Al kutub al-sittah wikipedia

54,716 views

Published on

Published in: Spiritual
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
54,716
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
94
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Al kutub al-sittah wikipedia

  1. 1. ContentsArticles Al-Kutub al-Sittah 1 History of hadith 2 Muhammad al-Bukhari 7 Sahih Muslim 10 Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nishapuri 12 Al-Sunan al-Sughra 14 Al-Nasai 15 Sunan Abu Dawood 17 Abu Dawood 18 Sunan al-Tirmidhi 19 Tirmidhi 21 Sunan ibn Majah 22 Ibn Majah 23 Muwatta Imam Malik 25 Malik ibn Anas 28 Sunan al-Darimi 31 Al-Darimi 31 Sahih al-Bukhari 33 Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 36 Ahmad ibn Hanbal 37 Shamaail Tirmidhi 41 Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah 42 Ibn Khuzaymah 43 Sahifah Hammam ibn Munabbih 44 Hammam ibn Munabbih 45 Musannaf ibn Jurayj 46 Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq 46 ‘Abd ar-Razzaq as-San‘ani 47 Sahih Ibn Hibbaan 48 Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain 49 Hakim al-Nishaburi 51 A Great Collection of Fabricated Traditions 53 Abul-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi 54 Tahdhib al-Athar 60
  2. 2. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari 61 Riyadh as-Saaliheen 66 Al-Nawawi 68 Masabih al-Sunnah 72 Al-Baghawi 73 Majma al-Zawaid 74 Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Haythami 75 Bulugh al-Maram 77 Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani 79 Kanz al-Ummal 81 Ali ibn Abd-al-Malik al-Hindi 83 Minhaj us Sawi 83 Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri 85 Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen 98 Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah ibn Baaz 102 Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani 107 Ibn Taymiyyah 110 Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya 118 Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab 123 Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh 130 Abd ar-Rahman ibn Nasir as-Sadi 132 Ibn Jurayj 134 Al-Dhahabi 136 Yusuf al-Qaradawi 138 Rashid Rida 155 Muhammad Abduh 157 Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani 160 Al-Suyuti 165References Article Sources and Contributors 169 Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 173Article Licenses License 174
  3. 3. Al-Kutub al-Sittah 1 Al-Kutub al-Sittah The six major hadith collections (Arabic: ‫ ;ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻪ‬Al-Kutub Al-Sittah) are collections of hadith by Islamic scholars who, approximately 200 years after Muhammads death and by their own initiative, collected "hadith" attributed to Muhammad. They are sometimes referred to as Al-Sihah al-Sittah, which translates to "The Authentic Six". Significance Sunni Muslims view the six major hadith collections as their most important. They are, in order of authenticity:[1] 1. Sahih Bukhari, collected by Imam Bukhari (d. 870), includes 7275 ahadith 2. Sahih Muslim, collected by Muslim b. al-Hajjaj (d. 875), includes 9200 ahadith 3. Sunan al-Sughra, collected by al-Nasai (d. 915) 4. Sunan Abu Dawood, collected by Abu Dawood (d. 888) 5. Jami al-Tirmidhi, collected by al-Tirmidhi (d. 892) 6. Sunan ibn Majah, collected by Ibn Majah (d. 887) The first two, commonly referred to as the Two Sahihs as an indication of their authenticity, contain approximately seven thousand ahadith altogether if repetitions are not counted, according to Ibn Hajar.[2] The authors According to the Cambridge History of Iran:[3] "After this period commences the age of the authors of the six canonical collections of Sunni hadith, all of whom were Persian. The authors of the six collections are as follows: 1. Muhammad b. Ismail al-Bukhari, the author of the Sahih Bukhari, which he composed over a period of sixteen years. Traditional sources quote Bukhari as saying that he did not record any hadith before performing ablution and praying. Bukhari died near Samarqand in 256/869-70. 2. Muslim b. Hajjaj al-Naishapuri, who died in Nishapur in 261/ 874-5 and whose Sahih Muslim is second in authenticity only to that of Bukhari. 3. Abu Dawood Sulaiman b. Ashath al-Sijistani, a Persian but of Arab descent, who died in 275/888-9. 4. Muhammad b. Isa al-Tirmidhi, the author of the well-known as Sunan al-Tirmidhi, who was a student of Bukhari and died in 279/892-3. 5. Abu Abd al-Rahman al-Nasai, who was from Khurasan and died in 303/915-16. 6. Ibn Majah al-Qazwini, who died in 273/886-7." References [1] "Various Issues About Hadiths" (http:/ / www. abc. se/ ~m9783/ n/ vih_e. html). Abc.se. . Retrieved 2010-06-26. [2] al-Nukat Ala Kitab ibn al-Salah, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, vol. 1, pg. 153, Maktabah al-Furqan, Ajman, U.A.E., second edition, 2003. [3] S. H. Nasr(1975), “The religious sciences”, in R.N. Frye, the Cambridge History of Iran, Cambridge University Press
  4. 4. History of hadith 2 History of hadith Traditions regarding the life of Muhammad and the early history of Islam were passed down both orally and written for more than a hundred years after the death of Muhammad in 632. According to Muslims, the collection of hadith or sayings by or about the prophet Muhammad was a meticulous and thorough process that began right at the time of Muhammad. Needless to say hadith collection (even in the written form) began very early on – from the time of Muhammad and continued through the centuries that followed.[1] Thus, Muslims reject any collections that are not robust in withstanding the tests of authenticity per the standards of hadith studies. This article goes through the historical evolution of the hadith literature from its beginning in the 7th century to present day. Writing in the Pre-Islamic Period Prior to the advent of Islam, memorization was the primary means of conveyance of information amongst the Arabs.[2] There were, however, some instances of writing present at that time, including promissory notes, personal letter, tribal agreements and some religious literature.[3] There were very few Arabs that could read or write in the beginning of Muhammads era: The majority were unlettered, and according to Sunni traditions, so was Muhammad.[4] Prophetic Period According to Ibn Hajar, “During the Prophet’s lifetime and into the time of the Companions and older Followers, the narrations of the Prophet were not transcribed in a systematic manner. This was due to two reasons. The first, was that early on they had been prohibited from doing so, as has been established in Sahih Muslim,[5] lest the hadith become confused with the Quran. The second was due to expansive capability of their ability to memorize and because the majority of them were unable to write.”[6] A possible explanation of aforementioned hadith is that “the majority of the companions were illiterate with only a few individuals from them able to write. If they were to write, it was unrefined, not conforming to the written alphabet. Thus, the prohibition was due to the fear of erring while writing.”[7] Another is that “the prohibition was of writing the Quran with other than it in one place so as to avoid the two from becoming mixed up confusing the one reading it. As for writing in its entirety having been prohibited, then this was not the case as we see from another hadith, Convey what I say. Present within the command to convey is permission to write and record.”[8] Writing of hadith Despite this, there are a number of hadith that indicate the permissibility if not encouragement to write down hadith. From them: • The hadith of Abd Allah ibn ‘Amr who said, “I used write everything I heard from the Prophet wanting to preserve it. The Quraysh then prohibited me from doing so, saying, ‘Do you write down everything? And the Prophet is human who speaks while angry and pleased?’ So I refrained from writing and then mentioned this to the Prophet. He gestured to his mouth and said, ‘Write, by the one in whose hand is my soul! Nothing emanates from this except the truth.’”[9] • Among the prisoners of war taken at the Battle of Badr those who were literate were released after each taught ten Muslims how to read and write.[4][10] Sahih Bukhari states that Abd-Allah ibn Amr wrote down his hadith.[11] • A man came to Muhammad and complained about his memory, saying: ‘O Messenger of Allah: We hear many things from you. But most of them slip our minds because we cannot memorize them’. Muhammad replied: Ask your right hand for help.[12] Muhammad meant that he should write down what he heard.
  5. 5. History of hadith 3 • When Rafi‘ ibn Khadij asked Muhammad whether they could write what they heard from him, the answer came: Write, no harm!.[13] Another sources quotes Muhammad advising: "Record knowledge by writing."[14] • During the conquest of Mecca, Muhammad gave a sermon. A man from the Yemen, named Abu Shah, stood up and said: "O Allah’s Messenger! Please write down these [words] for me!" Muhammad ordered: "Write for Abu Shah!"[15] • Muhammad sent a letter which contained commandments about the blood money for murders and injuries and the law of retaliation to Amr ibn Hizam.[16] This letter was handed down to his great grandson, Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad.[4] Among other things, like some of his letters other head of states , some scroll transferred to Abu Rafi was handed down to Abu Bakr ibn ‘Abd Al-Rahman ibn Harith, belonging to the first generation after the Companions.[4] Ibn Hajar summarized the different ways in which scholars have sought to reconcile those hadith prohibiting the writing of hadith and those permitting it, in the first of which he said, “The reconciliation between the two is that the prohibition was particular to the time in which the Quran was being sent down so that it would not become mixed up with other than it and the permission was during other than that time."[17] Post-prophetic period During the caliphate of Abu Bakr, the Muslim nation had to deal with the rebellion of several apostates. In all likelihood, the apostates began to forge hadiths to suit their purposes. For this reason, Abu Bakr, and his successor, Umar, were very strict in their acceptance of hadiths as authentic, for fear of accepting a forged hadith.[18] Among Sunnis, Umar ibn al-Khattab is the primary locus for many accounts about hadith collection. He is portrayed by Sunnis as desiring to initiate this project but unwilling to do so, fearing that Muslims might then neglect the Quran.[19] Umar is also said by Sunnis that, due to fear and concerns, he sometimes warned people against careless narration of hadith.[4] Muslim historians say that it was the caliph Uthman (the third caliph, or successor of Muhammad, who had formerly been one of Muhammads secretarys), encouraged Muslims to write down the hadith as Muhammad (in some instances) had encouraged Muslims to do likewise during his lifetime [20][21][22][23]. Uthmans labors were cut short by his assassination, at the hands of aggrieved people who had come to the capital to seek redressal from the Caliph for the wrongs done by his secretary, Merwan ibn Hakam, on 17 June 656 A.D{[24]}.The Muslim community (ummah) then fell into a prolonged civil war, termed the Fitna by Muslim historians. After the fourth caliph, Ali ibn Abi Talib, was assassinated, control of the Islamic empire was seized by the Umayyad dynasty in 660A.D/40 A.H.{[25]} Illustrating the importance hadith in a written format had earned, Ibn Abbas left behind a camel-load of books, which mostly contain what he had heard from Muhammad and other Sahaba.[4][26] Of the many companions, Abu Hurairah taught hadith to students, one of whom was Hammam ibn Munabbih. Ibn Munabbih wrote down these hadith, the original manuscripts of which are present even to this day in the libraries of Berlin, Beirut and Damascus.[27] Starting the first Islamic civil war of the 7th century, those receiving the hadith started to question the sources of the saying, something that resulted in the development of the Isnad.[19] Muhammad ibn Sirin (d. 110/728) stated[19]: "[the traditionalists] were not used to inquiring after the isnad, but when the fitna occurred they said: Name us your informants. Thus if these were Ahl al-Sunna their traditions were accepted, but if they were heretics, their traditions were not accepted."
