source:  Contributors: AA, Abuubaydullah, AladdinSE, Aqeeljafri, Arj49, Arty2, Asikhi, Babajobu, Canterbury Tail, Carabinieri, Colonies Chris, Danrah, Drift chambers, Edin1, Editor2020, Eras-mus, Ferrod12, Good Olfactory, Grenavitar, Hinio, Iamtruth, Inuit18, Islami, Iwanttoeditthissh, Java7837, Jibran1, JonHarder, Jprg1966, Jthefarter, Kabad, Khalid!, Kitabparast, Koavf, LeeHunter, Lixshan, Malikashtar, MeltBanana, MezzoMezzo, Mike33, Murtasa, Nkv, Pajjar, Pass a Method, Peter Deer, Prodego, Ragib, Rami.b, Rayc, Razimantv, Rjwilmsi, Sakimonk, Servant114, Shaad lko, SlightlyInsane, Someone65, Spasage, Striver, Sulzliu, Supertouch, The Man in Question, Throwaway85, Tubestowns4354365, Ultrabias, Vgent, Waqas072002, Woohookitty, Zazaban, 53 anonymous edits Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nishapuri  Source:  Contributors: AXRL, Abiyoyo, Abtinb, Afghana, Aftab86x, Akbarally Meherally, Al-Andalusi, Alex earlier account, Anonymous editor, Attilios, Aylahs, Bagusheria, BalancingAct, Ben D., Bestiasonica, BrainyBroad, Cabolitae, Caerwine, Cloj, Courcelles, Dbachmann, ErikvanB, Faigl.ladislav, Hinio, Hmaism, Inwind, Islami, Jag123, Joseph Solis in Australia, Kbahey, Khorshid, LatinoMuslim, Lixshan, Mardavich, MarmadukeP, MezzoMezzo, Murtasa, Mustafaa, Nick, Nima.nezafati, Numbo3, Obayd, Pass a Method, Pejuang bahasa, Pepsidrinka, Prester John, Rjwilmsi, Sonia Sevilla, Sonjaaa, Soroush Mesry, Striver, Supertouch, Tahmasp, Zimriel, ‫,ﻋﻠﯽ ﻭﯾﮑﯽ‬ ‫ 82 ,ﻫﻤﺎﻥ‬anonymous edits Al-Sunan al-Sughra  Source:  Contributors: AshrafSS, Caerwine, Dinalislam, Eras-mus, Fhasan86, Grenavitar, Islaosh, MK8, Obayd, Pass a Method, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Sakimonk, Spasage, Striver, Supertouch, TheRingess, Throwaway85, Wiki dr mahmad, Шизомби, 12 anonymous edits Al-Nasai  Source:  Contributors: Aelfthrytha, Afghana, Al-Andalusi, Andrew Dalby, Arne List, Bbb23, Bddrey, Cabolitae, ChrisGualtieri, Courcelles, Discospinster, Doc glasgow, FeanorStar7, Hattab, IceUnshattered, J04n, Koavf, MK8, Misharief, Mustafaa, Neutron Jack, Obayd, Pass a Method, Sa.vakilian, Sir192, Sly2fly, Sonia Sevilla, Striver, Supertouch, WacoJacko, Welsh, Wikipidian, ‫ 32 ,ﻋﻠﯽ ﻭﯾﮑﯽ‬anonymous edits Sunan Abu Dawood  Source:  Contributors: Ahoerstemeier, Akuraa218, Anas Salloum, AnonMoos, CambridgeBayWeather, Coolcatgirlish, Danieliness, Editor2020, Eras-mus, F3ew, Glyns, Grenavitar, Gwen-chan, Islami, Lambiam, Lanov, MezzoMezzo, Muhammad Hamza, Mustafaa, Notedgrant, Obayd, Pass a Method, Proudbharati, Qbobdole, Rami.b, Rich Farmbrough, Sakimonk, Sasajid, Spasage, Striver, Supertouch, Teply, TheProject, Throwaway85, Timothy Usher, Triquetra, Wikipidian, ‫,ﻋﻠﯽ ﻭﯾﮑﯽ‬ 16 anonymous edits Abu Dawood  Source:  Contributors: AXRL, Afghana, Al-Andalusi, AttoRenato, Bhadani, Cabolitae, Caerwine, Chmelchert, Danieliness, Dinalislam, Dr. Persi, Fatepur, Fatih Kurt, Haroun al Mouwahid, Hattab, Hinio, Ismail mohr, J04n, Jackyd101, Joyson Prabhu, Lanov, Magioladitis, Mustafaa, Nima.nezafati, Raayen, SJP, Sa.vakilian, Striver, Supertouch, TheRingess, Wiqi55, Woohookitty, ZaydHammoudeh, ‫ 93 ,ﮐﺎﺷﻒ ﻋﻘﯿﻞ ,ﻋﻠﯽ ﻭﯾﮑﯽ‬anonymous edits Sunan al-Tirmidhi  Source:  Contributors: A412, AA, ABF, Abuubaydullah, Anas Salloum, Asikhi, Bddrey, Bihco, CactusWriter, Dinalislam, Ephilei, Eras-mus, Grenavitar, Ian Pitchford, Islami, Itaqallah, Jahangard, JohnI, Khalid!, Lixshan, Lizrael, MezzoMezzo, Neilc, Neutron Jack, Obayd, Ocee, Pars.dextrum, Pass a Method, Sakimonk, Sharik Purkar, Spasage, Striver, Supertouch, Throwaway85, World1world, 22 anonymous edits Tirmidhi  Source:  Contributors: Afghana, Al-Andalusi, Asikhi, Attilios, Bahromali, BradBeattie, CJLL Wright, Cabolitae, Caerwine, Chmelchert, Choess, Cloj, Courcelles, Docu, FeanorStar7, Fraggle81, Grenavitar, Grutness, Hattab, Hugo999, IMPOSSIBLEMAN, Irubcroix, Jahangard, Jaraalbe, Jztinfinity, Kansas Bear, Ladsgroup, LatinoMuslim, LilHelpa, Magioladitis, Majilis, Marquez, Mujahed, Mustafaa, Nepaheshgar, Nick Number, Niyas Abdul Salam, Notedgrant, Ogress, Riddleme, Sa.vakilian, Sharik Purkar, Silver Maple, SimonP, Sirmylesnagopaleentheda, Sstrauch1955, Striver, Supertouch, TheRingess, Vgranucci, Wikipidian, Zack wadghiri, ‫ 34 ,ﻋﻠﯽ ﻭﯾﮑﯽ‬anonymous edits Sunan ibn Majah  Source:  Contributors: Anas Salloum, Bigwyrm, Dinalislam, Eras-mus, Faz042003, Ibn al Hakim, Ismail mohr, Jibran1, Khalid!, M-Henry, MezzoMezzo, Mustafaa, Obayd, Pars.dextrum, Pass a Method, PhnomPencil, Rich Farmbrough, Sakimonk, Spasage, Striver, Supertouch, Throwaway85, Truthspreader, Ubai1982, ZxxZxxZ, 8 anonymous edits Ibn Majah  Source:  Contributors: Andrew Dalby, Chmelchert, Dinalislam, Freestylefrappe, Hattab, Heraclius, J04n, Jackyd101, Jaraalbe, Jztinfinity, Kwamikagami, Magioladitis, Mahanchian, Marquez, Mustafaa, Obayd, Pass a Method, Raghith, Sa.vakilian, Siba, Striver, Supertouch, Talibul Ilm, Wikipidian, Zazaban, ‫7 ,ﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬ anonymous edits Muwatta Imam Malik  Source:  Contributors: AA, Abuubaydullah, Al-Andalusi, Alai, Amatulic, Anonymous editor, Arthena, Babajobu, Bhadani, CambridgeBayWeather, Carlossuarez46, Coelacan, Eteb3, Grenavitar, Ibn al Hakim, Irfanazam, Islami, Jalal0, Java7837, Jimpartame, JohnI, Karl Meier, Koavf, Lamiaa salah, Languagehat, Majilis, Matmeer, MezzoMezzo, Nakon, NickelShoe, S711, Sakimonk, Shaad lko, SimonP, Sonjaaa, Striver, Supertouch, The wub, Triquetra, Unauthored, Vicharam, Vinay Varma, Wikimyth, Wilis.azm, ZaydHammoudeh, Zoicon5, Zora, Шизомби, 20 anonymous edits Malik ibn Anas  