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    Report of guanica and yunque (1) Report of guanica and yunque (1) Document Transcript

    • University of Puerto Rico at Cayey Rise Program Dr. Edwin Vazquez Report on El Yunque National Rainforest and The Guánica Dry Forest Group #2 BIOL 3009 Session 1300 July 10, 20111|Page
    • IndexIntroduction 3Discussion of adaptations of flora - El Yunque National Rainforest 4 - Guánica Dry Forest 7Methodology - El Yunque National Rainforest 9 - Guánica Dry Forest 9Results - Individual results for El Yunque National 11 Rainforest - Grouped results for El Yunque National 12 Rainforest - Individual results for Guánica Dry Forest 14 - Grouped results for Guánica Dry Forest 16Results analysis (graphics) - Individual graphics for El Yunque National 23 Rainforest - Grouped graphics for El Yunque National 26 Rainforest - Individual graphics for Guánica Dry Forest 28 - Grouped graphics for Guánica Dry Forest 30Conclusion 352|Page
    • Discussion 36Appendix 38Credits 403|Page
    • Introduction Living in an island relatively small can have a different perspective about what aredistances. In Puerto Rico running from side to side, for example from Fajardo to Mayaguez,can last about 4 hours driving a car. It might be raining in the north while in the south mightbe warm. Because of this we have evidence that a small region can have a diversity ofecosystems. To learn more about our natural resources, we entered two Puerto Ricanecosystems that differ from many essential features: El Yunque National Rainforest andGuanica Dry Forest. While visiting those places, several tests were made. In the TropicalRainforest, the soil was the matter studied, while in the dry forest Floral ecosystem. Thisreport discusses diferences between the adaptations of the plants in each bioma, exposes allthe data taken, and also offers several graphics.4|Page
    • Discussion: Adaptations of flora in El Yunque National Rainforest Since El Yunque is a tropical forest, there are many environmental factors that affectthe growth and development of flora in this area, such as the climate, the temperature, theminerals in the soil, the fauna, the distribution of water, between others. Because of theeffect of these factors, plants have made several noticeable adaptations to survive in thisecosystem. Ever since we got on our first stop in El Yunque, we were able to see some of thoseadaptations. One of them was the symbiotic relationship of the Cadam’s tree roots with thefungal microorganism Myccorrhiza so that they would both help each other to survive byinterchanging food and protection by the means of resistance to toxicity. Other adaptationswere the Caoba’s tree resistance to mite, the ability of Yagrumo’s stem to float andproliferate, the Bamboo’s ability to dominate a specific area by modifying the soil, capturingall the sunlight and, therefore, keeping other plants species from growing beneath them. Wealso saw an interesting adaptation of bromeliad, which was a type of epiphyte, and which hada dimorphism adaptation, meaning that it had 2 ways of growing in the same tree accordingto the stage of growth on which it was. These 2 ways of growth were the phototropic growth,which is in direction to sunlight, and the geotropic growth, which is in direction to the soil. Wewere also able to see the special adjustment of the big trees’ roots to the unstable and rocky-bottomed soil of the forest by growing perpendicular to the soil. Also on the big trees, wecould see that their leaves were adapted to the weather by being big and wide, a trait thatallows them to eliminate excess water and to capture more sunlight for photosynthesis. Interms of the Sierra Palms, they have a special stabilizing root system which allows them tolive in unstable and saturated soils. We were also able to observe one of the most amazing5|Page