  6. 6. History of hadith 4 The beginning of systematic hadith collection The beginning of the systematic collection and compilation of hadith began during the time of the second generation of Muslims, that of the Followers. Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Ubaydullah, commonly known as ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, was a prolific and prominent hadith narrator from the Followers whom Ibn Hajar identified as a tabii.[28] According to Ibn Hajar, “Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri was the first to compile hadith at the beginning of the first century after the Migration acting on the order of Umar ibn AbdulAziz. It was after this that the compilation, then the authoring of books of hadith became commonplace, resulting in much good.”[29] Ummayad rule was interrupted by a second civil war (the Second Fitna), re-established, then ended in 758, when the Abbasid dynasty seized the caliphate, to hold it, at least in name, until 1517 (the last Caliph was Al-Mutawakkil III 1508–1517, in Cairo and not in Baghdad). Muslim historians say that hadith collection and evaluation continued during the first Fitna and the Umayyad period. However, much of this activity was presumably oral transmission from early Muslims to later collectors, or from teachers to students. The scholars of the Abbasid period were faced with a huge corpus of miscellaneous traditions, some of them flatly contradicting each other. Many of these traditions supported differing views on a variety of controversial matters. Scholars had to decide which hadith were to be trusted as authentic narrations and which had been invented for various political or theological purposes. For this purpose, they used a number of techniques in hadith studies. In AH 134 (751/752), paper was introduced into the Muslim world.[30] Generally, Umar II is credited with having ordered the first collection of hadith material in an official manner, fearing that some of it might be lost. Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm and Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, are among those who compiled hadiths at `Umar II’s behest.[19] Early written hadith collections List of collections of hadith, in chronological order: 1. Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri 2. Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm 3. Musannaf of ibn Jurayj — ?-? CE 4. Musannaf of Ma`mar bin Rashid — ?-? CE 5. Sahifah Hammam ibn Munabbih — 670–720 CE 6. Musannaf of `Abd al-Razzaq al-San`ani — c. 700 CE 7. Muwatta of Malik bin Anas — 760–795 CE 8. Sufyan al-Thawri Canonical texts The efforts culminated with the six canonical collections after having received impetus from the establishment of the sunna as the second source of law in Islam, particularly through the efforts of the famous jurist Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafii.[19] The method of criticism and the conclusions it has reached have not changed significantly since the ninth century. Even much of modern Muslim scholarship, while continuing to debate the validity or authenticity of individual hadiths or perhaps the hadiths of a particular transmitter, employs the same methods and biographical materials.[19] The classification of Hadith into sahih (sound), hasan (good) and daif (weak) was firmly established by Ali ibn al-Madini (d. 234 AH).[31] Later, al-Madinis student Muhammad al-Bukhari authored a collection that he stated contained only sahih hadith.[31] al-Tirmidhi was the first traditionist to base his book on al-Madinis classification.[31]
  7. 7. History of hadith 5 Contemporary Analysis In 1848, Gustav Weil, noted that Muhammad al-Bukhari deemed only 4,000 of his original 300,000 hadiths to be authentic.He was soon followed by Aloys Sprenger, who also suggests that many of the hadiths cannot be considered authentic.[19] However, this demonstrates a limited understanding by Non Muslims, of Bukharis criterion for his Sahih. This is clarified by other statements of Bukhari in which he made it clear that he considered all of the hadith in his authentic, but not all authentic hadith are included in his Sahih. Al-Dhahabi quoted Bukhari as saying, "I have memorized one hundred thousand authentic hadith and two hundred thousand that are not authentic.[32] Ignaz Goldziher was a large contributor of innovative theories to the West. The subsequent direction the Western debate took, a direction which has focussed on the role of hadiths in the origin and development of early Muslim jurisprudence, is largely due to the work of Joseph Schacht.[19] The Common-Link Theory, invented by Joseph Schacht and widely accepted in modern scholarship, argues that hadith authorities knowingly and purposefully placed traditions in circulation with little care to support these hadiths with satisfactory isnads (chains of transmitters). G. H. A. Juynboll, Michael Cook and other Schachtians subsequently embraced and elaborated upon this theory. In 2006, Fahad A. Alhomoudi in his thesis “On the Common-Link Theory”[33] challenges the accuracy of Schacht’s founding theory. Because of the interconnectedness of Schacht’s many theses about hadith and Islamic law, the findings of Alhomoudi’s thesis did not only challenge the significant Common-Link Theory in legal hadith studies, but also open the door for scholars to question other important theories held by Schacht and his followers with regard to larger issues in Islamic legal history. The Turkish governments Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı has commissioned a team of scholars at Ankara University to draft a new compilation of hadith that would omit numerous hadith considered historically inauthentic by these scholars.[34] References [1] Refuting The Argument From Hadith In Which The Prophet Says "Do Not Write Down Anything From Me Except Quran" (http:/ / www. call-to-monotheism. com/ refuting_the_argument_from_hadith_in_which_the_prophet_says__do_not_write_down_anything_from_me_except_qur_an__) [2] Abridged from al-Hadith wa al-Muhaddithoon, pg. 39. [3] Studies in Early Hadith Literature, al-Athami, pg. 2. [4] "When where the traditions recorded?" (http:/ / www. islamanswers. net/ sunna/ when. htm). Islamanswers.net. . Retrieved 2010-03-21. [5] Sahih Muslim, 42:7147 (http:/ / www. cmje. org/ religious-texts/ hadith/ muslim/ 042-smt. php#042. 7147). Other sources for the hadith: • Musnad Ahmad, vol. 3, pgs. 12, 21, 39 and 56 • Sunan al-Darimi, vol. 1, pgs. 130 and 450 • Sahih Muslim, vol. 2, pg. 1366, no. 3004 • al-Nasai in Al-Sunan al-Kubraa, vol. 2, pg. 1240, no. 7954 and elsewhere. [6] Hadi al-Sari, 1:6 according to the page numbering of the Maktabah al-Salafiyah edition. [7] Ibn Qutaibah in Mukhtalif al-Hadith, pg. 412. [8] al-Baghawi in Sharh al-Sunnah, vol. 1, pg. 295, al-Maktab al-Islami, Beirut. [9] Collected in the Musnad of Ahmad (1015-6 6510 and also nos. 6930, 7017 and 1720), Sunan Abu Dawud (Mukhtasar Sunan Abi Dawud (52463499) and elsewhere. [10] Ibn Sad, Tabaqat, 2.22. [11] Bukhari, “‘Ilm,” 39. [12] Tirmidhi, “‘Ilm,” 12. [13] Hindi, Kanz al-‘Ummal, 10.232. [14] Darimi, “Muqaddima,” 43. [15] Abu Dawud, “‘Ilm,” 3; al-Tirmidhi, “‘Ilm,” 12. [16] Darimi, “Diyat,” 12. [17] Fath al-Bari, vol. 1, pg. 208). [18] Siddiqi, Muhammad (1993). Hadith Literature. 32: The Islamic Texts Society. pp. 32. ISBN 0-946621-38-1. [19] "PAR246 Hadith Criticism" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070311144448/ http:/ / people. uncw. edu/ bergh/ par246/ L21RHadithCriticism. htm). Web.archive.org. Archived from the original (http:/ / people. uncw. edu/ bergh/ par246/ L21RHadithCriticism.