Source:  Contributors: AXRL, Abdassamad, Abdul muntaqim, Akrabbim, Al-Andalusi, Ali Osmanovic, Alialomani111, AmbassadorShras, Aymatth2, Bddrey, Betacommand, BigCoolGuyy, Bigevilf5, CambridgeBayWeather, Closedmouth, Courcelles, Crackerbelly, Cunado19, Daniel De Mol, Danieliness, DigiBullet, DrAlyLakhani, Fatepur, FeanorStar7, Femto, Grenavitar, Hussain313, Ibn al Hakim, Immunize, Izady, Jacobolus, Jagged 85, Jassimtisekar, Jaw101ie, Kabad, Karl Meier, Kashif Yaqoob Butt, Khodabandeh14, Kimse, Kitabparast, KnightRider, Koavf, Kosunen, Krazzyraja, LatinoMuslim, Llywrch, Magioladitis, Majilis, Marwan123, MezzoMezzo, Mild Bill Hiccup, Mod1101, Moez, Mohsinwaheed, Muslimsson, Mustafaa, Neutron Jack, Nick Number, Ocaasi, Otterathome, Perspicacite, PhnomPencil, RainbowCrane, RavShimon, Razimantv, Riddleme, Rjwilmsi, RogDel, S.dedalus, S711, Sa.vakilian, Saintali, SchfiftyThree, Scythian1, Shafei, Silver Maple, SimonP, Sir192, Sirmylesnagopaleentheda, Spasage, Str1977, Striver, Supertouch, Swashbucklingbuccaneer, Tanbircdq, Techcorp, ThaGrind, Three-quarter-ten, Wahabijaz, Wmahan, Woohookitty, Yodakii, Zero0000, 130 anonymous edits Sunan al-Darimi  Source:  Contributors: Lixshan, Obayd, Pass a Method, Pegship, PhnomPencil, Sakimonk, Striver, Supertouch, Throwaway85, Zimriel, 4 anonymous edits Al-Darimi  Source:  Contributors: Acather96, Alan Liefting, Bearcat, Chris the speller, Cymru.lass, Ebrahim Ahmad, Grafen, King of Hearts, Malcolma, 23 anonymous edits Sahih al-Bukhari  Source:  Contributors: AA, ALM scientist, Abdullah Almuneeb, Abuubaydullah, Afghana, Ahmadvns, Ahxnccj, Akbarally Meherally, Akharabi, AladdinSE, Anonymous editor, Apibrahimk, Art LaPella, Aslamt, Aslan as sakha, Austriacus, Aylahs, Bahromali, Basel15, BassXXX, BigrTex, Bihco, Blackbanner, CambridgeBayWeather, Charles Matthews, Christopher140691, Cloud02, Colonies Chris, DKleinecke, Danieliness, DerHexer, Dinalislam, Download, DrVega1, Eddy Oak, Fatepur, Fatimaqamar, Filoofo, Freestylefrappe, Gaius Cornelius, Gee-Unit65, Gold Standard, Grenavitar, Grey Shadow, Groogle, Hadith786, Hasanie110, Hasseniqbal192, HelloAnnyong,
  • 172. Article Sources and Contributors 170 Hgilbert, Hiddenfromview, Hinio, Iamtruth, Islam786, Islami, Iwanttoeditthissh, James uk, Jeff3000, Jibran1, Kabad, Khalid!, Khanasfar73, Kitabparast, L Kensington, Leena, Leviel, Linuxerist, MC10, MONGO, Mahanga, Majilis, Master of Puppets, Matmeer, MezzoMezzo, Mirzoulugbek, Misconceptions2, Mr Stephen, Mukadderat, Murtasa, Nareek, NeilHynes, Neutron Jack, Nrana417, Nusaybah, Osmanja, Otolemur crassicaudatus, Pajjar, Pass a Method, Peter Deer, PhnomPencil, Pill, Pizzastone, Pras, Prester John, Rami.b, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Ryan Albrey, Sakimonk, Sannse, Sasquatch, Sdsouza, Servant114, Shaad lko, Shekhuzai, Sirius86, Sirmylesnagopaleentheda, Solenkhi, Someone65, Spasage, Striver, Supertouch, Syed Atif Nazir, Tabletop, Tashfeenmajid, The Man in Question, The Persian Shah, The sealed nectar, TheProject, TheRingess, Throwaway85, Toddsschneider, Ultrabias, Ummairsaeed, Upheld, Vikashgd, Waqas072002, Wasell, West.andrew.g, Wimt, WookieInHeat, Zereshk, Zora, Zoradians hope 12, ‫ 771 ,ﻋﻠﯽ ﻭﯾﮑﯽ ,50ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺎﻥ‬anonymous edits Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal  Source:  Contributors: 9eltpy, AA, Abuubaydullah, Aperittos, Arawiki, Ciphers, Dr Gangrene, Drmies, Grenavitar, Itaqallah, Jalal0, JohnChrysostom, Majilis, Matmeer, MezzoMezzo, Mohammad ihs, Obayd, Spasage, Striver, Sulzliu, Supertouch, Throwaway85, Wilis.azm, ZaydHammoudeh, Шизомби, 14 anonymous edits Ahmad ibn Hanbal  Source:  Contributors: 19thPharaoh, AA, Abdurahman49, Abuismael, Ahmad2099, Ahoerstemeier, Al-Andalusi, Al-Tafra, AladdinSE, Alansohn, AlexanderPar, Arpose, Ashu8845, Aude, Aziz1005, Barticus88, BigCoolGuyy, Bigevilf5, Bobo192, Brumski, Cabolitae, Courcelles, D6, DigiBullet, DrAlyLakhani, Fatepur, Fozzymalik, Funnyfarmofdoom, GandalfDaGraay, GoingBatty, Grenavitar, Heraclius, Hinio, Huldra, Ibnshaadi, Inwind, Islami, Itaqallah, J.delanoy, J04n, Jackbrown, Jacobolus, Jagged 85, JamesPen, Jassimtisekar, Jheald, Jibran1, JoeSmack, John of Reading, Kashif Yaqoob Butt, Kashmiri0000, Keilana, Khazar, Khodabandeh14, Kingturtle, Kittybrewster, Kurdo777, Languagehat, LatinoMuslim, Lysozym, M.Imran, Magioladitis, Maha Odeh, Majkhan, Mardavich, Maverickts, Maziarc, Menasim, Moe Epsilon, Moez, Mohamad the bear, Mohammad ihs, Mpatel, Mustafaa, Nepaheshgar, Nick Number, OceanSplash, Ogress, OldakQuill, Palestine48, Park3r, Pejuang bahasa, Pepsidrinka, Prester John, Quadell, Razimantv, Rcsprinter123, Redrocketboy, Rich Farmbrough, Richard Keatinge, Rjwilmsi, Rsg70007, S.K., SKULLSPLITTER, Saintali, Scythian1, Sia34, Simeon24601, Sir Vicious, Slackerlawstudent, Spasage, Stevenmitchell, Striver, Supertouch, Tajik, Tanbircdq, Tatom2k, Techcorp, ThaGrind, The Brain, TheRingess, Thezien, Thingg, Unflavoured, Vonones, Wahabijaz, Wertuose, Wikimyth, Wikipidian, Wilis.azm, Wiqi55, Yasirniazkhan, Yodakii, Zakster22`, Zimriel, ZxxZxxZ, ‫ 822 ,ﻋﻠﯽ ﻭﯾﮑﯽ‬anonymous edits Shamaail Tirmidhi  Source:  Contributors: Falcon8765, Kerina yin, LilHelpa, Majilis, Nusaybah, Ogress, Sharik Purkar, WatABR, 1 anonymous edits Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah  Source:  Contributors: Al-Andalusi, Aperittos, Hasseniqbal192, Lixshan, Magioladitis, Mallanox, Mostlyharmless, Obayd, RandomHumanoid, Supertouch, Zimriel, 1 anonymous edits Ibn Khuzaymah  Source:  Contributors: Al-Andalusi, Ashrf1979, BD2412, Bgwhite, Haroun al Mouwahid, Magioladitis, Sonia Sevilla, Supertouch, 1 anonymous edits Sahifah Hammam ibn Munabbih  Source:  Contributors: Elsaltador, Java7837, Lixshan, Obayd, Striver, Supertouch, 1 anonymous edits Hammam ibn Munabbih  Source:  Contributors: Anas Salloum, Ebyabe, Haroun al Mouwahid, Inwind, Learningislam, Magioladitis, Obayd, Quadell, Rjwilmsi, Striver, 6 anonymous edits Musannaf ibn Jurayj  Source:  Contributors: Elsaltador, Jleybov, Plasticspork, Striver, Supertouch, WikiPuppies Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq  Source:  Contributors: Abstract Idiot, Avalon, DAW0001, Fuzail89, Giordaano, Islami, Jleybov, Lixshan, MezzoMezzo, RandomHumanoid, SamuelTheGhost, Striver, Supertouch, Truthpedia, 2 anonymous edits ‘Abd ar-Razzaq as-San‘ani  Source:  Contributors: Caroldermoid, Cesium 133, Courcelles, Cunado19, Elonka, Gene Nygaard, Inwind, Obayd, Prester John, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, SamuelTheGhost, Striver, Supertouch, SwanSZ, Truthpedia, Xezbeth Sahih Ibn Hibbaan  Source:  Contributors: Chris the speller, Fabrictramp, Haroun al Mouwahid, Hasanc, Malcolma, Nusaybah, Obayd, Sasajid, Supertouch, 2 anonymous edits Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain  Source:  Contributors: Auric, Cmdrjameson, Courcelles, Danieliness, Dr Gangrene, Entilos, Freestylefrappe, Giraffedata, Hamid-Masri, Hasseniqbal192, Itaqallah, Lixshan, MezzoMezzo, Mohammad ihs, Obayd, SimonP, Striver, Supertouch, Thinking of England, 8 anonymous edits Hakim al-Nishaburi  Source:  Contributors: 28bytes, A saad, AA, Abrar47, Alfarq, Attilios, Bakkouz, Cabolitae, ChrisGualtieri, Courcelles, Gaius Cornelius, Greensleaves112, Hamid-Masri, Kross, Lixshan, Magioladitis, MatthewVanitas, Mod1101, PhnomPencil, RnB, Reyk, Sa.vakilian, Scythian1, Sonia Sevilla, Soroush Mesry, Ssbohio, Striver, Supertouch, Tevfik1958, ‫ 21 ,ﮐﺎﺷﻒ ﻋﻘﯿﻞ ,ﻋﻠﯽ ﻭﯾﮑﯽ‬anonymous edits A Great Collection of Fabricated Traditions  Source:  Contributors: Dev920, Dr Gangrene, Eatcacti, Fuhghettaboutit, GrahamHardy, Gurch, JaGa, MezzoMezzo, Mikeblas, Mohammad ihs, Pegship, Pepsidrinka, Politepunk, Striver, Supertouch, Wilis.azm, 7 anonymous edits Abul-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi  Source:  Contributors: Agh.niyya, Andrushinas1985, BD2412, Courcelles, Dbachmann, FeanorStar7, Hinio, Jalal0, Korrawit, Magioladitis, Marriex, Mblumber, Moe Epsilon, PaFra, Rich Farmbrough, S711, Supertouch, Thezien, ‫ 01 ,ﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬anonymous edits Tahdhib al-Athar  Source:  Contributors: Good Olfactory, Supertouch, 1 anonymous edits Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari  Source:  Contributors: Aafour, Afghana, Agh.niyya, Ahrie, Al-Andalusi, Alan Liefting, Alborz Fallah, Amardian, Angeldreamable, AnonMoos, Aparytai, Arslan-San, Astonishment, Attilios, Bahramm 2, Bali ultimate, Bayrak, Bobo192, BomBom, Breadhat, Briangotts, Brumbek, Calvin08, Chronicler, CommonsDelinker, Coppertwig, Cuchullain, DKleinecke, DRFN, Danieliness, Darwinek, Dbachmann, Eagleswings, Ehteshaam7, Elen of the Roads, Escape Orbit, Espetkov, FarfromHvar, FeanorStar7, Gabbe, Gallador, Gee-Unit65, Good Olfactory, GorgeCustersSabre, Gregbard, Grenavitar, HaeB, Hanberke, Herr Beethoven, Hinio, Inwind, Jackbrown, Jagged 85, Jang bogo67584, Janus945, Jheald, K1, Khoikhoi, Lixshan, Magioladitis, Malcolmxl5, Mani1, Masoudnaseri, Matt57, MatthewVanitas, Mel Etitis, MezzoMezzo, Miia, Mitso Bel, Mosakoz, Mukadderat, Nepaheshgar, Nightstallion, Nishkid64, Northiran, Obayd, Omicronpersei8, Pbhj, Pouya, Proabivouac, Quoth, Razimantv, Rjwilmsi, Sangak3, Seaphoto, Shanel, Siamax, Sina111, Striver, SunCreator, Supertouch, Tantal-ja, Template namespace initialisation script, Tevfik1958, Themightyquill, Tiger-man, Tim1357, Unyoyega, Vanished User 0001, Vary, WRK, Wareh, Wiki-uk, William M. Connolley, Wiqi55, Wtmitchell, Xashaiar, Yhever, Zereshk, Zora, ‫ 28 ,ﭘﺎﺭﺳﺎ ﺁﻣﻠﯽ ,ﻣﺤﮏ ,ﻋﺰﻳﺰ ,יחסיות האמת‬anonymous edits Riyadh as-Saaliheen  Source:  Contributors: AA, Abuubaydullah, Aliy.faisal, Barastert, Entlinkt, Hasseniqbal192, Kimse, Lixshan, MK8, MeAs InGreg, MezzoMezzo, Mod1101, Mpatel, Nkv, Obayd, Prester John, Striver, Studentofknowledge, Supertouch, Ultrabias, VCHECKR%, WereSpielChequers, Wikipidian, ZaydHammoudeh, 19 anonymous edits Al-Nawawi  Source:  Contributors: Ahmeduk, Al-Andalusi, Al-mahad al-turath, Allens, Ary29, Bobblehead, CJLL Wright, Causa sui, Charles Matthews, ChrisGualtieri, Cmdrjameson, Cryptic, D6, Dak, Danieliness, Edith Smitters, Euryalus, FeanorStar7, Fne87, Fredc15, GTBacchus, Good Olfactory, GorgeCustersSabre, Haroun al Mouwahid, Ibn Kofi, Inwind, Isashake, Itsmejudith, Kamran the Great, Kbahey, Lanov, Lixshan, Lucky 6.9, Magioladitis, MatthewVanitas, MezzoMezzo, Modal Jig, Mukadderat, Mustafaa, NeoJustin, Neutron Jack, Nkv, Obayd, OpenToppedBus, Rjwilmsi, Rmky87, Shazjazz, Spasage, Striver, Supertouch, Talibul Ilm, Tawelsensei, Vegetarianwlvkew, Vugar 1981, ZaydHammoudeh, 58 anonymous edits Masabih al-Sunnah  Source:  Contributors: D6, GregorB, Jeff3000, John, Lixshan, Malhonen, Mani1, Mohammad ihs, Striver, Supertouch, WarthogDemon, 4 anonymous edits Al-Baghawi  Source:  Contributors: Aelfthrytha, Al-Andalusi, Haroun al Mouwahid, Jeff3000, Lixshan, Magioladitis, Mani1, Mukadderat, Obayd, RnB, Striver, The Mark of the Beast, Woohookitty, ‫ 6 ,ﻋﻠﯽ ﻭﯾﮑﯽ‬anonymous edits Majma al-Zawaid  Source:  Contributors: Grenavitar, Hasseniqbal192, Lixshan, Mandarax, Pegship, RandomHumanoid, Stephen, Striver, Supertouch, ZaydHammoudeh, 7 anonymous edits Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Haythami  Source:  Contributors: Aelfthrytha, Bender235, CJLL Wright, Chris55, Emersoni, FeanorStar7, JeepdaySock, Lixshan, Mairi, MatthewVanitas, Quadell, Rjwilmsi, Roosydinharis, Striver, Supertouch, ZaydHammoudeh Bulugh al-Maram  Source:  Contributors: Hasseniqbal192, Isa al-Asiri, Lixshan, Mboverload, Mpatel, Muslimways, Striver, Supertouch, ZaydHammoudeh, 6 anonymous edits
