RESEARCH PROPOSAL<br />By: Angélica M. GonzálezSánchez<br />				RISE 2011 ©<br />
Analysis of the direct bacteriological contamination of the superficial and underground water bodies of the San Salvador n...
97% of the population of Puerto Rico use their water from the Water and Sewage Authority.<br />3% obtain their water from ...
Chosen community: San Salvador neighborhood in Caguas<br />From left to right, clockwise: Caguas’ neighborhoods map, San S...
3,272 habitants -> about 1,133 houses<br />Not so updated with the required parameters and technology for the treatment of...
Inspect exactly how many community water systems are in the area and how many residents of the neighborhood use water from...
Investigate about the established parameters for the conservation of tap water, and also about its concern and observance ...
Determine if there are found bacteriological pollutants from the coliform group in the underground and superficial water b...
Raise awareness about the regulations for the conservation of tap water by orienting the residents of the area and publish...
The community water systems of the San Salvador neighborhood are being polluted by human means.<br /> Therefore, they have...
It is intended to study the community water systems of the San Salvador neighborhood in Caguas.<br />Research about the es...
Take samples and analyze both the underground and superficial water bodies of the studied zone to determine the presence o...
Amplification of trace amounts of DNA.<br />Very sensitive method.<br />Implies several steps:<br />A. Purification of the...
II. ELECTROPHORESIS<br />Shows the amplified genes by presenting bars.<br />Wide and consistently dark bars = positive to ...
Investigate the relationship between the bacteriological pollutants present in the water of San Salvador neighborhood and ...
Orientation, publication and report writing of the results.<br />Assemblies in the community, articles in the community’s ...
EXPECTED RESULTS AND DISCUSSION<br />Approximately an 80% of the families of San Salvador neighborhood use the water from ...
These violations, along with other human activities such as irresponsible waste disposal, are resulting in a direct contam...
This contamination will have a direct relationship with the recurrence of infectious diseases derived from bacteria in the...
This inquiry will serve as a template for future studies in other several areas of the Island where no previous investigat...
REFERENCES<br />Autoridad de Acueductos y Alcantarillados, Actualización del Inventario de Sistemas de Acueductos Comunita...
Perdomo, C.H., Casanova, O.N., Ciganda, V.S., Contaminación de aguas subterráneas con nitratos y coliformes en el litoral ...
THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION!<br />
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Angelica m. gonzalez proposal ppt

  1. 1. RESEARCH PROPOSAL<br />By: Angélica M. GonzálezSánchez<br /> RISE 2011 ©<br />
  2. 2. Analysis of the direct bacteriological contamination of the superficial and underground water bodies of the San Salvador neighborhood in Caguas and its implications on the community water systems.<br />TITLE<br />©<br />
  3. 3. 97% of the population of Puerto Rico use their water from the Water and Sewage Authority.<br />3% obtain their water from community water systems.<br />239 community water systems <br />41% do not reach the bacteriological parameters established.<br />It is a multisource problem. <br />BACKGROUND<br />
  4. 4. Chosen community: San Salvador neighborhood in Caguas<br />From left to right, clockwise: Caguas’ neighborhoods map, San Salvador’s community map and an airview of San Salvador neighborhood (taken from Google Earth) <br />
  5. 5. 3,272 habitants -> about 1,133 houses<br />Not so updated with the required parameters and technology for the treatment of tap water and for the disposal of used water .<br />Direct effect on the population.<br />Water diseases<br />Transmitted by consumption of contaminated water.<br />Caused by hard to detect microorganisms.<br />Use of Escherichia coli as an indicator of fecal contamination.<br />
  6. 6. Inspect exactly how many community water systems are in the area and how many residents of the neighborhood use water from them.<br />OBJECTIVES<br />
  7. 7. Investigate about the established parameters for the conservation of tap water, and also about its concern and observance in the area.<br />Evaluate the condition, the given permits and the maintenance of the community water and septic systems in the vicinity of San Salvador <br />Determine if they are a potential risk in the quality of both superficial and underground water of the zone. <br />
  8. 8. Determine if there are found bacteriological pollutants from the coliform group in the underground and superficial water bodies of the San Salvador neighborhood.<br />Analyze the existence and the recurrence, if any, of diseases related to these bacteriological pollutants in the residents of the studied community<br />
  9. 9. Raise awareness about the regulations for the conservation of tap water by orienting the residents of the area and publishing the results.<br />
  10. 10. The community water systems of the San Salvador neighborhood are being polluted by human means.<br /> Therefore, they have the presence of bacteriological pollutants.<br />These will have a direct effect on the health of people who use the water from them without decontaminating it first. <br />HYPOTHESIS<br />
  11. 11. It is intended to study the community water systems of the San Salvador neighborhood in Caguas.<br />Research about the established parameters for the conservation of tap water in Puerto Rico, mainly about the community water systems, the septic tanks and their use and observance in the studied zone.<br />By visits to agencies and to residents of the zone.<br />METHODOLOGY<br />