  8. 8. History of hadith 6 htm) on 2007-03-11. . Retrieved 2010-03-21. [20] ^ Tirmidhi, “‘Ilm,” 12. [21] ^ Hindi, Kanz al-‘Ummal, 10.232. [22] ^ Darimi, “Muqaddima,” 43. [23] ^ Abu Dawud, “‘Ilm,” 3; al-Tirmidhi, “‘Ilm,” 12. [24] Ameer Ali Syed, A Short History of Saracens [25] Tabari, vol.ii, p4; cf. Masudi, vol. v, p.14 [26] M. ‘Ajjaj al-Khatib, op. cit. 352. [27] An Introduction to the Conservation of Hadith – In the light of the Sahifah of Hammam ibn Munabbih by Dr Muhammad Hamidullah, IBT publishers, 2003 [28] Taqrib al-Tahthib, pg. 440, no. 6296, Muassasah al-Risalah, Beirut, first edition, 1999. [29] Fath al-Bari, vol. 1, pg. 208. [30] Mit-Ejmes (http:/ / web. mit. edu/ CIS/ www/ mitejmes/ issues/ 200310/ br_lane. htm) [31] "Imaam Tirmidhis Contribution – Chapter Four" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070626193607/ http:/ / www. jamiat. org. za/ isinfo/ tirmidhi04. html). Web.archive.org. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. jamiat. org. za/ isinfo/ tirmidhi04. html) on 2007-06-26. . Retrieved 2010-03-21. [32] Tathkirah al-Huffath, vol. 2, pg. 556. [33] On the Common-Link Theory, Fahad A. Alhomoudi, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada,Copyright 2006 All rights reserved. [34] Pigott, Robert (2008-02-26). "Europe | Turkey in radical revision of Islamic texts" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 7264903. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved 2010-03-21. Further reading • Islamic Awareness, Issues Concerning Hadith (http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Hadith/) • Musa, A. Y. Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam. Palgrave, 2008; ISBN 0-230-60535-4 Notes
  9. 9. Muhammad al-Bukhari 7 Muhammad al-Bukhari Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari Born [1] 194 AH Bukhara Died 256 AH Khartank, near Samarqand Ethnicity [2] Persian or Tajik School tradition Ijtihad Influences Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ali ibn al-Madini Yahya ibn Main [3] Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh Influenced Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Ibn Abi Asim Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardizbah al-Bukhari (Persian: ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﺳﻤﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ ,)ﺍﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻐﻴﺮﻩ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺮﺩﺯﺑﻪ ﺑﺨﺎﺭﯼ‬popularly known as Bukhari or Imam Bukhari, (196-256AH / 810-870AD), was a Sunni Islamic scholar of Persia.[4][5] He authored the hadith collection named Sahih Bukhari, a collection which Sunni Muslims regard as the most authentic of all hadith compilations. Biography Early life He was born in 810/194 in the city of Bukhara in Khorasan (now in Uzbekistan). His father, Ismail Ibn Ibrahim, was a known hadith scholar who died while he was young The historian al-Dhahabi described his early academic life: He began studying hadith in the year 205 (A.H.). He memorized the works of [‘Abdullah] ibn al-Mubaarak while still a child. He was raised by his mother because his father died when he was an infant. He traveled with his mother and brother in the year 210 after having heard the narrations of his region. He began authoring books and narrating hadith while still an adolescent. He said, “When I turned eighteen years old, I began writing about the Companions and the Followers and their statements. This was during the time of ‘Ubaid Allah ibn Musa (one of his teachers). At that time I also authored a book of history at the grave of the Prophet at night during a full moon.[6]
  10. 10. Muhammad al-Bukhari 8 Travels At age of sixteen, he, together with his brother and widowed mother made the pilgrimage to Makkah. From there he made a series of travels in order to increase his knowledge of hadith. He went through all the important centres of Islamic learning of his time, talked to scholars and exchanged information on hadith. It is said that he heard from over 1,000 men, and learned over 700,000 traditions. After sixteen years absence he returned to Bukhara, and there drew up his al-Jami as-Sahih, a collection of 7,275 tested traditions, arranged in chapters so as to afford bases for a complete system of jurisprudence without the use of speculative law. His book is highly regarded among Sunni Muslims, and considered the most authentic collection of hadith (a minority of Sunni scholars consider Sahih Muslim, compiled by Bukharis student Imam Muslim, more authentic). Most Sunni scholars consider it second only to the Quran in terms of authenticity. He also composed other books, including al-Adab al-Mufrad, which is a collection of hadiths on ethics and manners, as well as two books containing biographies of hadith narrators (see isnad). Last years In the year 864/250, he settled in Nishapur. It was in Neyshābūr that he met Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. He would be considered his student, and eventually collector and organiser of hadith collection Sahih Muslim which is considered second only to that of al-Bukhari. Political problems led him to move to Khartank, a village near Samarkand where he died in the year 870/256 Muhammad al-Bukhari mausoleum near Samarkand, Uzbekistan Writings Below is a summary of the discussion of Bukharis available works in Fihrist Muṣannafāt al-Bukhāri by Umm Abdullāh bint Maḥrūs, Muḥammad ibn Ḥamza and Maḥmūd ibn Muḥammad.[7] Works describing narrators of hadith Bukhari wrote three works discussing narrators of hadith with respect to their ability in conveying their material: the "brief compendium of hadith narrators," "the medium compendium" and the "large compendium" (al-Tarikh al-Kabīr, al-Tarīkh al-Ṣaghīr, and al-Tarīkh al-Awsaţ). The large compendium is published and well-identified. The medium compendium was thought to be the brief collection and was published as such. The brief compendium has yet to be found.[8] Another work, al-Kunā, is on patronymics: identifying people who are commonly known as "Father of so-and-so". Then there is a brief work on weak narrators: al-Ḍuafā al-Ṣaghīr.
  11. 11. Muhammad al-Bukhari 9 Hadith Works Two of Bukharis hadith works have reached us: al-Adab al-mufrad ("the book devoted to matters of respect and propriety") and al-Jāmi’ al-Musnad al-Sahīh al-Mukhtaṣar min umūr Rasûl Allāh wa sunnanihi wa ayyāmihi – The abridged collection of sound reports with chains of narration going back all the way to the Prophet regarding matters pertaining to the Prophet, his practices and his times. – also known as Sahih Bukhari School of thought Bukhari was claimed by followers of the Shafii school of thought within Islamic jurisprudence as being from the Shafi school of thought,[9] though members of both the Hanbali and Zahiri schools both levy this claim as well. He is recorded as being both anti-Mutazili and anti-Rafidhi. In one of his books on creed, he wrote: “I don’t see any difference between praying Salah behind a Jahmi or a Rafidhi and a Christian or a Jew. They (Jahmiyyah/Rāfida) are not to be greeted,, nor are they to be visited, nor are they to be married, nor is their testimony to be accepted, nor are their sacrifices to be eaten abc.”.[10] References [1] S. Abdul-Maujood, "The Biography of Imam Bukharee", Maktaba Dar-us-Salam, 2005, p. 13. [2] Revival of Real Pure Islam, Distinction between Real-Pure Islam and Persian-Brand of Prevailing Islam (book) (https:/ / sites. google. com/ site/ socratesenerprise/ distinction-between-real-pure-islam-and-persian-brand-of-prevailing-islam). Page 1. [3] Ibn Rāhwayh, Isḥāq (1990), Balūshī, ʻAbd al-Ghafūr ʻAbd al-Ḥaqq Ḥusayn, ed., Musnad Isḥāq ibn Rāhwayh (1st ed.), Tawzīʻ Maktabat al-Īmān, pp. 150–165 [4] Encyclopedia of World Biography ... – Google Books (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=bpAYAAAAIAAJ& q=sahih+ bukhari+ persian+ origin& dq=sahih+ bukhari+ persian+ origin& cd=2). 2006-12-28. . Retrieved 2010-02-03. [5] A guide to Eastern literatures – Google Books (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=CsZiAAAAMAAJ& q=bukhari+ persian+ origin& dq=bukhari+ persian+ origin& cd=11). 2008-05-01. . Retrieved 2010-02-03. [6] Tathkirah al-Huffath, vol. 2, pg. 104-5, al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah edition [7] Fihris Muṣannafāt al-Bukhāri, pp. 9-61, Dār al-Āṣimah, Riyaḍ: 1410. [8] Fihris Musannafāt al-Bukhāri, pp. 28-30. [9] Imam al-Bukhari (d. 256/870; Tabaqat al-Shafiiya, 2.212-14 [6]) [10] Khalq Af’ālul-’Ibād, p.14 Further reading • Abdul-Jabbar, Ghassan. Bukhari. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2007. External links • Biography of Imam Bukhari (http://www.haqislam.org/imam-bukhari/) • http://www.islaam.net/main/display.php?id=1126&category=13 • Biography of Muhammad al-Bukhari (http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090501191138/http://www. theclearpath.com/viewtopic.php?t=6)
  12. 12. Sahih Muslim 10 Sahih Muslim Sahih Muslim (Arabic: ‫ ,ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, full title Al-Musnadu Al-Sahihu bi Naklil Adli) is one of the al-Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadiths) of the hadith in Sunni Islam. It is the second most authentic hadith collection after Sahih Al-Bukhari, and is highly acclaimed by Sunni Muslims. It was collected by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, also known as Imam Muslim. Sahih translates as authentic or correct.[1] Collection Imam Muslim (Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj) was born in 202 AH (817/18 CE) in Naysabur, Iran into a Persian family and died in 261 AH (874/75 CE) also in Nishapur. He traveled widely to gather his collection of ahadith (plural of hadith), including to Iraq, the Arabian Peninsula, Syria and Egypt. Out of 300,000 hadith which he evaluated, approximately 4,000 were extracted for inclusion into his collection based on stringent acceptance criteria. Each report in his collection was checked and the veracity of the chain of reporters was painstakingly established. Sunni Muslims consider it the second most authentic hadith collection, after Sahih Bukhari.Sahih Muslim is divided into 43 books,containing a total of 7190 narrations. However, it is important to realize that Imam Muslim never claimed to collect all authentic traditions as his goal was to collect only traditions that all Muslims should agree on about accuracy. According to Munthiri, there are a total of 2200 hadiths (without repetition) in Sahih Muslim. According to Muhammad Amin,[2] there are 1400 authentic hadiths that are reported in other books, mainly the Six major Hadith collections. Views Muslims regard this collection as the second most authentic of the Six major Hadith collections,[3] containing only sahih hadith, an honor it shares only with Sahih Bukhari, both being referred to as the Two Sahihs. Shia Muslims dismiss many parts of it as fabrications or untrustworthy Distinctive Features Amin Ahsan Islahi, the noted Islamic scholar, has summarized some unique features of Sahih Muslim[4]: • Imam Muslim recorded only such narratives as were reported by two reliable successors from two Companions which subsequently travelled through two independent unbroken isnāds consisting of sound narrators. Imām Bukhārī has not followed such a strict criterion. • Scientific arrangement of themes and chapters. The author, for example, selects a proper place for the narrative and, next to it, puts all its versions. Imām Bukhārī has not followed this method (he scatters different versions of a narrative and the related material in different chapters). Consequently, in the exercise of understanding ahādīth, Sahīh of Imām Muslim offers the best material to the students. • The Imam informs us whose wordings among the narrators he has used. For example he says: haddathanā fulān wa fulān wallafz lifulān (A and B has narrated this hadīth to us and the wording used here is by A). Similarly he mentions whether, in a particular hadīth, the narrators have differed over the wordings even over a single letter of zero semantic significance. He also informs the readers if narrators have differed over a specific quality, surname, relation or any other fact about a narrator in the chain.