  • 173. Article Sources and Contributors 171 Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani  Source:  Contributors: Abrar47, Aelfthrytha, Al-Andalusi, Anas Salloum, Barastert, CJLL Wright, CapitalR, Courcelles, Dr Gangrene, El C, FeanorStar7, Grenavitar, Inwind, Itaqallah, JLaTondre, Joseph Solis in Australia, Kabad, Lanov, Lixshan, MALLUS, Mairi, Marek69, Meno25, MezzoMezzo, Nutdoor, Oatmeal batman, Quadell, Rjwilmsi, Ruhrahi, Sam Medany, Signalhead, Sir192, Spasage, Striver, Supertouch, Tommy2010, Wireless Keyboard, ZaydHammoudeh, Zerida, СанчоПанса, 44 anonymous edits Kanz al-Ummal  Source:  Contributors: Abuubaydah, Altenmann, Hasseniqbal192, Islami, Lixshan, Muslim Editor, Striver, Supertouch, Til Eulenspiegel, Valentinejoesmith, 9 anonymous edits Ali ibn Abd-al-Malik al-Hindi  Source:  Contributors: Good Olfactory, Lixshan, Malhonen, MatthewVanitas, Quadell, Striver, Til Eulenspiegel, 4 anonymous edits Minhaj us Sawi  Source:  Contributors: Est.r, Explicit, Falaque, Falconkhe, Hasseniqbal192, MatthewVanitas, MezzoMezzo, Minhajian,, Nasiryounus, ServingIslam, Tcasebolt, 9 anonymous edits Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri  Source:  Contributors: AN-MEL, Aaliyah Stevens, Abdal.haseeb, Abrar47, Afghana, Ahsansf, Ahsanshafiq87, Ailliro, Aishah786, Alansohn, Alexjohnc3, Ali M Saad, Amatulic, Amber92, Andrei S, Apparition11, Arabshaykh, Arjayay, Arjun01, Artichoke84, Ashanda, Ashenai, Asifkhawaja, Ata Fida Aziz, Auntof6, B, B4basir, BD2412, Barastert, Baseball Watcher, Bearcat, Beeshoney, Ben Ben, Bento00, BigCoolGuyy, Bihco, Bobblehead, CWii, Caknuck, Caltas, CanadianLinuxUser, Capricorn42, CardinalDan, Ceyockey, Chengdou, Chris the speller, Cireshoe, Citizenjordan, CommonsDelinker, Corvus cornix, Cvps, DGG, DOSGuy, Dabomb87, DanniDK, David Eppstein, Deagle AP, Dejavuamnesia, Delftmessenger, Dewritech, Discospinster, Dmanning, Doc sameer, Dougweller, Drkamran, Drtahirulqadri, Dual Freq, Dysepsion, Edgarde, Elipongo, Eliz81, Elmondo21st, EmanWilm, Emersoni, Endofskull, Epeefleche, Euchiasmus, Explicit, Fadesga, Favonian, Fragma08, Gaius Cornelius, Gholam, Gillyweed, Glacialfox, Good Olfactory, Goodvac, GorgeCustersSabre, Grcaldwell, Guide99, Gyrofrog, HJ Mitchell, Hallianonline, Hamza1712, Haqju, Haseeb1in, Hasseniqbal192, Hmains, Hullaballoo Wolfowitz, Humayun me, ISTB351, Imdkzmaa, Imdost, Imhisan, Iminlexus, Imsaa, Iridescent, Islamicpath, Islamicreviver, Islamindia, Itaqallah, JackofOz, Jaggafeen, Jalal0, Jasynnash2, Javaids, JavierMC, Jeff G., Jehorn, Jim1138, Joetken, John of Reading, JohnI, Jrajesh, Justice007, Juvaria, KEN, Karl Meier, Kbh3rd, Kevin, Killiondude, Klilidiplomus, Koavf, KrayzieG, Kuru, Kwiki, L Kensington, LeContexte, Linguisticgeek, Liyah zafar, Lkj99, Mabdul, Mandarax, Manzoorwani.jk, Mar4d, Materialscientist, Matt57, Maustrauser, Medni2003, MezzoMezzo, Mike Rosoft, Minhajian, Miromarali, Misharief, Miyapasha, Morgankevinj huggle,, Msnanda, MuhammadYusufAttari, Muslim55, Mustaqbal, Naraht, Nasiryounus, NaveedBCN, Naveedbcn, Nayeemjunaid, Nayyer44, Nazibulla, Nepenthes, Netalarm, Neutron Jack, Nick Number, Nkv, NomanQazi, Nomanahmed, Nomishah, Notedgrant, Nv8200p, Oda Mari, Omirocksthisworld, Otisjimmy1, Otterathome, Oxymoron83, Pakistanteam, Pass a Method, Pearle, Petrb, Pimes, Pontificalibus, Pupster21, Qadri fan, Qaharalsaleeb, Quentin X, RJFJR, Rafiquk, Rajputan, Razachishti, Razimantv Alt, Rcsprinter123, Ripepette, Rjwilmsi, Roleplayer, SCEhardt, Saadxaci, Sajidoo, Samiuzzafar, Sana4u, Sarangjano, Scribblingwoman, ServingIslam, Shad00w, Shoessss, Sitush, Skoosh, Smajid92, SmileSlave66, Sockatume, Sohailstyle, Someone65, SpecMode, Striver, Supertouch, Suprah, SyedNaqvi90, Syedmohammad, Syedshahnawaz1, THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, Talha khatri, Tanbircdq, TeleComNasSprVen, Tempodivalse, The Rambling Man, Theguidedone, Therefore, Timberframe, Tkynerd, Tom Morris, Travelbird, Trivialist, TrueMuslim, TwistOfCain, Twsx, Ujmi, Urduboy, Ute in DC, Warbug, Wasell, Wasifwasif, Welsh, Werldwayd, WikHead, Wikieditor06, Wikireader41, Wingman4l7, Wknight94, Woohookitty, Xionbox, Yonskii, ZainEngineerAU, 989 anonymous edits Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen  Source:  Contributors: AA, Aamirik, AbuImraan85, Abureem, Abuubaydullah, AlbrechtH, Ashmoo, Bader1404, Barastert, Baronnet, Basel15, BigCoolGuyy, Cant sleep, clown will eat me, Chubeat8, City of Tragedy, CommonsDelinker, D6, Daheema66, Delengar, Eyad al-Samman, Eyrryds, Fisherjs, Fram, Gwyndon, Haroun al Mouwahid, Hassanfarooqi, Inwind, Jztinfinity, Kamtanoli375, KazakhPol, Kwiki, Magioladitis, MatthewVanitas, Mboverload, Mehedi-Islam, MezzoMezzo, Michealmit, Mod1101, Nadeemab, Neutron Jack, Ohnoitsjamie, PhilKnight, Rich Farmbrough, Saeed 92, Santosga, Shahrom85, Sheikhas, Sherool, Sir192, Skyhawk2007, Slayym, Slmcom, Supertouch, Tanbircdq, Webmailnet, WikiDao, Wikipidian, ZaydHammoudeh, 125 anonymous edits Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah ibn Baaz  Source:  Contributors: AA, AFP, Abd216, AbuBakrLang, Abuubaydullah, Achowat, Aelfthrytha, Al-temasek, Aligodbless2004, Ameliorate!, Anjouli, Arawiki, Arms & Hearts, Arthur Rubin, Arthur Warrington Thomas, Assassins Creed, Bader1404, Basel15, BigCoolGuyy, Bless sins, BoogaLouie, Bu Seif, Caltas, Cam, Cant sleep, clown will eat me, Chubeat8, Dalordvirus, Danieliness, DeCausa, Dudeman5685, Dwiki, EdJohnston, Egeymi, EgyMinerva, ElAcidonz, Elonka, Equilibrial, Everyking, Ewulp, Fang Aili, Freestylefrappe, Gaius Cornelius, Gilliam, Good Olfactory, Grenavitar, Hai98, Hariva, Hhnnrr, Hornplease, ILovePlankton, Ibn Kofi, Iftekhar mahmood, Ilikecod, Intgr, Inwind, Iridescent, Islami, Itaqallah, James086, Jaraalbe, Jassimtisekar, Jnestorius, JonHarder, Jztinfinity, Khanasgar77, Klopek007, KnowledgeOfSelf, Koavf, Krashlandon, Lanternix, Leroy65X, Liamdaly620, Lightmouse, LilHelpa, Magioladitis, Mairi, Manojano1, MatthewVanitas, Megapanphilos, Mercury, MezzoMezzo, Mike Rosoft, Miyapasha, Mod1101, Munim miah, Nabeelponery, Neotarf, Nlu, Omegastar, Omicronpersei8, OsamaK, Ospalh, Paul August, Prester John, Primetime, Proabivouac, Qadri, Qadri fan, Qsep, RnB, Reconsider the static, Rich Farmbrough, Richard Keatinge, Rjwilmsi, Rob lockett, RogDel, Runewiki777, Saeed 92, Saqibsohail, Screamjet, Scythian1, Sheikhas, Sherurcij, Skapur, Skoosh, Slackerlawstudent, Slashme, Soft coder, Sole Soul, Steven Walling, Striver, Studentthoughts, Sunscr33ner, Supertouch, Swapant, Tanbircdq, Thecheesykid, Usedbook, Uss-cool, Verne Equinox, Vice regent, Webmailnet, WikHead, Wikipidian, Xevorim, Yahel Guhan, ZaydHammoudeh, Zora, 350 anonymous edits Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani  Source:  Contributors: AA, AFP, AN-MEL, Aaidilamindar, Abdurrahman.meda, AbuBakrLang, Abuubaydullah, AdjustShift, Adyabd, Ahmad2099, Al-boriqee, Angelbo, Arslan-San, Basel15, Bebeeh, BhaiSaab, BigCoolGuyy, BirgitteSB, Black2lamin, CambridgeBayWeather, Cavemanf16, Chkwiki, Chubeat8, Cleduc, Courcelles, DH85868993, Danieliness, Djalo24, Doc Tropics, Doulos Christos, Dycedarg, EoGuy, Escape Orbit, Essohkay, Eyad al-Samman, Eyadnalsamman, Fatih ibrahimi, Furqan81, Gene Nygaard, Gggh, Gotyear, GraemeL, Gryffindor, HaireDunya, Hanozbs, Haroun al Mouwahid, Hasanashraf, Hipi Zhdripi, Historicist, Ibn Kofi, Ibn-A-W, Iheartchu, Imad007, Inwind, Irfan2009, Irishpunktom, Itaqallah, Izak2001, Jaraalbe, Jaw101ie, Jelfar99, Jni, Jossi, Kapitop, KazakhPol, Kedadi, Keli2006, Khaled hosny, Khalidanwar, Kiwi128, Liamdaly620, LilHelpa, M ehmad, Magioladitis, Malhonen, Marek69, MatthewVanitas, MezzoMezzo, Mh8784, Mike.lifeguard, Mild Bill Hiccup, Misheu, Miyapasha, Mod1101, Moez, Mujahideenryder, Mukadderat, Nasiruddinalbani, Nkv, Notedgrant, Ohconfucius, Pearle, Pepsidrinka, Phaedriel, Phatyh, Pjetër Bogdani, Rholton, Ricky81682, Riddleme, Rjwilmsi, Rob lockett, STLcore, SWAdair, Sakimonk, Scythian1, Sdudah, Seaphoto, Shahrom85, Sir192, Soft coder, Soofriyya, Striver, Sulmues, Supertouch, Suyuti, Swapant, Tabletop, Talibghaffari, Tanbircdq, The prof., TheoloJ, Thirteen36, Tuwailib, Usedbook, Wavelength, Webmailnet, Whpq, Wikipidian, Wiqi55, Woohookitty, Zachary crimsonwolf, ZaydHammoudeh, 345 anonymous edits Ibn Taymiyyah  Source:  Contributors: 7up, A. Parrot, Abaznad, Abcbad, Abdurrahman.meda, Abureem, Abuubaydullah, AdjustShift, Afghana, Akhan197, Al-Andalusi, Alefbe, Altruism, Anas Salloum, Angela, Animaux-sauvages, Anir1uph, AnnaFrance, AnonMoos, Arabolla2008, Araboy, Arfaz, Arslan-San, Art LaPella, Auric, Azrael8, Badagnani, Basil II, Bhadani, BigCoolGuyy, BoogaLouie, CUSENZA Mario, CambridgeBayWeather, Chaos, Chase me ladies, Im the Cavalry, Chercheur, ChrisGualtieri, Chriswiki, CommonsDelinker, Cronodevir, Cunado19, Cyfal, Danithew, Dgl, Dhul qar nain, Dhulqarnain, Diannaa, Dlohcierekim, Domkeitero, Dücanem, EdBever, Emesghali, Fang Aili, Fariduddien, Femto, Filius Rosadis, Fozzymalik, GK, GMP Saifi, Gaius Cornelius, GraemeL, Graft, Grenavitar, Gryllida, Gveret Tered, Gwernol, Hanbali, Hyungilkimcidt, Ibn Kofi, Ibrahimsubmitter, Ifnord, Imranal, Incougnitouw, Inthe path, Irishpunktom, Ironflower18, Islam596, Islami, Islamkurdi, Itaqallah, Izady, J.delanoy, Jacobolus, Jagged 85, Japanese Searobin, Jeppa, John of Reading, Joseph Solis in Australia, Jossi, Jrdioko, Kabad, Kash545, Katieh5584, Kavas, Kayikcioglu, Kbahey, Khalidkof, Khasif235, Khateeb88, Khoikhoi, Kimse, Kintetsubuffalo, Klonimus, Ksweith, Kukini, Kwamikagami, Languagehat, LatinoMuslim, Lightmouse, LilHelpa, Lonewolf BC, Lumaza, MARVEL, Magioladitis, Malfooz, Marcstylzzz, Master99, Materialscientist, MatthewVanitas, Mav, Maximus Rex, Mehedi-Islam, Mehmed31, Mephistophelian, Metron, MezzoMezzo, Mini2468, Mohamedghilan, Monedula, Msoamu, Mukadderat, Muslimways, Mustafaa, Nasnema, Nathanm mn, Nimord, Nobs01, Organicman101, Oscarthecat, Pepsidrinka, Piel Divina, Pietyandtruth, Prester John, Redheylin, Revolution51, Rjwilmsi, Rob lockett, SP-KP, Santa Sangre, Sasquatch, SchfiftyThree, Scythian1, Sdudah, Seth ze, Shabiha, Shergo, Sherurcij, Shlomital, Silver Maple, SimonP, Skyhawk2007, Slackerlawstudent, Sole Soul, Solodeen, Sorna Doon, SpuriousQ, Striver, Subsume, Supertouch, Swashbucklingbuccaneer, Syncategoremata, Tagishsimon, Takabeg, Tanbircdq, Tatom2k, The Brain, Thecheesykid, Theiraqi1, Themr tairq, Theory hussein, Tickle me, Timberframe, TonyW, Toushiro, Truthamania, Truthpedia, UW, Umm Hurairah, Usedbook, Verne Equinox, Vssun, Wasell, WhisperToMe, Whpq, Wikipidian, Will314159, Wiqi55, Woohookitty, Yster76, ZaydHammoudeh, Zero0000, Zfr, Zikrullah, Zoeperkoe, Zora, Zulfiqaar, 