Mention main types of IBD (Ulcerative Colitis & Crohn’s disease) and their areas.
Intestinal mucosal.Mention complications (symptoms and related diseases) and actual treatments (implications).
It can take many chemical structures, called curcuminoids, but its main constituents always are several hydroxyl (OH-), oxide (O-2), methyl (CH3-) and methoxide (CH3O-) groups which join together forming rings which make the compound a hydrophobic polyphenol. Polyphenol: compounds made of hydrogen, oxygen, and sometimes carbon. They are natural antioxidants (because they oxidize themselves) and are hydrophobic.Curcuminoids: diferent natural forms that can take the compound.
Angelica review paper presentation
Review paper presentationAngélica M. González Sánchez December 2, 2011. BIOL 3095 - UPR Cayey
What is IBD? Severe inflammation of the gastrointestinal wall. Rare condition statistically - its implications on people’s quality of life make it a relevant field for investigations. Unknown causes – linked to genetic, environmental and immunological factors - Stress response - uncontrolled pathways of molecules related to the immune system.
Types of IBD Healthy Colon Healthy Small Bowel Crohn’s disease Ulcerative Colon Small Bowel , Images from: virtualmedicalcentre.com, bidmc.org, hopkins-gi.org
Complications and treatments: Images from: ehow.com, doccarnahan.blogspot.com
What is curcumin? Diferuloylmethane Image from: Anand P, Thomas S, Kunnumakkara A, Sundaram C, Harikumar K, Sung B, Tharakan S, Misra K, Priyadarsini I, Rajasekharan K, Aggarwal B. 2008. Biological activities of curcumin and its analogues (Congeners) made by man and Mother Nature. Biochemical Pharmacology Journal. 76(1):1590-1611.
Obtained from the roots of the herb Curcuma longa. Traditionallyused in foods as a component of the spice turmeric and as an herbal remedy for several illnesses. Image from: aliexpress.com
Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-carcinogenic activities. (Anand et al., 2008) Reasons for its capacities are not well known. -Linked to its ability to bind to several proteins and regulatory enzymes and to inhibit oxidation chain reactions. (Srivastava et al., 2011) Regulates the presence of several molecules. - cellular processes → stress response. - Transcription factors, enzymes and proteins → directly related to immunity and inflammation.
Macroscopic effects of curcumin on IBD Decrease ofinflammation Increase in on the Weight gain the rate of intestinal survival tissues Related to microscopic processes of the cell (Jian et al., 2005) (Salh et al., 2003)
Deregulated molecules on IBD cytokines: - inflammatory ones (as IL-1β) are over expressed - anti-inflammatory ones (as IL-10) NF-κB are under expressed chemokines lymphocytes Deregulated moleculesthat cause inflammation on IBD p38 MAPK chemokines cyclooxygenases & lipoxygenases hypoclorous acid radical & MPO tyrosyl radical (Jian et al., 2005) (Salh et al., 2003) (Srivastava et al., 2011)
Microscopic effects of curcumin on IBD - Regulates the NF-κB pathway, therefore, reduces IL-1β expression & increases IL-10 expression. - Inhibits the excessive proliferation of white blood cells. -Diminishes the activation of p38 MAPK, therefore controlling the production of lymphocytes, chemokines, cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. - Inhibits the oxidation of MPO by oxidizing itself, therefore, preventing that the free radicals run freely in the body and reducing the oxidation chain reactions. (Rajasekaran, 2011) (Srivastava et al., 2011) (Salh et al., 2003)
Curcumin’s usage and limitations(Anand et al., 2008)(Srivastava et al., 2011)(Rajasekaran, 2011)(Yadav et al., 2009)
Conclusions Not so many researches = many aspects not well comprehended = more research is needed. Notall of the research has concluded curcumin’s effects in all the same molecules, but all of them have related its outcomes on its regulatory properties. Goodmodulator of the appropriate quantities of molecules needed for stress response → related to IBD.
ReferencesAnand P, Thomas S, Kunnumakkara A, Sundaram C, Harikumar K, Sung B, Tharakan S,Misra K, Priyadarsini I, Rajasekharan K, Aggarwal B. 2008. Biological activities ofcurcumin and its analogues (Congeners) made by man and Mother Nature. BiochemicalPharmacology Journal. 76(1):1590-1611.Jian Y, Mai G, Wang J, Zhang Y, Luo R, Fang Y. 2005. Preventive and therapeuticeffects of NF-kappaB inhibitor curcumin in rats colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonicacid. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 11(12):1747-1752.Pithadia A, Jain S. 2011. Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).Pharmacological Reports. 63(1):629-642.Rajasekaran S. 2011. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in gastrointestinal diseases.World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology. 2(1): 1-14.Salh B, Assi K, Templeman V, Parhar K, Owen D, Gómez A, Jacobson K. 2003.Curcumin attenuates DNB-induced murine colitis. American Journal of PhysiologyGastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 285:G235-G243.Srivastava R, Singh S, Dubey S, Misra K, Khar A. 2011. Immunomodulatory andtherapeutic activity of curcumin. International Immunopharmacology Journal. 11(1):331-341.Yadav V, Suresh S, Devi K, Seema Y. 2009. Effect of Cyclodextrin Complexation ofCurcumin on its Solubility and Antiangiogenic and Anti-inflammatory Activity in Rat Colitis