  12. 12. Take samples and analyze both the underground and superficial water bodies of the studied zone to determine the presence of bacteriological pollutants.<br />During a year -> 5 samples monthly of each water body<br />Scrutinize the samples by:<br />I. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) -> To produce a sufficient quantity of E. coli’sDNA to inquire. <br />II. Electrophoresis -> To perceive if there is actually the presence of E. coli in the samples.<br />
  13. 13. Amplification of trace amounts of DNA.<br />Very sensitive method.<br />Implies several steps:<br />A. Purification of the sample<br />Keep only the chromosomal DNA.<br />B. Amplification of the DNA<br />Denaturation<br />Annealing <br />Elongation<br />Cycle repetition: about 35 times as an average.<br />I. POLIMERASE CHAIN REACTION<br />Figure taken from: Campbell Biology, 2011 (page: 404)<br />
  14. 14. II. ELECTROPHORESIS<br />Shows the amplified genes by presenting bars.<br />Wide and consistently dark bars = positive to the E. coli gene<br />Lighter and slimmer bars = slightly positive to the E. coli gene<br />No bars = negative to the presence of the E. coli gene <br />Figure taken from: Molecularstation.com<br />
  15. 15. Investigate the relationship between the bacteriological pollutants present in the water of San Salvador neighborhood and the occurrence or recurrence, if any, of infectious diseases derived from these.<br />By interviews to the residents.<br />
  16. 16. Orientation, publication and report writing of the results.<br />Assemblies in the community, articles in the community’s newspaper, brochure handling and door to door orientations.<br />Articles in local newspapers and scientific magazines.<br />Reports to Government’s Agencies.<br />
  17. 17. EXPECTED RESULTS AND DISCUSSION<br />Approximately an 80% of the families of San Salvador neighborhood use the water from community water systems.<br />There are quite a few violations to the established parameters for the conservation of tap water, for the discard of used waters, for the construction of community water systems and for septic tanks.<br />
  18. 18. These violations, along with other human activities such as irresponsible waste disposal, are resulting in a direct contamination to the water bodies of the studied area.<br />This contamination will cause the rapid and continuous reproduction of bacteria because it will mainly come from the percolations of septic tanks.<br />Shown by the PCR and Electrophoresis.<br />
  19. 19. This contamination will have a direct relationship with the recurrence of infectious diseases derived from bacteria in the people who use the water without filtering and decontaminating it before consuming it.<br />Better understanding of the residents on the water system’s topic, which will also outcome in a better preservation and care of the water of the area as well as of their health.<br />
  20. 20. This inquiry will serve as a template for future studies in other several areas of the Island where no previous investigations have been done. It can also lead to new researches about how to improve the quality of the community water systems.<br />This investigation will also make the government aware of the problem.<br />Will help in the implementation of federal or state financial aids for the maintenance of community water systems. <br />
  21. 21. REFERENCES<br />Autoridad de Acueductos y Alcantarillados, Actualización del Inventario de Sistemas de Acueductos Comunitarios Independientes en Puerto Rico, 2004. http://www.acueductospr.com<br /> <br />Departamento de Salud Gobierno de Puerto Rico, Reglamento General Salud Ambiental, 2008. www.salud.gov.pr/ Publicaciones/ Anuncios/ Document/ Reglamento General Salud Ambiental.pdf<br /> <br />Environmental Protection Agency, Small Drinking Water Systems Handbook, 2003. www.epa.gov/safewater<br /> <br />Environmental Protection Agency, Contaminants regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act, 2001. www.epa.gov/safewater/mcl.html<br /> <br />Junta de Calidad Ambiental, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico - Oficina del Gobernador , Reglamento de Estándares de Calidad de Agua de Puerto Rico, marzo 2010. www.gobierno.pr/JCA/LeyesReglamentos/Reglamentos/<br /> <br />Microjuris, Artículo V-b-3.0 del Reglamento de Edificación de ARPE, 2002, www.microjuris.com/mjpr/reglamentos/is/reg_lista_regs.cfm?AgencyID<br /> <br />Montandon PE, The use of PCR for detecting pathogenic microorganisms in water, Pubmed, May 17 1994. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8209134<br /> <br />
  22. 22. Perdomo, C.H., Casanova, O.N., Ciganda, V.S., Contaminación de aguas subterráneas con nitratos y coliformes en el litoral sudoeste del Uruguay, Agrociencia, julio 2001, pag. 10-22. http://www.fagro.edu.uy/agrociencia/VOL5/1/P10-22.pdf<br /> <br />Reece, J., Urry, L., [et. al.]. 2011. Campbell Biology. Ninth Edition. Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Chapter 20:Biotechnology. Pages: 396-423.<br /> <br />Rompré A, Servais P, [et. al.], Detection and enumeration of coliforms in drinking water: current methods and emerging approaches,Pubmed, March 2002; pages 31-54. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11777581 <br /> <br />United States Census Bureau, Census of population and housing, DIANE Publishing,<br />2000. http://books.google.com.pr/books?id=B9FjIc1a_qoC&pg=PA5-IA2&lpg=PA5-IA2&dq=millas+cuadradas+barrios+Caguas&source=bl&ots=sNJDkNX5x-&sig=PV5wH6hYjI7smYFNrEc_LeXJbxo&hl=en&ei=360YTtinM5DrgQe5gqQa&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CG0Q6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q&f=false<br /> <br />USDA/Agricultural Research Service, Detecting pathogens in waterways: An improved approach, ScienceDaily, 2011, February 8. http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2011/02/110208144124.htm<br />
  23. 23. THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION!<br />

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