611 anonymous edits Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya  Source:  Contributors: AA, Aa1266118, Abdurrahman.meda, Abuubaydullah, Adrux, Al-Andalusi, Alcmarr, Aziz1005, BhaiSaab, BigCoolGuyy, Bryan Derksen, Bumm13, ChrisGualtieri, Cloj, Courcelles, DanMS, Dbachmann, Dhulqarnain, Docu, Emersoni, EoGuy, Fireice, Freestylefrappe, Ghareb, Gotyear, Inwind, Islami, Itaqallah, Jagged 85, Johnpacklambert, Kabad, KazakhPol, Kintetsubuffalo, Magioladitis, Mamazayd, MatthewVanitas, Meaghan, Metron, MezzoMezzo, Mike.lifeguard, Mod1101, Mukadderat, Neilc, Nimord, Niteowlneils, Nl11087, Ntsimp, Nusaybah, Pecher, Quadell, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Scythian1, Skyhawk2007, Slr722x, Striver, Supertouch, Thecheesykid, Trjumpet, UW, Wilis.azm, Woohookitty, ZaydHammoudeh, Zora, 84 anonymous edits Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab  Source:  Contributors: 786seeker, AA, Aaronhumes, AbdallahTimuroglu, Abdel Qadir, Abdulhurriyya, Abdullahmilton, Abhishek191288, Abu Zakriyyia, AbuIbrahim, Abureem, Abuubaydullah, Afasmit, Aghniyya, Ahmad2099, Aishah786, AjaxSmack, Akamad, Alrasheedan, Altruism, Amatulic, AnOddName, Anikingos, Aranel, Arbitrarily0, Arthena, Arthur Warrington Thomas, Asad Habib, Asadakhtar26, Ashmoo, Asrarasif, Avengerx, Badagnani, Banana04131, Banjotchat, Bansp, Basawala, Basel15, Bassemkhalifa, Bender235, Bengalliger, Bensaccount, BigCoolGuyy, Bihco, Bilby, Bluemoose, Bonassra, BoogaLouie, Brokenlove, Brokenwit, CO, Carnildo, Chaabant, Chameleon, ChessPlayer, City of Tragedy, ClaretAsh, Clementina, Coching, Coemgenus, Conversion script, Coolmoon, Credema, D6, DBigXray, DONeil, DVD R W, DaBaiMaike, DanMS, Danishamjad, DarklyCute, Darth Panda, DeCausa, Dgainty, DiiCinta, Dl2000, Dnominator, Doc Tropics, Dont101, DoubleBlue, Dougweller, EoGuy, Epbr123, Epeefleche, Equilibrial, Equilibrium007, Equitor, Esn, Euryalus, Everyking, FayssalF, Fei84, Fidimayor, Flying thoughts, Fozzymalik, Fuzheado, Fæ, Gaius Cornelius, Gilliam, Gnossie, GrahamHardy, Guled89, Hajor, Hamesmcdonaldsvan, Hamzaahmad786, Haroonsarfrazj, Hassanfarooqi, Hephaestos, Hinio, Histiiryian4all, Huze51, Ian Pitchford, Ibn Kofi, Ibn yaqoub, Ibrahimrp, Ifnord, Inwind, Irishpunktom, Isathunderfoot, Islaosh, Ivobanac, Izady, Izaidi, Izak2001, Ja 62, James P Twomey, Jasper Deng, Jclemens, Jeffrey Mall, Jetman, JoeOnTheGo, John Carter, John of Reading, Joy, Jssfrk, Kaaveh Ahangar, Kbahey, Kfeto, Khateeb88, Khoikhoi, Khorshid, Kirachinmoku, Kmweber, Linguisticgeek, LittleWink, Logan, Lupin, Magioladitis, Majora4, Matt57, Mav, Maydei, Mboverload, Mbslrm, Mel Etitis, MelbourneStar, Menasim, MezzoMezzo, MichaelTinkler, MinorFixes, Mod1101, Mrdallaway, Msamirm, Msoamu, Mustafaa, Namenotek, Naraht, Neutron Jack,
  • 174. Article Sources and Contributors 172 Normandola, NovaSkola, NubKnacker, Numbo3, Oorulqaum, PantsB, Pauldavidgill, Peter Karlsen, Peterhenych, Pob1984, Prester John, Qadri, Qadri fan, RnB, R-41, RK, Raqib nizami, Rchamberlain, Recognizance, Redvers, Rettetast, RexNL, Richard Arthur Norton (1958- ), Rjwilmsi, Rob lockett, Robert0, Rocotet, Rursus, SAISer, Salman faisal12, Sameh Strauch, Samsparky, Sannse, Sanoseattle, Saudiab, Sayfullah, Scientizzle, Scott Ritchie, ScottyBerg, Scythian1, Sfrantzman, Shabiha, Shanel, Sharier Khan, Sherool, Shriram, Shuja uddin, Siddiqui, Signalhead, SimonP, Sinyeer2009, Skyhawk2007, Slackerlawstudent, Smalljim, Soft coder, Someone else, Spmazh, Stiles, Str1977, Striver, Studentthoughts, SunCreator, Suyuti, Syedkash4u, Syedm, Tearlach, Teckart, Tgeairn, ThaGrind, Thatguyflint, The Brain, The wub, TheGuidedOne18, Thecheesykid, Tim Starling, Twas Now, Twin Bird, Uly, Varlaam, Vice regent, Vignaux, VoorMalijn, Vrenator, Vsmith, Wahabikillah, Wasimawan, Webmailnet, WellsSouth, Whispering, Whpq, Wikipidian, Will Beback Auto, Wimstead, WookieInHeat, Ykidwai, Yusuf-al-amriki, Zaheer4321, Zain engineer, Zak2u786, ZaydHammoudeh, Zbushra, Zoe, ‫ ,ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‬सो ऽहम्, 575 anonymous edits Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh  Source:  Contributors: 3raqi90, ADM, ASCIIn2Bme, Ahoerstemeier, Aligodbless2004, Allens, Ameliorate!, Cam, D6, DBigXray, Darth Mike, David Gerard, DeCausa, Declanscottp, Dockingman, Egeymi, Elonka, Eternalsleeper, Everyking, Falcon8765, Gaius Cornelius, Good Olfactory, Gr8opinionater, Hai98, Heshamdiab116, Hibernian, Iftekhar mahmood, Jacoplane, Jaraalbe, Jetman, Jitbit, John Carter, JohnI, JonHarder, Kamtanoli375, Kumioko (renamed), Leszek Jańczuk, Mairi, Meno25, MezzoMezzo, Mhakcm, Moe Epsilon, Naveeed, Netopyr-e, Noloop, Ozgod, Supertouch, Synesthésie, Towsif20, Turabjan, Verne Equinox, WikHead, Wikipidian, Wknight94, ZaydHammoudeh, 88 anonymous edits Abd ar-Rahman ibn Nasir as-Sadi  Source:  Contributors: AbuImraan85, Baronnet, Burgwerworldz, City of Tragedy, FayssalF, FeanorStar7, Gracefoo, Imranal, Inwind, JimCubb, Jncraton, JohnI, Ligulem, Magioladitis, Plasticspork, RnB, RainbowDissent, Rich Farmbrough, Sherool, Sir192, Skyhawk2007, Slmcom, Striver, T-borg, Tanbircdq, Wikipidian, Woohookitty, ZaydHammoudeh, 12 anonymous edits Ibn Jurayj  Source:  Contributors: AA, Altenmann, Anas Salloum, Cloj, Dbachmann, ForrestSjap, Haroun al Mouwahid, Inwind, Islami, JaGa, Magioladitis, PhnomPencil, Prester John, Rjwilmsi, Striver, SuaveArt, Truthpedia, WatABR, Welsh, 6 anonymous edits Al-Dhahabi  Source:  Contributors: AA, Abrar47, Abuubaydullah, Al-Andalusi, Astonishment, BigCoolGuyy, CJLL