  13. 13. Sahih Muslim 11 Commentaries and translations 1. Siyanah Sahih Muslim by Ibn al-Salah, of which only the beginning segment remains 2. Al Minhaj Be Sharh Sahih Muslim by Yahiya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi 3. Fath al-Mulhim 4. Takmilat Fath al-Mulhim 5. Sahih Muslim (Siddiqui) translated by Islamic scholar Abd-al-Hamid Siddiqui. The text is used in the USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts 6. Summarized Sahih Muslim 7. Sharh Sahih Muslim by Allama Ghulam Rasool Saeedi References [1] islamic-dictionary (http:/ / www. islamic-dictionary. com/ index. php?word=sahih) retrieved 10:06, 26 April 2010 [2] The number of authentic hadiths (Arabic) (http:/ / www. ibnamin. com/ num_hadith. htm), Muhammad Amin, retrieved May 22, 2006 [3] Various Issues About Hadiths (http:/ / www. abc. se/ ~m9783/ n/ vih_e. html) [4] Mabadi Tadabbur-i-Hadith, Amin Ahsan Islahi, 1989 Further reading • The Canonization of Al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon (http:// www.scribd.com/doc/17926706/The-Canonization-of-AlBukhari-and-Muslim-by-Jonathan-Brown) by Jonathan Brown, BRILL, 2007 External links • English translation (http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/muslim/) • English Translation of the Introduction to Sahih Muslim (http://www.kalamullah.com/ muqaddimah-sahih-muslim.html)
  14. 14. Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nishapuri 12 Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nishapuri Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Born [1] 204/206 AH Nishapur, Iran Died 261 AH /c. 875 Nishapur, Iran Occupation scholar Tradition or Shafii and ijtihad movement Main interests Hadith Notable works Sahih Muslim Influences Ahmad Ibn Hanbal [2] Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh [3] Muhammad al-Bukhari Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj ibn Muslim ibn Warat al-Qushayri al-Nisaburi (Arabic: ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ ;ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺸﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﺭﻱ‬Persian: ‫ ;ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻧﯿﺸﺎﺑﻮﺭﯼ‬lived c. 206–261 AH/c.821-875 CE) was the author of the second authentic sahih collection of hadith in Sunni Islam, Sahih Muslim. Biography He was born in the town of Nishapur, in present day northeastern Iran, into the Arab tribe of Qushair. Among the authors teachers were included Harmala ibn Yahya, Said ibn Mansur, Abd-Allah ibn Maslamah al-Qanabi, al-Dhuhali, al-Bukhari, Ibn Main, Yahya ibn Yahya al-Nishaburi al-Tamimi, and others. Among his students were al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, and Ibn Khuzaymah, each of which wrote works on hadith as well. After many studies throughout the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Iraq and Syria, he settled down in his hometown of Nishapur where he first met Bukhari, with whom he would have a friendship until his death. Estimates on how many hadiths are in his books vary from 3,033 to 12,000, depending on whether duplicates are included, or whether the text only or the isnad is also counted. His Sahih is said to share about 2000 hadiths with Bukharis Sahih.[4] He died in 875 CE in Nishapur, where he was also buried. Legacy The Sunni scholar Ishaq b. Rahwayh was first to recommend Muslims work.[5] Ishaqs contemporaries did not at first accept this. Abu Zur`a al-Razi objected that Muslim had omitted too much material which Muslim himself recognised as authentic; and that he included transmitters who were weak.[6] Ibn Abi Hatim (d. 327/938) later accepted Muslim as "trustworthy, one of the hadith masters with knowledge of hadith"; but this contrasts with much more fulsome praise of Abu Zur`a and also his father Abu Hatim. It is similar with Ibn al-Nadim.[7] Muslims book gradually increased in stature such that it is considered among Sunni Muslims the most authentic collections of hadith, second only to Sahih Bukhari.
  15. 15. Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nishapuri 13 Works • Sahih Muslim: his collection of authentic hadith References [1] An Insiders Guide to Islam (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=6YY2BItDIxsC& pg=PA158& dq=muslim+ bin+ hajjaj+ born+ 206& hl=en& ei=9lGXTZaxL4304QbixYSVBA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=muslim bin hajjaj born 206& f=false) Yushau Sodiq, (2010) - Page 158 [2] Ibn Rāhwayh, Isḥāq (1990), Balūshī, ʻAbd al-Ghafūr ʻAbd al-Ḥaqq Ḥusayn, ed., Musnad Isḥāq ibn Rāhwayh (1st ed.), Tawzīʻ Maktabat al-Īmān, pp. 150–165 [3] ‫( ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ‬http:/ / www. ibnamin. com/ Manhaj/ muslim. htm) [4] Lulu wal Marjan says 1900; Abi Bakr Muhammad b. Abdallah al-Jawzaqi apud Brown, 84 counted 2326. [5] mardi keh in bud; al-Hakim, Ma`rifat `ulum al-hadith, 98 apud Jonathan Brown, The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim (Brill, 2007), 86 [6] Brown, 91-2, 155 [7] Brown, 88-9 External links • Short Bio of Imam Muslim (http://www.haqislam.org/imam-muslim/) • Biography of Imam Muslim (http://www.dar-us-salam.com/authors/imam_muslim.htm) • English translation of Sahih Muslim (http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/muslim/) • Interactive Family tree of Imam Muslim by Happy Books (http://www.happy-books.co.uk/ muhammad-ibn-abdullah-lineage-and-family-tree/ family-tree-diagram-of-lineage-and-relatives-of-prophets-and-companions-in-muslim-history.php?id=547) 1. Interactive diagram of teachers and students of Imam Muslim by Happy Books (http://www.happy-books.co. uk/muhammad-ibn-abdullah-lineage-and-family-tree/ students-sheikhs-and-teachers-of-famous-muslim-imams-and-scholars-in-muslim-history.php?id=548)
  16. 16. Al-Sunan al-Sughra 14 Al-Sunan al-Sughra as-Sunan as-Sughra (Arabic: ‫ ,)ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮﻯ‬also known as Sunan an-Nasai (Arabic: ‫ )ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬is one of the Al-Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadiths), and was collected by Al-Nasai. Description Sunnis regard this collection as third in strength of their Six major Hadith collections.[1] Al-Mujtaba (English: the selected) has about 5270 hadith, including repeated narrations, which the author selected from his larger work, As-Sunan al-Kubra. Commentaries Among the who have written commentaries of this hadith collection: • Imam al-Suyuti: Published under the name Sharh al-Suyuti ala Sunan al-Nisai by Maktabah al-Matbouat in Aleppo in 1986. • al-Sindi: Published under the name Hashiyat al-Sindi ala al-Nisai by Maktabah al-Matbouat in Aleppo in 1986. References [1] Various Issues About Hadiths (http:/ / www. abc. se/ ~m9783/ n/ vih_e. html) External links • Sunan An Nasai (http://ahadith.co.uk/sunanannasai.php) - Searchable Sunan Al Sughra by Imam An Nasai
  17. 17. Al-Nasai 15 Al-Nasai Al-Nasai Born 214 AH (ca. 829 AD/CE) [1] Turkmenistan Died 303 AH (915 AD/CE) Occupation scholar Nationality Persian Tradition or Sunni movement Notable works Al-Sunan al-Sughra Influences [2] Ibrahim ibn Yaqub al-Juzajani Al-Nasāī (214  – 303 AH/ ca. 829  – 915 AD/CE), full name Aḥmad ibn Shu`ayb ibn Alī ibn Sīnān Abū `Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Nasāī, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and wrote one of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, Sunan al-Sughra, or "Al-Mujtaba", which he selected from his "As-Sunan al-Kubra". As well as 15 other books, 6 dealing with the science of hadith. Biography Abu Abdurrahman Ahmed ibn Shuaib ibn Ali ibn Sinan ibn Bahr ibn Dinar Al-Khurusani was born in the year 215 A.H as the Imam clearly states himself (although some say 255 A.H or 214 A.H) in the city of Nasa, situated in Western Asia known at that time as Khurusan which was a centre for Islamic Knowledge where millions of Ulamaa were situated and Hadeeth and Fiqh was at its peak. Thus he primarily attended the gatherings and circles of knowledge (known as halqas) in his town and attained knowledge, especially Hadeeth from the Ulamaa. Thereafter his inspiration increased of traveling around the world to seek knowledge from other various scholars of different countries and cities. When he was 20 years old, he started traveling and made his first journey to Qutaibah. He covered the whole Arabian Peninsula seeking knowledge from the Ulama and Muhadditheen of Iraq, Kufa, Hijaz, Syria and Egypt . Finally he decided to stay in Egypt . Teachers and Students Hafiz Ibn Hajr Rahimahullahi Alaih says that it is impossible to name and gather all his teachers but some are: - (1) Ishaq ibn Rahweh (2) Imam Abu Daud Al-Sijistani (author of Sunan Abu Dawood) and (3) Qutaibah ibn Saeed. Although some scholars like Hafiz ibn Hajr Rahimahullah also named Imam Bukhari as his teacher but this is incorrect because Imam Bukhari never met him. However he studied under the Huffaz-e-Hadeeth from different countries and cities. After the Imam had decided to stay in Egypt he started to lecture, mostly narrating Ahadeeth to the extent that he became known by the title Hafizul Hadeeth. Many people would attend his gatherings and many scholars became his students, including: • Imam Abul Qasim Tabrani • Imam Abubakr Ahmed ibn Muhammad also known as Allamah ibn Sunni • Sheikh Ali, the son of the Muhaddith, Imam Tahawi. It is also narrated that Imam Tahawi personally narrated from this Imam.
  18. 18. Al-Nasai 16 Memory, Piety and other Qualities He was a man full of taqwa, piety and he possessed a photographic memory too. The Sheikh Allamah Zahabi was once asked who has a better memory, Imam Muslim (author of Sahih Muslim) or this Imam he replied this Imam. Allamah Zahabi would also say that this Imam possessed more knowledge in Hadeeth than Imam Muslim, Imam Tirmidhi and Imam Abu Dawood (who was his teacher). The Scholar and Commentator of the Quran would say narrating from his teachers that this Imam was the most knowledgeable in Egypt . The Imam would put on good clothing according to the Sunnah of Muhammad and would eat poultry everyday with nabeeth acting on the Sunnah so that he could worship Allah with ease. In fact it is narrated that the man would fast every other day which is classified in the Hadeeth as Saum-u-Daoodi (the fast of Daood).he would worship Allah continuously throughout the nights and teach Hadeeth throughout the day without forgetting that to fulfill the rights of his four wives and treat his slaves like children. The Imam would also perform Hajj nearly every year and would also take part in Jihad. He was a straight forward truthful man and nothing or none could stop him from saying the truth. At the same time he was an extremely beautiful man and the beauty of his face stayed up to his death. Muqallid or Mujtahid Imam al-Nasai was a follower of the Shafi Fiqh according to Allamah Subqi, Shah Waliullah, Shah Abdulaziz and many other scholars. The leader of the Ulamaa Allamah Anwar Shah Kashmiri is to the opinion that he was a Hanbali and this has also been stated by ibn Taymiyyah but the truth is that he was a Mujtahid more inclined towards the Hanbali Fiqh but many a time would differ from the Hanbali scholars. Children As mentioned before that the Imam had four wives but the historians only mention one son whose name is Abdul Kareem, one of the narrators of the Sunan of his father. Books The Imam also left behind many beautiful and beneficial works. Many of which unfortunately are not published but we can without any doubt conclude from what we have understood that his knowledge and excellence is no less than that of Imam Bukhari and Allamah ibn Hazm. These are a few of his works: • Sunan Al-Kubra. • Sunan Al-Sugra/Al-Mujtana/Al-Mujtaba. • Amul Yawmi Wallaylah. • Kitaby Dufai wal Matrookeen • Khasais Ali. • Al-Jurhu wa Taadeel. • Sunan Al-Nisai. His book known as Sunan Al-Nisai which is taught around the globe in every Islamic institute and which possesses a virtue of being one of the Sihah Sitah (the six books generally taught in hadith). In reality when the Imam had finished compiling Sunan Al-Kubra he presented to the governor of Ramalah so the governor asked him “is it all sahih (are all the narrators 100% authentic)?” he replied in the negative, thus the governor suggested and requested that he compiles another book and gathers in there Sahih Hadeeth. So then he did this and named his book Sunan Al-Sugra (the small Sunan) and Al-Mujtaba and Al-Mujtana (both mean carefully chosen) and this is the Sunan which we know as Sunan Al-Nasai.
  19. 19. Al-Nasai 17 In this book he follows the footsteps of Imam Muslim and Imam Bukhari. Overall most of the Ahadeeth are Sahih and where he narrates a weak narration he clearly clarifies the weakness. Thus it is 3rd in number in the Sihah Sittah after Bukhari and Muslim according to some Ulamaa because of its Sahih narrations. He clearly clarifies the hard words and brings different narrations for one particular Hadeeth as Imam Muslim does. Many Ulamaa have written commentaries on this work including Allamah Sindhi, Allamah Suyuti and Hadhrat Sheikhul Hadeeth Moulana Muhammad Zakaria . References [1] http:/ / www. uga. edu/ islam/ hadith. html [2] Al-Bastawī, ʻAbd al-ʻAlīm ʻAbd al-ʻAẓīm (1990). Al-Imām al-Jūzajānī wa-manhajuhu fi al-jarḥ wa-al-taʻdīl. Maktabat Dār al-Ṭaḥāwī. p. 9. Sunan Abu Dawood Sunan Abi Daawud (Arabic: ‫ )ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﺑﻲ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬is one of the Al-Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadiths), collected by Abu Dawood. Description Abu Dawood collected 500,000 hadith, but included only 4,800 in this collection. Sunnis regard this collection as fourth in strength of their Six major Hadith collections. It took him 20 years for collecting the ahadis. He made series of journeys to meet most of the foremost traditionists of his time and acquired from them the most reliable ahadis quoting sources through which it reached him. Since the author collected ahadis which no one ever assembled together, his sunan has been accepted as standard work by scholars from many parts of the Islamic world.[1]. External links English translation of Sunan Abu Dawood [2] References [1] Various Issues About Hadiths (http:/ / www. abc. se/ ~m9783/ n/ vih_e. html) [2] http:/ / www. cmje. org/ religious-texts/ hadith/ abudawud/
  20. 20. Abu Dawood 18 Abu Dawood Ḥadīth scholar Abu Dawud Sulayman ibn al-Ashʿath al-Azdi al-Sijistani Title Abū Dāwūd Born 202H 817-18CE Died 275H 889CE Ethnicity Persian Maddhab Hanbali Main interests ḥadīth and (fiqh) Works Sunan Abī Dāwūd Influences [1] Ibrahim ibn Yaqub al-Juzajani Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ali ibn al-Madini Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh Yahya ibn Main Influenced Tirmidhi Al-Nasai Abu Dawud Sulaymān ibn al-Ashʿath al-Azdi as-Sijistani (Persian/Arabic: ‫,)ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺚ ﺍﻷﺯﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺴﺘﺎﻧﻲ‬ commonly known as Abu Dawud, was a noted Persian collector of prophetic hadith, and compiled the third of the six "canonical" hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, the Sunan Abī Dāwūd. Biography He was born in Sistan, in east of Iran, (then Persia) and died in 889 in Basra. Widely traveled among scholars of hadith, he went to Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Hijaz, Khurasan, Nishapur, and Marv among other places in order to collect hadith. He was primarily interested in jurisprudence, and as a result the collection by him focuses largely on legal hadith. Out of about 500,000 hadith, he chose 4,800 for inclusion in his work. Works He wrote some 21 books in total. Some of the most prominent are: • Sunan Abī Dāwūd, containing some 4,800 hadith, is his principal work. They are usually numbered after the edition of Muhammad Muhyi al-Din `Abd al-Hamid (Cairo: Matba`at Mustafa Muhammad, 1354/1935), where 5,274 are distinguished. Some of his hadith are not sahih, but he claimed that all hadith listed were sahih unless specifically indicated otherwise; this has been controversial among Islamic scholars, since some, such as Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani believe some of the unmarked ones to be ḍaʿīf as well. • In another work, Kitab al-Marāsīl, he lists 600 mursal hadith which, after extensive background investigation, he concludes are nonetheless sahih. • Risālat Abī Dāwūd ilā Ahli Makkah; his letter to the inhabitants of Makkah describing his Sunan Abī Dāwūd.[2] References [1] Al-Bastawī, ʻAbd al-ʻAlīm ʻAbd al-ʻAẓīm (1990). Al-Imām al-Jūzajānī wa-manhajuhu fi al-jarḥ wa-al-taʻdīl. Maktabat Dār al-Ṭaḥāwī. p. 9. [2] Translation of the Risālah by Abū Dāwūd (http:/ / www. dkh-islam. com/ Content/ Article. aspx?ATID=71)
  21. 21. Sunan al-Tirmidhi 19 Sunan al-Tirmidhi Jāmi` al-Tirmidhi (Arabic: ‫ ,)ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‬popularly and mistakenly Sunan al-Tirmidhi (Arabic: ‫ ,)ﺳُـﻨَﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‬is one of the Al-Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadiths). It was collected by Abu Eesa Muhammad ibn Eesa al-Tirmidhi. Title Al-Kattani said: "The Jaami of al-Tirmithi is also named The Sunan, contrary to those thinking them to be two separate books, and [it is also named] Al-Jaami al-Kabeer.[1] Praise Al-Hafidh Abu Al-Fadl Al-Maqdisi said: "I heard Al-Imam Abu Ismail Abdullah bin Muhammad Al-Ansari in Harrah - when Abu Isa Al-Tirmidhi and his book was mentioned before him - saying: "To me, his book is more useful than the books of Al-Bukhari and that of Muslim. This is because only an expert can arrive at the benefit of the books of Al-Bukhari and Muslim, whereas in the case of the book of Abu Isa, every one of the people can attain its benefit."[2] Ibn Al-Athir said: "(It) is the best of books, having the most benefit, the best organization, with the least repetition. It contain what others do not; like mention of the different views, angles of argument, and clarifying the circumstances of the hadith as being sahih, daif, or gharib, as well as disparaging and endorsing remarks (regarding narrators). Authenticity Sunnis regard this collection as fifth in strength of their Six major Hadith collections.[3] Types of hadith included relating to their authenticity Of the four Sunan books, al-Tirmidhis alone is divided into four categories. The first, those hadith definitively classified as authentic, he is in agreement with Bukhari and Muslim. The second category are those hadith which conform to the standard of the three scholars, al-Tirmidhi, al-Nasai and Abu Dawood, at a level less than Bukhari and Muslim. Third, are the hadith collected due to a contradiction; in this case, he clarifies its flaw. And fourth, those hadith which some fiqh specialists have acted upon.[4] Examples of some Hadith found in Tirmidhi It is related by Abdullah bin Masud that Muhammad said, “A faithful believer neither attacks with his tongue nor utters a curse nor speaks ill of anyone nor calls names.” From Tirmidhi Commentaries • Aridhat al-Ahwathi bi Sharh Sunan al-Tirmidhi written Ibn al-Arabi d. 543H (1148-49 CE) • Sharh Jaami al-Tirmidhi of which only the last portion of remains - Sharh Ilal at-Tirmidhi - by Ibn Rajab • Commentary on al-Tirmidhis Hadith Collection by al-Zayn al-Iraqi • Footnotes, including explanation and verification, of approximately the first third of the Sunan by Ahmad Muhammad Shakir • al-`Urf al Shadhi Sharh Sunan Al-Tirmidhi by Anwar Shah Kashmiri • Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi Bi Sharh Jami` Al-Tirmidhi by Abd al-Rahman al-Mubarkafuri, ed. Abd al-Rahman Muhammad Uthman, 10 vols., Beirut .
  22. 22. Sunan al-Tirmidhi 20 References [1] Al-Risalah al-Mustatrafah, pg. 11. [2] Shurut al-Aimmah al-Sittah, by al-Maqdisi, pg. 101. [3] Haddad, G. F. "Various Issues About Hadiths" (http:/ / www. abc. se/ ~m9783/ n/ vih_e. html). . [4] Shurut al-Aimmah al-Sittah, by al-Maqdisi, pg. 92. External links • English Translation of Sunan Al Tirmidhi (http://ahadith.co.uk/sunanaltirmidhi.php) - View and Search
  23. 23. Tirmidhi 21 Tirmidhi Hadith scholar Abū ‛Īsá Muḥammad ibn ‛Īsá ibn Sawrah ibn Mūsá ibn al-Ḍaḥḥāk al-Sulamī al-Tirmidhī Title Tirmidhī Born 824 CE (209 AH) Termez, Persia Died 892 CE (13 Rajab 279 AH) Termez, Persia Ethnicity Persian Region Iranian muslim Scholar Maddhab Sunni Main interests hadith Works Sunan al-Tirmidhi or Jami at-Tirmidhi Influences [1] Ibrahim ibn Yaqub al-Juzajani Tirmidhī (Persian: ‫ ,)ﺗﺮﻣﺬﯼ‬also transliterated as Tirmizi, full name Abū ‛Īsá Muḥammad ibn ‛Īsá ibn Sawrah ibn Mūsá ibn al Ḍaḥḥāk al-Sulamī al-Sulamī al-Tirmidhī (824–892, i.e. 209 AH – 13 Rajab 279 AH) or 8 October 892 CE was a Persian[2][3] collector of hadith (sayings of the Prophet Muhammad) Biography He wrote al-Jāmi‛ al-ṣaḥīḥ, popularly called Sunan al-Tirmidhi, one of the six canonical hadith compilations used in Sunni Islam, as well as Shamāil Muḥammadiyyah, known popularly as "Shamaail Tirmidhi", a collection of ahadith on [[Muhammad] SAAW]. Tirmidhi was born and died in Bâgh (Persian meaning Garden), a suburb of Termez, Greater Khorasan (now in Uzbekistan), to a family of the widespread Banū Sulaym tribe. Starting at the age of twenty, he travelled widely, to Kufa, Basra and the Hijaz, seeking out knowledge from, among others, Qutaybah ibn Sa‛id, Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim Nishapuri and Abu Dawud. Tirmidhī was blind in the last two years of his life, said to have been the consequence of his weeping over the death of Bukhārī. Tirmidhi is buried in Sherobod, 60 kilometers north of Termez. He is locally known as Isa Termezi or Termez Baba "Father of Termez". References [1] Al-Bastawī, ʻAbd al-ʻAlīm ʻAbd al-ʻAẓīm (1990). Al-Imām al-Jūzajānī wa-manhajuhu fi al-jarḥ wa-al-taʻdīl. Maktabat Dār al-Ṭaḥāwī. p. 9. [2] Karen G. Ruffle, Gender, Sainthood, & Everyday Practice in South Asian Shiism, (University of North Carolina Press, 2011), 40. [3] The Faith of Islam By Edward SellThe Faith of Islam By Edward Sell (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=DNVpRr-BGu8C& pg=PA96& dq=sahih+ tirmidhi+ born+ khurasan#v=onepage& q=sahih tirmidhi born khurasan& f=false). . Retrieved 2010-09-11. External links • Biography of Imam al-Tirmidhi at Sunnah.org (http://www.sunnah.org/history/Scholars/imam_tirmidhi.htm) • Biography of al-Tirmidhee at theclearpath.com (http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20080214101424/http:// www.theclearpath.com/viewtopic.php?t=100)
  24. 24. Sunan ibn Majah 22 Sunan ibn Majah Sunan Ibn Mājah (Arabic: ‫ )ﺳُﻨﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ‬is one of the Al-Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadiths), collected by Ibn Mājah. Description It contains over 4,000 aḥādīth in 32 books (kutub) divided into 1,500 chapters (abwāb). About 20 of the traditions it contains were later declared to be forged; such as those dealing with the merits of individuals, tribes or towns, including Ibn Mājahs home town of Qazwin. Views Sunni regard this collection as sixth in strength of their Six major Hadith collections [1]. Nonetheless this position was not settled until the 14th century or later. Scholars such as al-Nawawi (d. 676/1277) and Ibn Khaldun (d. 808/1405) excluded the Sunan from the generally accepted books; others replaced it with either the Muwaṭṭaʾ of Imām Mālik or with the Sunan ad-Dārimī. References [1] Gibril, Haddad (April 4, 2003), Various Issues About Hadiths (http:/ / www. abc. se/ ~m9783/ n/ vih_e. html), living ISLAM – Islamic Tradition, External links • Sunan ibn Majah (http://ahadith.co.uk/ibnmajah.php) - English Translation of Sunan ibn Majah
  25. 25. Ibn Majah 23 Ibn Majah Muslim scholar Abū ʻAbdillāh Muḥammad ibn Yazīd Ibn Mājah al-Rabʻī al-Qazwīnī Title Ibn Mājah Born 824 CE Died 887 or 889 Ethnicity Persian Works Sunan ibn Mājah, Kitāb at-Tafsīr and Kitāb at-Tārīkh Abū ʻAbdillāh Muḥammad ibn Yazīd Ibn Mājah al-Rabʻī al-Qazwīnī (Arabic: ‫ﺍﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ‬ ‫ 428( ,)ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺰﻭﻳﻨﻲ‬CE/209 AM—887/273) commonly known as Ibn Mājah, was a medieval scholar of hadith. He compiled the last of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, Sunan Ibn Mājah.[1] Biography Ibn Mājah was born in Qazwin, the modern-day Iranian province of Qazvin, in 824 CE/209 AH[1] to a family who were clients (mawla) of the Rabīʻah tribe.[2] Mājah was the nickname of his father, and not that of his grandfather nor was it his mothers name, contrary to those claiming this. The hāʼ at the end is un-voweled whether in stopping upon its pronunciation or continuing because it a non-Arabic name.[2] He left his hometown to travel the Islamic world visiting Iraq, Makkah, the Levant and Egypt. He studied under Abū Bakr ibn Abī Shaybah (through whom came over a quarter of al-Sunan), Muḥammad ibn ʻAbdillāh ibn A map of present-day Iran showing the Numayr, Jubārah ibn al-Mughallis, Ibrāhīm ibn al-Mundhir al-Ḥizāmī, location of Qazwin, the place of birth and ʻAbdullāh ibn Muʻāwiyah, Hishām ibn ʻAmmār, Muḥammad ibn Rumḥ, death of Ibn Mājah Dāwūd ibn Rashīd and others from their era. Abū Yaʻlā al-Khalīlī praised Ibn Mājah as "reliable (thiqah), prominent, agreed upon, a religious authority, possessing knowledge and the capability to memorize."[1] According to al-Dhahabī, Ibn Mājah died on approximately February 19, 887 CE/with eight days remaining of the month of Ramadan, 273 AH,[1] or, according to al-Kattānī, in either 887/273 or 889/275.[2] He died in Qazwin.[2]
  26. 26. Ibn Majah 24 Works Al-Dhahabī mentioned the following of Ibn Mājahs works:[1] • Sunan Ibn Mājah: one of the six canonical collections of hadith • Kitāb al-Tafsīr: a book of Quran exegesis • Kitāb al-Tārīkh: a book of history or, more likely, a listing of hadith transmitters The Sunan The Sunan consists of 1,500 chapters and about 4,000 hadith.[1] Upon completing it, he read it to Abū Zurʻah, a hadith authority of his time, who commented, "I think that were people to get their hands on this, the other collections, or most of them, would be rendered obsolete."[1] References [1] al-Dhahabi, Muhammad ibn Ahmad (1957). al-Mu`allimi. ed (in Arabic). Tadhkirat al-Huffaz. 2. Hyderabad: Da`irat al-Ma`arif al-`Uthmaniyyah. pp. 636. [2] al-Kattani, Muhammah ibn Ja`far (2007). Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Kattani. ed (in Arabic). al-Risalah al-Mustatrafah (seventh ed.). Beirut: Dar al-Bashair al-Islamiyyah. pp. 12. Further reading • Suhaib Hasan Abdul Ghaffar, Criticism of Hadith among Muslims with reference to Sunan Ibn Maja, Presidency of Islamic Research, IFTA and Propagation: Riyadh 1984. ISBN 0-907461-56-5 • Robson, James. The Transmission of Ibn Majahs "Sunan", Journal of Semitic studies 3 (1958): 129–41. External links • Sunan Ibn Majah (http://ahadith.co.uk/ibnmajah.php) - Searchable Sunan Ibn Majah Online • Biography of Imam Ibn Maajah at theclearpath.com (http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20080306081707/ http://www.theclearpath.com/viewtopic.php?t=71) • (French) Biography of Imam Ibn Mâjah by at-tawhid.net (http://www.at-tawhid.net/ article-abu-abdi-llah-ibn-majah-al-qazwini-m-273-103181808.html)
  27. 27. Muwatta Imam Malik 25 Muwatta Imam Malik The Muwaṭṭaʾ (Arabic: ‫ )ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻃﺄ‬is the first written collection of hadith comprising the subjects of Muslim law, compiled and edited by the Imam, Malik ibn Anas.[1] Maliks best-known work, Al-Muwatta was the first legal work to incorporate and join hadith and fiqh together. The work was received with wide praise. Abu Bakr ibn al-`Arabi said: "The Muwatta’ is the first foundation and the core, while al-Bukhari’s book is the second foundation in this respect. Upon these two all the rest have built, such as Muslim and al-Tirmidhi." Description It is considered to be from the earliest extant collections of hadith that form the basis of Islamic jurisprudence alongside the Quran.[2] Nonetheless, is not merely a collection of hadith; many of the legal precepts it contains are based not on hadith at all. The book covers rituals, rites, customs, traditions, norms and laws of the time of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It is reported that Imam Malik selected only about 1% of authentic Ahadith for inclusion into the Muwatta, from the corpus of 100,000 narrations available to him. Thus, the book has been compiled with great diligence and meticulousness. [3] History Due to increase in juristic differences, the Caliph of the time, Abū Ja‘far Mansūr, requested Imam Malik to produce a standard book that could be promulgated as law in the country. The Imam refused this in 148 AH, but when the Caliph again came to the Hijaz in 163 AH, he was more forceful and said: “O Abū ‘Abd Allāh, take up the reign of the discipline of fiqh in your hands. Compile your understanding of every issue in different chapters for a systematic book free from the extremism of ‘Abd Allāh b. ‘Umar, concessions and accommodations of ‘Abd Allāh b. ‘Abbās and unique views of ‘Abd Allāh b. Mas‘ūd. Your work should exemplify the following principle of the Prophet: “The best issues are those which are balanced.” It should be a compendium of the agreed upon views of the Companions and the elder imāms on the religious and legal issues. Once you have compiled such a work then we would be able to unite the Muslims in following the single fiqh worked by you. We would then promulgate it in the entire Muslim state. We would order that no body acts contrary to it.” [4] Historical reports attest that another ‘Abbāsī caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd too expressed similar wishes before Imām Mālik who remained unmoved. He, however, compiled Muwattā, keeping before himself the target of removing the juristic differences between the scholars. Examples on certain situations and how they were solved are an important factor of the texts. A famous example: Muwatta of Malik, Bk. 30, Sect. 2, No. 13 "Yahya related to me from Malik that Abdullah ibn Dinar said, "A man came to Abdullah ibn Umar when I was with him at the place where judgments were given and asked him about the suckling of an older person. Abdullah ibn Umar replied, A man came to Umar ibn al-Khattab and said, I have a slave-girl and I used to have intercourse with her. My wife went to her and suckled her. When I went to the girl, my wife told me to watch out, because she had suckled her Umar told him to beat his wife and to go to his slave-girl because kinship by suckling was only by the suckling of the young."
  28. 28. Muwatta Imam Malik 26 Authenticity Imam Malik composed the Muwatta over a period of forty years to represent the "well-trodden path" of the people of Medina. Its name also means that it is the book that is "many times agreed upon"- about whose contents the people of Medina were unanimously agreed. Its high standing is such that people of every school of fiqh and all of the imams of hadith scholarship agree upon its authenticity. The Muslim Jurist, Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i famously said, "There is not on the face of the earth a book – after the Book of Allah – which is more authentic than the book of Malik."[5] Over one thousand disciples of the Imām have transmitted this work from him. This has resulted in differences in the text in various instances. There are thirty known versions of the work of which the most famous is the one transmitted by Yahyā b. Yahyā Laythī Andalusī. Composition of al-Muwatta Al-Muwatta consists of approximately 1,720 hadith divided amongst the following hadith terminology as follows:[2] • 600 marfu` hadith • 613 mawquf hadith • 285 maqtu hadith • 222 mursal hadiths Distinguishing characteristics Amin Ahsan Islahi has listed several distinguishing characteristics of the Muwatta[6]: 1. Its briefness (in size) yet comprehensiveness (in coverage) 2. Imam Malik does not accept any marfū‘ hadīth (ascribed to the Prophet) if it is not verbatim transmission of the words of the Prophet (he even gave consideration to letters, prepositions and particles like wāw, tā, bā etc. in them) 3. No acceptance of Hadith from any innovator - this is a stricter standard than many other muhaddithun 4. Highly literary form of the classical Arabic. This helps readers develop the ability to understand the language of the prophetic traditions. Commentaries on Al-Muwatta Due to the importance of the Al-Muwatta to Muslims it has often been accompanied by commentaries, mostly but not exclusively by followers of the Maliki school. • Al Tamhid by Yusuf ibn abd al-Barr is organized according to the narrators which Malik narrates from, and includes extensive biographical information about each narrator in the chain. • al-Istidhkar, also by Ibn Abd al-Barr is more of a legal exegesis on the hadith contained in the book than a critical hadith study, as was the case with the former. It is said that the Istidhkar was written after the Tamhid, as Ibn Abd al Barr himself alludes to in the introduction. However, through close examination it is apparent that the author made revisions to both after their completion due to the cross referencing found in both. • The explanation of Al-Suyuti, who although a follower of the Shafi`i school, wrote a small commentary to the Al-Muwatta. • Al-Musaffa Sharh al-Muwatta, Shah Wali Allah Dahlawi (al-Musaffa Sharh al-Muwatta in Persian). Shah Waliullah attached great importance to the Muwatta and penned another commentary in Urdu too. • Al-Muntaqâ sharh al-Muwatta of Abu al-Walid al-Baji, the Andalusian Mâlikî Qâdî, (Abû al-Walîd Sulaymân ibn Khalaf al-Bâjî, al-Muntaqâ sharh Muwatta’ Mâlik, edited by Muhammad ‘Abd al-Qâdir Ahmad ‘Atâ, Beirut: Dâr al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1420/1999) Sharh al-Muwatta has two versions: al-Istifa and its abridgment
  29. 29. Muwatta Imam Malik 27 al-Muntaqa.[7] • Awjāz-ul-Masālik ilá Muwattā Imām Mālik is a Deobandi commentary written by Muhammad Zakariya al-Kandahlawi. He began the work in 1927 in Medina while only 29 years old. • Sharh Muwatta al-Malik by Muhammad al-Zurqani. It is considered to be based on three other commentaries of the Muwatta; the Tamhid and the Istidhkar of Yusuf ibn Abd al Barr, as well as the Al-Muntaqa of Abu al-Walid al-Baji. • Al-Imla fi Sharh al-Muwatta in 1,000 folios, by Ibn Hazm.[8] • Sharh Minhaaj by Subki.[9] • Sharh Muwatta by Ali al-Qari References [1] al-Kattani, Muhammad ibn Ja`far (2007). Muhammad al-Muntasir al-Kattani. ed (in Arabic). al-Risalah al-Mustatrafah (seventh ed.). Beirut: Dar al-Bashair al-Islamiyyah. pp. 9, 41. [2] "The Hadith for Beginners", Dr. Muhammad Zubayr Siddiqi, 1961 (2006 reprint), Goodword Books [3] Mabadi Tadabbur-i-Hadith, Amin Ahsan Islahi [4] Ibrāhīm b. ‘Alī b. Muhammad b. Farhūn al-Ya‘murī al-Mālikī, al-Dībāj al-Madhhab fī Ma‘rifah A‘yān ‘Ulamā’ al-Madhhab, 1st ed., vol. 1 (Beirut: Dār al-Nashr, Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1996), 25. [5] Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr, al-Tamhīd limā fī al-muwattā min al-ma‘ānī wa al-asānīd, vol. 1 (Morocco: Dār al-Nashr, 1387 AH), 76. [6] Mabadi Tadabbur-i-Hadith, Amin Ahsan Islahi [7] "Abu al-Walid al-Baji" (http:/ / www. sunnah. org/ history/ Scholars/ al-baji. htm). Sunnah.org. . Retrieved 2010-05-11. [8] "Ibn Hazm" (http:/ / www. sunnah. org/ history/ Innovators/ ibn_hazm. htm). Sunnah.org. . Retrieved 2010-05-11. [9] "Al-Albani Unveiled" (http:/ / www. masud. co. uk/ ISLAM/ misc/ 8or20. htm). Masud.co.uk. . Retrieved 2010-05-11. External links • Al-Muwatta (http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/muwatta/) online from the Compendium of Muslim Texts • Introduction to the Muwatta’ of Imam Maalik (http://islamqa.com/index.php?ref=81160&ln=eng)
  30. 30. Malik ibn Anas 28 Malik ibn Anas Islamic scholar Mālik ibn Anas Title Imam of the Abode of Emigration Born 711 CE/93 AH Medina Died 795 CE/179 AH (aged 83-84) Medina Ethnicity Arab Region Saudi Arabia Maddhab Sunnah Main interests Hadith, Fiqh Notable ideas Maliki madhhab Works Al-Muwatta, Mudawana Influences • Imam Jaʿfar al-Sādiq • Abu Hanifa • Abu Suhail an-Nafi • Hisham ibn Urwah • Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri Influenced Al-Shafi`i Mālik ibn Anas ibn Mālik ibn Abī Āmir al-Asbahī (Arabic ‫( )ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‬c. 711 – 795) (93 AH – 179 AH ) is known as "Imam Malik," the "Sheikh of Islam", the "Proof of the Community," and "Imam of the Abode of Emigration." [1] He was one of the most highly respected scholars of fiqh in Sunni Islam. Imam Shafi`i, who was one of Maliks students for nine years and a scholarly giant in his own right, stated, "when scholars are mentioned, Malik is the star."[2] The Maliki Madhab, named after Malik, is one of the four schools of jurisprudence that are followed by Sunni Muslims to this day. Biography His full name was Abu Abdullah Mālik ibn Anas ibn Mālik Ibn Abī Āmir Ibn Amr Ibnul-Hārith Ibn Ghaimān Ibn Khuthail Ibn Amr Ibnul-Haarith. Malik was born the son of Anas ibn Malik (not the Sahabi) and Aaliyah bint Shurayk al-Azdiyya in Medina circa 711. His family was originally from the al-Asbahi tribe of Yemen, but his great grandfather Abu Amir relocated the family to Medina after converting to Islam in the second year after hijra (623). According to Al-Muwatta, he was tall, heavyset, imposing of stature, very fair, with white hair and beard but bald, with a huge beard and blue eyes.[1] Teachers Living in Medina gave Malik access to some of the most learned minds of early Islam. He memorized the Quran in his youth, learning recitation from Imam Abu Suhail Nafi ibn Abd ar-Rahman, from whom he also received his Sanad, or certification and permission to teach others. He studied under various famed scholars including Hisham ibn Urwah, Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, and—along with Imam Abu Hanifa, the founder of the Hanafi Sunni Madhhab-- and under the household of the prophets lineage, Imam Jafar al Sadiq[3] This fact may explain the mutual respect and relative peace that has often existed between the Hanafi and Maliki Sunnis, on one hand, and the Shias on the other.
  31. 31. Malik ibn Anas 29 Golden Chain of Narration Imam Maliks chain of narrators was considered the most authentic and called Silsilat ul-Zhahab or "The Golden Chain of Narrators" by notable hadith scholars including Imam Bukhari.[4] The Golden Chain of narration (i.e., that considered by the scholars of Hadith to be the most authentic) consists of Malik, who narrated from Nafi, who narrated from ibn Umar, who narrated from Muhammad. Views Reluctance in rendering religious verdicts Malik took advantage of the fact that he was contemporary to many of the Tabi‘in to formulate his school of thought, which gave precedence to the acts of the people of Medina over the Hadith if they were in conflict. This was done due to the sizeable amount of scholars, and companions of Muhammad residing in the city where Maliks reputation grew immensely. Malik nevertheless showed hesitancy in issuing religious verdicts explaining in one of his more famous statements that: The shield of the scholar is, I do not know, so if he neglects it, his statement is attacked.[5] Textualist interpretation of hadith on Gods attributes Malik adhered to a textual interpretation of hadith in relation to Gods attributes. Al-Daraqutni relates that Malik was asked about the attributes of Allah, to which Malik answered, "Pass them on as they come."[6] Furthermore, Qadi Iyad relates that Malik was asked whether people would be looking toward Allah given the narration, "And some faces shall be shining and radiant upon that day, looking at their Lord." Malik ensuingly answered, "Yes, with these two eyes of his," though his student replied, "there are a people who say he will not be looking at Allah, that looking means a reward" to which Malik answered, "They lied, rather they will look at Allah." Opposition to bidah or innovation in beliefs Malik was vehemently opposed to bidah and even directed others not to extend the Islamic greeting of Salam to the people of bidah, stating, "how evil are the People of Innuendo, we do not give them felicitations."[7] Malik explained that "he who establishes an innovation in Islam regarding it as something good, has claimed that Muhammad has betrayed his trust to deliver the message as God says, this day have I perfected for you your religion. And whatsoever was not part of the religion then, is not part of the religion today."[8] Prohibiting Kalam Malik sternly prohibited theological rhetoric and philosophical speech, frequently referred to as kalam.[9] Malik believed that Kalam was rooted in heretical doctrines taken up and followed by controversial theologians such as Jahm bin Safwan.[10] When asked about an individual who delved into Kalam, Malik answered, "He establishes his innuendo with kalaam, and if kalaam had been knowledge, the Companions and the tabiin would have spoken about it, just as they spoke about the rules and regulations.[11]
  32. 32. Malik ibn Anas 30 Death Imam Malik died at the age of 86 in Medina in 795 and is buried in the famous Jannat ul-Baqi cemetery across from the Masjid al Nabawi. Maliks last words were related by one Ismail Ibn Abi Uways who said, "Malik became sick, so I asked some of our people about what he said at the time of his death. They said, `He recited the shahadah (testification of faith), then he recited: Their affair is for Allah, before and after.[12] Works Imam Malik wrote Al-Muwatta, "The Approved," which was said to have been regarded by Imam Shafii to be the soundest book on Earth after the Quran. • Al-Muwatta • Al-Mudawwana al-Kubra Quotes "The reform of the later generations of this Ummah will take place in the same way as reformed its earlier generations." taken from Islahi Khutbat (Discourse on Islamic Way of Life) References [1] "Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn `Amr, al-Imam, Abu `Abd Allah al-Humyari al-Asbahi al-Madani" (http:/ / www. sunnah. org/ publication/ khulafa_rashideen/ malik. htm). Sunnah.org. . Retrieved 2010-04-10. [2] "The Life and Times of Malik ibn Anas" (http:/ / www. islaam. com/ Article. aspx?id=530). Islaam.Com. . Retrieved 2010-04-10. [3] "– Topics" (http:/ / muslimheritage. com/ topics/ default. cfm?ArticleID=471). Muslimheritage.com. 2005-01-04. . Retrieved 2010-04-10. [4] ""Imaam Maalik ibn Anas" by Hassan Ahmad, ‘Al Jumuah’ Magazine Volume 11 – Issue 9" (http:/ / www. sunnahonline. com/ ilm/ seerah/ 0041. htm). Sunnahonline.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-10. [5] Al-Intiqaa, pg. 38 [6] as-Siffat, pg.75 [7] al-Ibaanah of ibn Battah, no.441 [8] al-Itisaam [9] Dhammul-Kalaam (qaaf/173/alif) [10] Jaami Bayaanul-Ilm wa Fadlihi (p. 415) [11] Dhammul-Kalaam (qaaf/173/baa) [12] Quran 30:4 External links • Life of Imam Malik (http://www.haqislam.org/imam-malik/) • Biography of Imam Malik (http://www.momin.ca/biographies/Imaam Malik.htm) • A comprehensive Biography of Imam Malik (http://www.sunnah.org/publication/khulafa_rashideen/malik. htm) • Al-Muwatta of Imam Malik (http://www.sunnipath.com/library/Hadith/H0001P0000.aspx) • Muslims of Norwich (http://www.muslimsofnorwich.org.uk) A Maliki community • (French) The lifestyle of Imâm Mâlik Ibn Anas (at-tawhid.net) (http://www.at-tawhid.net/ article-le-mode-de-vie-de-l-imam-malik-ibn-anas-abu-zahra-104634686.html)
  33. 33. Sunan al-Darimi 31 Sunan al-Darimi Sunan al-Darimi (Arabic: ‫ )ﺳﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ‬or Musnad al-Darimi by `Abd Allah ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-Darimi (181H–255H) is a hadith collection considered by Sunnis to be among the prominent nine collections: the Al-Kutub al-Sittah, Al-Muwatta and the Musnad of Imam Ahmad. Despite its title as a Musnad, it is not arranged by narrator in the manner of other Musnads, such as that of Tayalisi or Ibn Hanbal. It is arranged by subject matter in the manner of a book of Sunan, like the Sunan Ibn Majah. Conveyance Darimi transmitted these hadiths to `Isa ibn `Umar al-Samarqandi; date of death unknown, but presumably after 293 AH. Thereafter it passed to: • `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hamawiya al-Sarkhasi (293–381 AH) • `Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Muzaffar al-Dawudi "Jamal al-Islam" (374–467 AH) • Abul-Waqt `Abd al-Awwal ibn `Isa ibn Shu`ayb al-Sijizzi (458–553 AH) Published editions • Edited by Husayn Salim Asad, Dar al-Maghni, 1420 AH / 2000 CE, p. 151-3 Al-Darimi Name & Lineage Abu Muhammad Abdullah Bin Abdur Rahman Bin Fadhl Bin Bahraan Bin Abdus Samad At Tamimi Ad Darimi As Samarqandi, commonly known as Imam Darimi, came from the family tribe of Banu Darim Bin Maalik Bin Hanzalah Bin Zaid Bin Manah Bin Tamim.[1] He is also known as Imam Tamimi, in relation to Tamim Bin Murrah, who was amongst the ancestor of Banu Darim.[2] Still again, he is called Imam Samarqandi, the name deriving from the city of Samarqand, which produced many Islamic scholars, like himself. Birth Imam Darimi was born on 181 A.H., as is admitted by him ‘I was born on the same year in which Imam Abdullah Bin Mubarak had died. And Abdullah Bin Mubarak died in 181 A.H.’.[3] His Knowledge & Travels The biographers of Imam Darimi have not written much in details of his acquiring knowledge in the early stages of his life, and the same is for the details of his extensive travels for knowledge. Though it is mentioned that he was amongst the ones who frequently traveled to many places for knowledge and collecting of Aahadith (Plural of Hadith)! He was a great memorizer, trusted, truthful, pious, righteous, orderly and perfecting person.
  34. 34. Al-Darimi 32 His Teachers Imam Darimi was a student of many an expert scholar of his time, in Hadith and Fiqh. He had a great number of teachers. His Students Amongst his students were Imam Muslim Bin Al Hajjaj, Imam Abu Dawud Sulaiman, Imam Muhammad Bin Eesa Tirmizi, Imam Abdullah Bin Ahmad Bin Hanbal, and many others. His Works As Sunan ud Darimi - Some from among his collections of the Prophet Muhammads Aahadith. At Tafsir ud Darimi - Imam Zahbi mentioned the work in Seer Aalaam un Nubalaa[4] though its lost now, unless discovered! Al Jaamie - Khateeb Al Baghdadi has mentioned this in his Tarikh ul Baghdad.[5] Death The Imam died in 255 A.H. 8th in the month of Zul Hijjah, the day of Tarweeyah, after the Asr Prayer. He was buried on the Friday of the Day of Arafah. References [1] (Lubbul Lubaab – Volume 1 – Page 308) [2] (Al Ansaab – Volume 1 – Page 478) [3] (Tahzibul Kamaal – Volume 15 – Page 216) [4] (Seer Aalaam un Nubalaa - Volume 12 - Page 228) [5] (Tarikh ul Baghdad - Volume 10 - Page 29)
  35. 35. Sahih al-Bukhari 33 Sahih al-Bukhari Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (Arabic: ‫ ,)ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬is one of the Al-Kutub Al-Sittah (six major hadiths) of sunni Islam. These prophetic traditions, or hadith, were collected by the Persian Muslim scholar Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari, after being transmitted orally for generations. Sunni Muslims view this as one of the three most trusted collections of hadith along with Sahih Muslim and al-Muwatta [1]. In some circles, it is considered the most authentic book after the Quran.[2][3] The Arabic word sahih translates as authentic or correct.[4] Actual title The actual title of the book commonly referred to as Sahih al-Bukhari, according to Ibn al-Salah, is: al-Jaami’ al-Sahih al-Musnad al-Mukhtasar min Umur Rasool Allah wa sunanihi wa Ayyamihi. A word for word translation is: The Abridged Collection of Authentic Hadith with Connected Chains regarding Matters Pertaining to the Prophet, His practices and His Times.[3] Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani mentioned the same title replacing the word umur, matters, with hadith.[5] Overview Al-Bukhari traveled widely throughout the Abbasid empire from the age of 16, collecting those traditions he thought trustworthy. It is said that al-Bukhari collected over 300,000 hadith and included only 2,602 traditions in his Sahih.[6] At the time when Bukhari saw [the earlier] works and conveyed them, he found them, in their presentation, combining between what would be considered sahih and hasan and that many of them included da’if hadith. This aroused his interest in compiling hadith whose authenticity was beyond doubt. What further strengthened his resolve was something his teacher, Ishaq ibn Ibrahim al-Hanthalee – better known as Ibn Rahoyah – had said. Muhammad ibn Ismaa’eel al-Bukhari said, “We were with Ishaq ibn Rahoyah who said, ‘If only you would compile a book of only authentic narrations of the Prophet.’ This suggestion remained in my heart so I began compiling the Sahih.” Bukhari also said, “I saw the Prophet in a dream and it was as if I was standing in front of him. In my hand was a fan with which I was protecting him. I asked some dream interpreters, who said to me, ‘You will protect him from lies.’ This is what compelled me to produce the Sahih.”[7] The book covers almost all aspects of life in providing proper guidance of Islam such as the method of performing prayers and other actions of worship directly from the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Bukhari finished his work around 846, and spent the last twenty-four years of his life visiting other cities and scholars, teaching the hadith he had collected. In every city that he visited, thousands of people would gather in the main mosque to listen to him recite traditions. In reply to Western academic doubts as to the actual date and authorship of the book that bears his name, scholars point out that notable hadith scholars of that time, such as Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (855 CE/241 AH), Ibn Maīn (847 CE/233 AH), and Ibn Madīni (848 CE/234 AH), accepted the authenticity of his book[8] and that the collections immediate fame makes it unlikely that it could have been revised after the authors death without historical record. During this period of twenty-four years, Bukhari made minor revisions to his book, notably the chapter headings. Each version is named by its narrator. According to Ibn Hajar Asqalani in his book Nukat, the number of hadiths in all versions is the same. The most famous one today is the version narrated by al-Firabri (d. 932 CE/320 AH), a trusted student of Bukhari. Khatib al-Baghdadi in his book History of Baghdad quoted Firabri as saying: "About seventy thousand people heard Sahih Bukhari with me". Firabri is not the only transmitter of Sahih Bukhari. There were many others that narrated that book to later generations, such as Ibrahim ibn Maqal (d. 907 CE/295 AH), Hammad ibn Shaker (d. 923 CE/311 AH), Mansur Burduzi (d. 931 CE/319 AH) and Husain Mahamili (d. 941 CE/330 AH). There are many books that noted differences between these versions, the best known being Fath al-Bari.

×