    • adaptations of plants in the forest: the adventitious roots, which are roots that do not form inthe radical of the embryo, but on any other part of the plant, mostly in the stems. This allowsthe plant to climb or to extend on the soil’s surface, reproducing more easily and reaching forsunlight to complete photosynthesis. In conclusion, the flora of El Yunque has evolved very specifically to reach the survivalrequirements of this ecosystem.6|Page
    • Discussion: Adaptations of flora in Guánica Dry Forest The extreme conditions in Guánica Dry Forest limit greatly the growth of flora in thisecosystem. The scarceness of water, the high salt concentration, the action of strong winds,the recurrent fires, and the presence of so few nutrients in the soil are some of the factorsthat restrict the normal development of plants in this area and that promote the improvementof adaptations in the plants. Since the beginning of our tour in the dry forest, we started observing that the plants ofthe area were very different from those of El Yunque or even from Cayey, so we inferred thatthey had special adaptations to survive in this extreme weather. One of the first plants thatwe found was the mangrove, which leaves were very little, as most of the other tree’s leavesin the dry forest. This adaptation allows them to retain water by avoiding transpiration. Themangrove also has a special adaptation to secrete the salt of his inside by means of hisleaves, as if it sweated, and therefore, this allows it to maintain a balance on saltconcentration and to not dehydrate. The most evident adapted plants of this area are thesucculents and cactus which make a water and nutrient reserve inside their leaves, theirthorns and their stems. This helps them to survive the drought times and to preserve theirenergy sources safely. Due to the dryness, the salt concentration and the high temperatureof the area, another obvious adaptation arises on the height of most of the trees, which keepa short to medium height in order to preserve their nutrients and energy. In conclusion, all of these vegetation species vary in their adaptations, but they all usethem to survive in the hostile conditions of this extraordinaire environment.7|Page
    • In this journey Yunque wanted to accomplish many things but the mostcomprehensive besides going to take soil samples, pH, humidity, altitude, and etc. Was toreach the top of this.8|Page
    • MethodologyI. Methodology for Soil analysis of El Yunque National Rainforest: 1. Go to El Yunque National Rainforest . 2. Make eight stops and take the coordinates and altitude with the help of a GPS. 3. In those stops messure the: a. Soil’s humedity b. Soil’s pH c. Temperature d. Wind’s velocity 4. A sample of soil can be taken in each stop so then the presence of fages could be analyzed. In the test tube write details like humidity, pH, temperature, and wind’s velocityII. Methodology for Guánica Dry Forest: A. Line Transect Method: 1. Lay a measure tape along the ground in a straight line between two poles as a guide to a sampling method used to measure the distribution of organisms (from 0 to 50 meters). 2. Record the organisms that are actually touching the line. B. Belt transect: 1. Using a quadrant, measure the percents of abiotic and biotic factors inside the box. 2. Other group will examine the effect of salt spray on the plant community progressing from the coast line to the forested areas9|Page
    • 3. Also will determine the distribution and frequency of a specific plant ( Agave). 4. They will locate a population of their plants and then measure the distribution of their plant in the area. 5. Later, will describe the dispersion pattern for their species.10 | P a g e
    • Results I. Results of El Yunque National Rainforest A. Individual results of El Yunque National RainforestAltitude Coordinates Temperature pH Wind’s velocity Humidity49p N 18ᵒ 21.987 W 056ᵒ 46.223 95.1ᵒ F 6 Min 80p/m 4 Max 346p/m706p N 18ᵒ 18.1989 W 065ᵒ 94.1ᵒ F 4 Min 0p/m 2 47.394 Max 15p/m165p N 18ᵒ 21.985 W 065ᵒ 46.225 84.6ᵒ F 4 Min 0 p/m 4.5 Max 15p/m1,630p N 18ᵒ 18.749 W 0.65ᵒ 89.1ᵒ F 4 Min 0p/m 6 42.219 Max 202p/m2,181p N 18ᵒ 186 W 065ᵒ 46.227 80.9ᵒ F 4.9 Min 0 p/m 5 Max 133p/m2,405p N 18ᵒ 18.218 W 065ᵒ 47.361 80.6ᵒ F 4.9 Min 0 p/m Max 3 7p/m2,571p N 18ᵒ 18.328 W 065ᵒ 42.356 77.6ᵒ F 4.2 Min 0p/m 4.5 Max 244p/m2,878p N 18ᵒ 18.257 W 065ᵒ 47.539 76.0ᵒ F 5 Min 0p/m 2 Max 53p/m 11 | P a g e
    • B. Grouped results of El Yunque National Rainforest Results from Group #1 Velocity of theAltitude Coordinates Humidity pH Temperature wind 706 45.732W 5 F 2,483 47.394W 84% 73F 56 46.225W 80F 206 F/M 26,622 47.394W 71F 1,605 46.227W 25% 6.5 78F 3,425 47.546W 7% 2,153 47.047W 70%12 | P a g e
    • Results from Group #3 Velocity ofCoordinates Altitude Temperature pH the wind HumidityN 18˚ 21.985 W 065˚46.228 49 ft 83˚ F 30˚ C 6.8N 18˚ 18.335 W 065˚47.347 2664 ft 70˚ F 24˚ C 5 60N 18˚ 18.284 W 065˚47.587 2888 ft 71˚ F 24˚C 5 20N 18˚ 20.273 W 065˚ 45.734 83˚ F 30˚ C 6.8 40.9N 18˚ 18.297 W 065˚47.721 2513 Ft 80* F 4.2 30N 18˚ 18.144 W 065˚47.003 2571 Ft 81.5* F 4.2 40.5N 18˚ 18.568 W 065˚47.664 3394 ft 76* F 5 20N 18˚ 18.38 W 065˚ 47.26 3352 ftN 18˚ 19.121 W065˚46.288 1579 ft 4.5 70%13 | P a g e
    • II. Results of Guánica Dry Forest A. Individual results Individual results of Guánica Dry Forest of Line transect Meters Object found in specific centimeter Limestone Bushes Grass 1m 10.20 10.20 - 5m - 0- 100 - 10m - 20.10 - 15m - 0-100 - 20m - 20.10 - 25m 25.1 25.106 - 30m 40.10 - - 35m 35.02 35.201 - 40m 40.02 - 20.10 45m 10.70 - 70.10 50m 10.80 - 50.11014 | P a g e
    • Individual results of Guánica Dry Forest of Belt transect Objects in quadrant (percent) Meters Limestone Bushes Grass 1m 0% 100% (White Mangrove) 0% 5m 99% 1% 0% 10m 0% 100% 0% 15m 0% 100% 0% 20m 40% 60% 0% 25m 0% 100% 0% 30m 0% 100% 0% 35m 75% 20% 5% 40m 35% 65% 0% 45m 40% 60% 0% 50m 80% 20% 0%15 | P a g e
    • B. Results of other groups Guánica Dry Forest Results of Line transect of Group #3 Meter Percent Objects 1m - - 5m - - 83% grass 10m 17% plant 67% grass 15m 33% cotton 57% grass 13% rock 20m 7% plant( orange) 3% seashell 25m 100% grass 92% grass 30m 8% rock 15% Rock 35m 68% burnt grass 17% plant (red) 63% dry 40m 28% grass 9% plant rock(white)16 | P a g e
    • 40% grass 12% seashells 45m 24% soil(red) 24% rock 40% grass 27% plant 50m 14% dead vegetation 7% ants 12% seashells17 | P a g e
    • Results of Belt Transect of Group 3 Meter Percent and object 98% grey dirt (quicksand) 5m 2% spider 50% rock 10m 50% quicksand 5% cotton 75% rock 15m 19% plants (small) 1% sea shell 80% black rock 20m 3% sea shell 17% plant(orange) 25m 100% grass 85% grass 30m 15% rock 50% grass 35m 50% rock 95% rock 40m 5% ants18 | P a g e
    • 75% grass 45m 5% ants 20% red soil 97% rock 50m 3% leaf19 | P a g e
    • Results of Belt transect of “Group 1” Meter Percent Objects 1m - - 5m a) 100% a) Lime stone a) 80% a)Button Mangrove 10m b) 20% b)Lime stone a) 30% a)Acacia 15m b) 70% b)lime stone 20m a)100% a)Grass a) 85% a)Grass 25m b)15% b) Lime stone 30m a) 100% a)Grass a) 40% a)Grass 35m b)60% b)Lime stone a)90% a)Lime Stone 40m b)10% b) Grass a)10% a)Cactus 45m b) 5% b) Grass c) 75% c) Lime stone a)20% a)Lime Stone 50m b)80% b) grass20 | P a g e
    • Analysis of Melocactus poblation in Guanica Dry Forest Melocactus Mother Plant #1 Mother Plant Alive Dead Seedlings1m 0 1 12m 0 0 03m 1 0 14m 8 2 105m 3 1 46m 3 0 37m 0 1 18m 0 0 09m 0 0 010m 0 0 0 Melocactus Mother Plant #2 Mother Plant Alive Dead Seedlings1m 2 0 22m 8 4 123m 10 3 134m 1 8 95m 12 4 166m 13 3 167m 7 1 88m 7 3 1021 | P a g e
    • 9m 2 1 310m 3 2 5 Melocactus Mother Plant #33 Mother Plant Alive Dead Seedlings1m 0 2 22m 4 0 43m 5 0 54m 4 1 55m 2 3 56m 2 1 37m 1 0 18m 1 2 39m 2 3 510m 7 0 7Total seedlings 108 46 15422 | P a g e
    • Analysis of the resultsI. Graphics for El Yunque National RainforestA. Graphics for individual results23 | P a g e
    • 24 | P a g e
    • 25 | P a g e
    • B. Graphics for other groups’ data26 | P a g e
    • 27 | P a g e
    • II. Graphicsfor Guánica Dry ForestA. Graphics for individual results Graphic of Continuous Sampling Line Transect Method in Bosque Seco of Guánica, Puerto Rico in July 27, 2011 120 100 Specific location (cm) 80 60 Lime stone Bushes 40 Grass 20 0 0 20 40 60 Estimated location (m)28 | P a g e
    • 29 | P a g e
    • B. Graphics for other groups’ data Graphic from the data of the Line transect of “Guánica G3” at Guánica Dry Forest grass 150% cotton Percent (%) 100% rock plant 50% seashell 0% dead vegetation 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 animal Meters (m) gray dirt Graphic of the data from Line transect of “Group 1” at Guánica Dry Forest 120% 100% Percent (%) 80% Lime stone 60% Vegetation 40% Grass 20% Cactus 0%C. Graphics for the Melocactus Analysis 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Meters (m)30 | P a g e
    • 31 | P a g e
    • Graphic for Melocactus #1 data analysis by Group #432 | P a g e
    • Graphic for Melocactus #2 data analysis by Group #433 | P a g e
    • Graphic for Melocactus #3 data analysis by Group #434 | P a g e
    • ConclusionAfter visiting El Yunque National Pluvial Forest and the Guánica Dry Forest we can determine that thedifferences between these two ecosystems are drastically evident. According to our inquire and asshown by the soil’s condition as well as by the organisms’ adaptations, while El Yunque receivesabout 200 inches of water per year, the Guánica Dry Forest remains with less than 30 inches.We canconclude that this is caused by their different geographical locations and altitude. By our experienceon both ecosystems, we can determine that the humidity in El Yunque is a lot higher than in Guánica,while the temperature is lower in the Pluvial Forest; unfortunately we didn’t have quantitative datafrom Guánicaon these topics to compare. Because of the qualitative evidence shown by theadaptations of plants on both forests, we can also deliberate that evolutionary variations result fromadjustments of the organisms to their environmental requirements. We could observe the evidentdifferences between the variations of the vegetation that have resulted from natural selection: in ElYunque, most of the plants were taller, leafier and had bigger leaves, while in Guánica Dry Forest theplants had smaller, fewer leaves and were lower. As we can see, the survival conditions of theorganisms are directly related to the conditions of their habitat. According to our observations, someother factors, such as the pH, the wind velocity, the competition of other organisms in the area, thedifferent reproduction cycles, between others also seem to affect the organisms’ variations according.While comparing the data collecting methods used on both expeditions we can conclude that they arevery different from each other, but that they both reached their inquire objectives very well. As agroup, we would recommend to use the same research techniques on both forests because that wayit would be easier and more effective to compare the obtained facts. In conclusion, we would say thatthis trips were enriching experiences because they allowed us to see some of the natural resourcesof our Island form both a tourist and a scientific perspective.35 | P a g e
    • Discussion Our trip to El Yunque was a meaningful experienced to our lives. Just the fact that wewalked so much to go to the top of the mountain and once we arrived the view in the rock onthe top of the mountain was something outstanding. Mostly what we did was to take samplesof soil to later see if we could find and see if we can find some kind of new bacteria or virus.We learned new techniques on how to take the ph of the soil where we extracted the soil andthe humidity, the wind in that area and many other things. Our objective was to experimentthe feeling of going to a tropical forest and taking samples of soil and other tests. We alsosaw how within that forest are many animals and the majority of them are endangeredspecies. Some images to the trip can be seen in Figure 1 in the Appendix. In our trip to Bosque Seco in Guánica was an outstanding experience. First of all welearned a lot about that forest peculiar things. When we were there our main focus was ontwo plants the mellow cactus and Agave. The cactus reproduces sexually and the Agavereproduces asexually. One of the many interesting fact learned in this trip was how the treesadapt to the forest by dropping their leaves, this process is called disguise. In this trip we didto different experiments. One was quadrant lines that was to measure from the beach up tofifty meters into the forest and see what was in the surroundings and the quadrant to morespecific in the way be made a possible percentage of how much rocks and vegetation wasthere. This experiment increased our knowledge and was a wonderful and great experience.A collage of the pictures taken in this trip appears in the Figure 2 in the Appendix. One irony that we all saw was when we went to El Yunque, it did not rain but when wewent to Bosque Seco in Guánica it rain a lot, it was horrible. We found it weird knowing that36 | P a g e
    • El Yunque is a tropical forest and it rains almost every day, but in Guánica is a hot forestwhere the cactus lives and hardly doesn’t rain. Now we know that these things happen.These two fieldtrips were amazing and unforgettable; acknowledging that all these things thatwe did and learned will be useful and constructive for a near future. Also the techniqueslearned will be very helpful for future studies. The beauty of our island and the wonders areunexplainable and it’s so miserable how people are damaging it and destroying our nature.37 | P a g e
    • Appendix Figure 1 Pictures taken by Group 2 at El Yunque National Rainforest in June 20, 201138 | P a g e
    • Guánica Dry Forest Figure 2: Pictures taken by Group 2 at Guánica Dry Forest on June 27, 2011.39 | P a g e
    • Credits Work Done by 1. Title Page Nicholson Silva 2. Introduction Grethel Montañez 3. Discussion of adaptations of Flora Angélica González in El Yunque National Rainforest and Guanica Dry Forest 4. Methodology of Soil Analysis in El Adrián Rojas Yunque National Rainforest 5. Methodology of Line Transect and Luis Alvelo Belt transect in Guánica Dry Forest 6. Recopilation of data tables Celizbets Colón 7. Individual Graphics of El Yunque Gustavo Pérez National Rainforest 8. Individual Graphics of Guánica Dry Celizbets Colón Forest 9. Groupal Grahics of Guánica Dry Gustavo Pérez and Celizbets Colón Forest 10. Conclusion Grethel Montañez and Angélica González 11. Discussion Eduardo Rivera 12. Collage Nicholson Silva40 | P a g e
    • 13. Edition Celizbets Colón.41 | P a g e