Wright, Choess, Cloj, Courcelles, Datteln, Deb, Eiorgiomugini, Eliyak, Grenavitar, Hinio, ILovePlankton, Inwind, Islami, Islamkurdi, JaGa, Jagged 85, Jaraalbe, Joseph Solis in Australia, Kai Fr, Kintetsubuffalo, Languagehat, Lixshan, Longhair, Magioladitis, Mairi, Marek69, Merope, MezzoMezzo, Mod1101, Obayd, Rjwilmsi, Scythian1, Skyhawk2007, Striver, Supertouch, Talibul Ilm, Triona, Wiqi55, ZaydHammoudeh, ‫ 23 ,ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺷﺎﮨﯿﻦ‬anonymous edits Yusuf al-Qaradawi  Source:  Contributors: A2Kafir, ADM, AXRL, Aaron Schulz, Ackie00, Adam Holland, Adamrce, Affanlaghari, Agari, Al Ameer son, Al Imam Ali, Alberuni, Alfons2, Allen3, Alrasheedan, Alro, Aminul802, AmuseMeNow, Andycjp, AnonMoos, Arthur Warrington Thomas, Asifchaudry, Asrefaei, Astarabadi, Aster77, BLaafg, Babajobu, Bakrbinaziz, Bbb23, Bender235, Benzband, BertVorenk, Betacommand, BhaiSaab, Biosketch, Blackise, Bless sins, Bob drobbs, BozMo, Bridesmill, Bukhari, CG1geot, CambridgeBayWeather, Caspertheghost, Censor, Chipmunker, Chrisminter, Ciphergoth, Closedmouth, Cloudtwenty, Cmdrjameson, CommonsDelinker, Conan Edogawa, Cyrius, D6, Danny, Darkwaterahead, Davidelah, Del C, Deville, Dia^, Diaa elsherif, Discospinster, Doctoradel, Domeral, Dori, DynamoDegsy, EamonnPKeane, Earle Martin, Earlysalesmas, Ellenannemac, Elmondo21st, Epbr123, Epeefleche, Epolk, Epson291, Esurnir, Eternalcowboy22, Eth, Evans1982, Everyking, Falcorian, Filippusson, Five-toed-sloth, Flatterworld, Fragma08, Frankakapta, Fredrik, GCarty, Gabi S., Gaius Cornelius, Gejyspa, George, German.Knowitall, Germen, Gimboid13, Goldom, Good Olfactory, Green leaves9, Grenavitar, Grondeif8, Guardia Rojo, Gzornenplatz, Haberstr, Hananofmisr, Hdalil, Headhitter, Heshamdiab116, Historicist, Homestarmy, HussHuss, Hyperionsteel, IFaqeer, Ian Pitchford, IanManka, Ibn zareena, Ignoringaidz, Im502, Imran, InverseHypercube, Inwind, Iponerawks, Irishpunktom, Irshadpp, J.delanoy, J04n, JHunterJ, Jackbrown, Jacobolus, Jalal0, JanDeFietser, Jeancey, Jfuin, Jonacker, Joseph Solis in Australia, JzG, KAMiKAZOW, KaB, Kadaveri, Karl Meier, KaySL, Kayikcioglu, Kernel Saunters, Khateeb88, Killing Vector, Kimse, Kintetsubuffalo, Klemen Kocjancic, Kmhkmh, Knowitall369, LDH, Lan Di, Lanov, LeContexte, Lihaas, LilHelpa, Liquidswords, Lizrael, Lkj99, Looslion, Lopakhin, Lostvoice, Luke 19 Verse 27, MECU, MONGO, Madeiniron, Madesinasia, Magioladitis, MathKnight, Matthew Fennell, Mattwraith, MaurStag, Maximus Rex, Mbekhit, Meno25, Metzujan, MezzoMezzo, Mirv, Mnadi, Moez, Mohonu, Mononomic, Monterey Bay, Morning star, Muhammad Shuaib Nadwi, Muslimstr, Mustafaa, Nabeelmoidu, Nenarock, Nil Einne, Nimom0, Niteowlneils, Nmkuttiady, Nybali, O masud, Ogress, Ohconfucius, Ohossino, OneGuy, Oren.tal, Ost316, Oxanakosenko, Patchouli, Peaceblissharmony, Pecher, PedEye1, Pedanticist, Petiatil, Pioneeranomoly, Plan908, Plop, Pmanderson, RadioActive, Redwhiteandblue2, Rembecki, RenniePet, RickK, Riotboyz, Rjwilmsi, Robin Hood 1212, RonCram, Rossi101, RubyDo, Rudi Dierick, Safahusufaini, Salamurai, Sam Hocevar, Sazimuus, Segevs11, Sgmiller, Shaboozal, Shahkhan, ShakataGaNai, Shamir1, Sherif9282, Shii, SimonP, Skysmith, Slarre, Speakoutfreely, Spitetrainer, Squashfan, Stefanomione, Striver, Subtlecoolness, Suhrawardi, Sunscr33ner, Supertouch, Surv1v4l1st, TRBP, Tachfin, Tanbircdq, Task7878, The Behnam, The Brain, The Egyptian Liberal, The wub, ThinkPink, Tickle me, Timbehrend, Toira, Topbanana, Torad, Treybien, TutterMouse, Ulric1313, Uriber, User27091, Vice regent, Vojvodaen, Warofdreams, Wasell, Wedian, Wfgiuliano, Whiskey Pete, Wileycount, Williamb, Winnie Cocker, Wmahan, Woohookitty, Xunex, Yahel Guhan, Ysf786, Yster76, Yuber, Zaglabarg, Zeno of Elea, Zerida, Zorroz, Zuhairali, ‫ 383 ,50ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺎﻥ ,מתן החתיך‬anonymous edits Rashid Rida  Source:  Contributors: Andrew Gray, Arre, Bannett, BoogaLouie, Ceyockey, Conscious, Cunado19, DiiCinta, KPalicz, Mmkulu, Nigholith, Nmkuttiady, NomadOfArabia, Obayd, Pastorwayne, Paxse, Quadratic, Rbraunwa, Runningya, Shaolin128, Striver, Thunderstorm786, TimBentley,, Varano, Vicharam, Yahya Abdal-Aziz, Zozo2kx, 17 anonymous edits Muhammad Abduh  Source:  Contributors: Abbrickman, Altetendekrabbe, AnonMoos, Assassins Creed, Blaxthos, Boing! said Zebedee, Bonassra, Bontenbal, Bpmullins, CJLL Wright, CUSENZA Mario, Capolinho, Chicheley, Dougweller, Droll, Ebudswenson, Ekotkie, Etmw2, Good Olfactory, Hamada2, Heavens clerk, Hinio, Igiffin, InverseHypercube, Jaakobou, Jacobolus, Jagged 85, Jeff3000, Jonathan Stokes, KSchutte, Keldoud, Kernel Saunters, Konstat, Ligulem, LilHelpa, Lususromulus, Martin TB, Mea76, Meno25, Mexaguil, MezzoMezzo, Mjsedgwick, Mmkulu, Nergishsunavala, No Guru, OldakQuill, Omegastar, Oracleofottawa, Osmanja, Quadratic, Redf0x, Rhymeswithgod, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Shaolin128, Shayanelhami, Shijaz, Shoshi.shmuluvitz, Skoosh, Striver, Tasstewart11, The Brain, The Bully Boy, Webmailnet, Wedian, Wknight94, Yakiv Gluck, Zerida, 74 anonymous edits Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani  Source:  Contributors: Abasin, Academic Challenger, AdultSwim, Aeon1006, Afghan American, Afghan27, Afghana, Aherink, Ahmad2099, Alefbe, AleksandrGertsen, Allens, Angeldreamable, Arab Hafez, Arcandam, Aryob, Aziz1005, Bairam, BarretB, Bbsrock, Beetstra, Beh-nam, BehnamFarid, Bender235, Blah3, BoogaLouie, Brozozo, Cabolitae, Charles Matthews, Charsada, Chevelier, CommonsDelinker, Conan Edogawa, CreazySuit, Cuchullain, Daveliney, Dgl, Dmyersturnbull, Dougweller, Dual