University of Puerto Rico - Cayey RISE ProgramTemplate for Laboratory Summaries of Assignment 3 Biol. 4997-Biomedical TechniquesDue date May 4, 2012Reg.# 5 Name Angélica M. González-Sánchez Date: May 3, 2012.Paragraph 1. Nanotechnology and Electron Microscopy.Since there were some technical problems that did not allow us to use most of the lab equipment, thislaboratory functioned more as a conference than as an experiment. However, the main objectives of thelaboratory were accomplished because we learned about the field of Nanotechnology and theinstrumentation that is currently used in this research area. In thePhysics’ laboratories we were able tolearn about its equipment, as for example vacuum chambers. We also observed the functioning of anelectron microscope and the incredible power of its magnification. By observing several nano-scaleobjects, we got acknowledge that although electron microscopy is really powerful in terms ofamplification, the quality of its image can be affected by charge. From this laboratory it can be determinedthat the field of Nanotechnology has huge implications in other areas of Science. Its wide range ofapplications makes it a very relevant field for human life. In fact, nanotechnology is actually used todevelop nanostructures that can improve medical equipment, such as biomedical implants. Biocompatiblecompounds developed with nanotechnology, for example hidroxiapatite,make implants more resilient andalso increase the body’s acceptance towards them.Paragraph 2. Water sampling, testing and statistical application.On this laboratory the expected objectives were reached because we understood the concepts of astatistical analysis and those of a chemical water analysis as well. First, we learned to use the software ofExcell to make a statistical analysis. This allowed us to understand the great span of calculations that canbe applied with this software. We also comprehended the term of water quality and the factors that affectit. Although water quality has several different definitions, it can be defined as a condition of the water onwhich it is not contaminated with microorganisms, metals, toxic chemicals, among others. To apply theconceptual basis of water quality evaluation, we analyzed water samples from different rivers. Thisanalysis was made by the colorimetry technique, which measures the absorbance and transmittance ofcolors through a sample to determine the relative concentrations of different compounds. In ourexperiment we determined the nitrate concentration in our water samples, which resulted to be very low.This probably means that the water shed of the river from which we took the sample doesn’t receivemuch surface runoff from agricultural areas with fertilizers or waste products from septic systems. Fromall the conclusions and studied concepts, it can be determined that both statistical and chemical wateranalyses are very useful for several areas of Science and Math. In the context of this experiment, thistype of analysis has broad implications in determining the safety of water for human consumption. Forexample, knowledge of the nitrate concentration in a water sample allows avoidingingesting water withhigh nitrate levels, which can cause illnesses such as methemoglobinemia. This illness decreases thecapacity of blood to transport oxygen, so less oxygen is transported from the lungs to the body tissues.