Freq, EIranica, EdH, Ekevu, Eleven even, Elianileh, Femiran, Feydey, Fieldday-sunday, Filius Rosadis, Fireboat786, Gamaliel, Ghlobe, Gitosz, Goethean, Grenavitar, Grondeif8, Gurch, Haham hanuka, Hakeem.gadi, Hermion, Hussain1987, Ilikeverin, Inuit18, Iranian2010, Iranway, Iridescent, Jaakobou, Japanese Searobin, Jaqen, Jogezai, Johnpacklambert, Jojhutton, Kalakany, KazakhPol, Kbahey, Kevin B12, Kingpin13, Kingturtle, Koavf, Konscript, Kwamikagami, Ligulem, Lotje, Lysozym, MALLUS, Mani1, Mardetanha, Marek69, Materialscientist, Mazdakabedi, Mea76, Meco, Metron, Mirrori1, Mlbnk, Mmafactscheck, Mrbaker1917, Mussav, Mustafa Tapi, Mustaqbal, Musti80, NSteffen21, Nadaf69, Nameree, NeilN, Nejat, NellieBly, Nepaheshgar, Nigosh, No1cubfan, Nono64, Numidix, Od Mishehu, Omegastar, Omerlives, Osmanja, Ousabd, Pashtoonmal, Peace Inside, Pejman47, Petiatil, Podzemnik, Popalafg, Popiloll, Pouya, Ppntori, Pras, Pstanton, Psychless, Qwyrxian, Redthoreau, Reshadem, Reza1615, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Ronhjones, Rosedavid, Samady khan, Samadykhalid, Shaolin128, Shauri, SheepNotGoats, ShelfSkewed, Sherurcij, SimonP, Skoosh, Sly2fly, Smack, Snori, St. Hubert, Stan Shebs, Sturm br, Swesbroj, Tabnak, Tafoure, Tajik, Tamudian, Tariq Ikram Khan, TheEgyptian, TimBentley, Tiptoety, Tofaan,, Trolledah, Trusilver, UDScott, Vicharam, VirtualSteve, Vivacissamamente, Waaynee, Wahabijaz, Wahidx, Wardaika, Wayiran, Webmailnet, Wiqi55, Woohookitty, Wyyaarr, Yahya Abdal-Aziz, Zakksez, Zanganeh, Zhiganov, ZmaGhurnStaKona, Zora, 428 anonymous edits Al-Suyuti  Source:  Contributors: Adaywijaya, Al Ameer son, Al-Andalusi, Andycjp, Arab Hafez, Bgwhite, Bogdangiusca, CJLL Wright, Courcelles, D6, DanMS, Danieliness, Dr Gangrene, Editor2020, Egyegy, Frankie816, Good Olfactory, Hasseniqbal192, Hu12, Ibrahim92, Jacobolus, Jenks24, Jk54, Kacembepower, Lixshan, Lucky 6.9, Magioladitis, Magnus Manske, Mamouri, Mani1, Mareino, MezzoMezzo, Misharief, Mukadderat, Mustafaa, NawlinWiki, Neutron Jack, Nkv, Obayd, Omnieiunium, Outriggr, Paul Willocx, RnB, Rich Farmbrough, RogDel, Ruhrahi, Sa.vakilian, Scriberius, Striver, Supertouch, Tariqabjotu, Taylormctizic, Tigeroo, Umyaqoob, Unara, Wiqi55, Zereshk, Zerida, ZxxZxxZ, ‫ 94 ,ﮐﺎﺷﻒ ﻋﻘﯿﻞ‬anonymous edits
  • 175. Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 173 Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors Image:AlBukhari Mausoleum.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Alaexis File:IranQazvin.png  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Morven File:Musnad.PNG  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Jalal0 Image:Ibnhanbal.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: BishkekRocks, Wickey-nl File:ArRadd IbneJawzi.PNG  Source:  License: Creative Commons Zero  Contributors: Jalal0 File:Quran Tabari.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: See desceription File:Persian version by Balami of Universal History by Tabari.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bastique, Grenavitar, Jastrow File:Dsc08066-official-photo.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Minhaj-ul-Quran International. Original uploader was at en.wikipedia File:Shaykh Habib Umer bin Muhammad bin Salim bin Hafeez recieves Ijazaat from Shaykh ul Islam.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Islamicreviver File:GPU-20101023 16.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Islamicreviver File:World-Economic-Forum-Annual-Meeting-20110127 15.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Islamicreviver File:Tahir-ul-Qadri at Peace for Humanity Conference 2011.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:ServingIslam File:2012-Hyderabad-India.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: File:Fatwa-opining-london-uk-100302 24.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Minhaj-ul-Quran International File:Othimen.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: ar:‫:ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬Slmcom File:Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Unknown File:AlAlbani.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Phatyh File:Ghazans feast.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Масуд ибн Осман-и Кухистани Image:DiezAlbumsStudyingTheKoran.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: unknown / (of the reproduction) Staatsbibliothek Berlin/Schacht File:First Saudi State Big.png  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Ameen Mohammad File:Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Original uploader was Kamtanoli375 at en.wikipedia File:Abd ar-Rahman ibn Nasir as-Sadi.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Saudi Arabia newspapers Image:wikisource-logo.svg  Source:  License: logo  Contributors: Nicholas Moreau File:Qardawi.JPG  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Nmkuttiady Image:Yusuf al-Qaradawi.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Heshamdiab16, OsamaK, Tarawneh, Tarih File:Muhammad Abduh.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Zerida at en.wikipedia File:Sayyid Dschamāl ad-Dīn al-Afghānī.jpg  Source:āl_ad-Dīn_al-Afghānī.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: unknown photograph, retouched by --Liberal Freemason (talk) 21:19, 11 June 2008 (UTC) File:Asadabadi square, Tehran2.JPG  Source:,_Tehran2.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: I
  • 176. License 174 License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //