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late 19th century art & architecture, including impressionism, post impressionism, symbolism, and skeletal architecture

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  • Artist: Édouard Manet Title: Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe (The Luncheon on the Grass) Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 7' X 8'8" (2.13 X 2.64 m) Date: 1863 Source/ Museum: Musée d’Orsay, Paris
  • Artist: Édouard Manet Title: Olympia Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 4'3" X 6'2 ¼" (1.31 X1.91 m) Date: 1863 Source/ Museum: Musée du Louvre, Paris
  • Artist: Édouard Manet Title: A Bar at the Folies-Bergère Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 37 ¾ X 51 ¼" (95.9 X 130 cm) Date: 1881–82 Source/ Museum: Courtauld Institute of Art Gallery, London. (P.1934.SC.234)
  • Artist: Claude Monet Title: Rouen Cathedral: The Portal (in Sun) Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 39 ¼ X 26" (99.7 X 66 cm) Date: 1894 Source/ Museum: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Theodore M. Davis Collection, Bequest of Theodore M. Davis, 1915 (30.95.250)
  • Artist: Pierre-Auguste Renoir Title: Moulin de la Galette Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 4'3½" X 5'9" (1.31 X 1.75 m) Date: 1876 Source/ Museum: Musée d’Orsay, Paris
  • Artist: Edgar Degas Title: The Rehearsal on Stage Medium: Pastel over brush-and-ink drawing on thin, cream-colored wove paper, laid on bristol board, mounted on canvas Size: 21 ⅜ X 28¾" (54.3 X 73 cm) Date: c. 1874 Source/ Museum: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Gift of Horace Havemeyer, 1929 (29.160.26)
  • Artist: Mary Cassatt Title: Woman in a Loge Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 31 ⅝ X 23" (80.3 X 58.4 cm) Date: 1879 Source/ Museum: Philadelphia Museum of Art. Bequest of Charlotte Dorrance Wright
  • Artist: Berthe Morisot Title: Summer’s Day Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 17 13⁄16 X 29 5⁄16" (45.7 X 75.2 cm) Date: 1879 Source/ Museum: The National Gallery, London. Lane Bequest, 1917
  • Artist: Paul Cézanne Title: Mont Sainte-Victoire Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 25 ½ X 32" (64.8 X 92.3 cm) Date: c. 1885–87 Source/ Museum: Courtauld Institute of Art Gallery, London. (P.1934.SC.55)
  • Artist: Vincent van Gogh Title: The Starry Night Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 28 ¾ X 36 ¼" (73 X 93 cm) Date: 1889 Source/ Museum: The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest (472.1941)
  • Artist: Hiroshige Title: Plum Orchard, Kameido Medium: Woodblock print Size: 13¼ X 8 ⅝ X (33.6 X 47 cm) Date: 1857 Source/ Museum: From One Hundred Famous Views of Edo / The Brooklyn Museum, New York
  • Artist: Paul Gauguin Title: Mahana No Atua (Day of the God) Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 27 ⅜ X 35 ⅝ " (69.5 X 90.5 cm) Date: 1894 Source/ Museum: The Art Institute of Chicago. Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection (1926.198)
  • Artist: Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Title: Jane Avril Medium: Lithograph Size: 50 ½ X 37" (129 X 94 cm) Date: 1893 Source/ Museum: San Diego Museum of Art. Gift of the Baldwin M. Baldwin Foundation (1987.32)
  • Artist: Gustave Eiffel Title: Eiffel tower Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: 1887–89 Source/ Museum: Paris
  • Artist: Henry Hobson Richardson Title: Marshall Field Wholesale Store Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: 1885–87 Demolished c. 1935 Source/ Museum: Chicago
  • Artist: Louis Sullivan Title: Wainwright Building Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: 1890–91 Source/ Museum: n/a
  • Artist: BACKGROUND: William Morris Title: Peacock and Dragon Curtain Medium: Handloomed jacquard-woven woolen twill Size: 12' 10 ½" X 11' 5 ⅝ " (3.96 X 3.53 m) Date: 1878 Source/ Museum: Manufactured at Queen Square and later at Merton Abbey / Victoria & Albert Museum, London
  • Artist: Gustav Klimt Title: The Kiss Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 5' 10¾" X 6' (1.8 X 1.83 m) Date: 1907–8 Source/ Museum: Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna
  • Artist: Camille Claudel Title: The Waltz Medium: Bronze Size: 9 ⅞ " (25 cm) Date: 1892–1905 Source/ Museum: Neue Pinakothek, Munich
  • Artist: Auguste Rodin Title: Burghers of Calais Medium: Bronze Size: 6'10½" X 7'11" X 6'6" (2.1 X 2.4 X 2 m) Date: 1884–89 Source/ Museum: Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of Joseph H. Hirshhorn, 1966
  • Impressionism&beyond

    1. 1. French Connection “ That looks like an impression of a painting…” sneered the critic Impressionism Post-Impressionism
    2. 2. Impressionism Forerunner… Manet <ul><li>Manet (1832-83) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>born into ranks of Parisian bourgeoisie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>credo: “Painter of modern life” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>believed that success as an artist only obtained through recognition at the Salon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After rejection by salon, set up his own exhibitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early work was before Impressionists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fully supported their aims </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>worked closely w/ Monet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>influence of Zola: “Japonisme” </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Luncheon on the Grass , Edouard Manet… 7’ x 8’8”, oil on canvas <ul><li>Napoleon III authorized Exhibition of refused artists from the Salon, such as Manet and Monet </li></ul><ul><li>Manet’s Le Dejeuner sur l’herbe was found scandalous… modern version of the Pastoral Concert by Titian(or Giorgione?) </li></ul><ul><li>Figures are not modelled.. Very flat, not relating with each other. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Compare Manet & Giorgione…
    5. 5. Olympia , Manet, 1863, oil on canvas, 4’3” x 6’2” (Louvre)… courtesan stares out at us, not modeled figure. Play by Alexandre Dumas (les Miserables, 3 Musketeers) about social climbing prostitute with same name…Olympia confronts the viewer, she is powerful.. NOT an accommodating female nude .. Manet began to gather with other rejects (refuses) in Montmartre …
    6. 6. Compare Manet & Titian… Olympia, Manet, 1868 Venus of Urbino, Titian, 1538
    7. 7. Bar at the Folies-Bergere, Manet, oil on canvas, 1882 Barmaid stares out at us What is the mirror reflecting? Trapeze in upper far left corner Composition pushes goods for sale up to the counter Modern sales technique of products next to a pretty sales girl More impressionistic than Manet’s early works
    8. 8. Mystery of the Mirror in Manet’s painting…
    9. 9. French Connection Impressionism
    10. 10. Impressionism The movement's name was derived from Monet's early work, Impression: Sunrise, which was singled out for criticism by Louis Leroy upon its exhibition. The hallmark of the style is the attempt to capture the subjective impression of light in a scene. The Impressionist style was probably the single most successful and identifiable &quot;movement&quot; ever, and is still widely practiced today.
    11. 11. Impressionism <ul><li>Context : style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of artist: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To capture the subjective impression of light in a scene. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalistic and down-to-earth treatment of its subject matter. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology: photography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impressionists felt the need to alter their style and compositional techniques because they perceived photography as a threat. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Subject matter : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>turned away from Renaissance tradition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uninterested in religion, mythology & history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>instead, looked to contemporary life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>leisure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transportation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>down-and-outs </li></ul></ul></ul>Impressionism
    13. 13. Claude Monet Impressionism: Sunrise 1872 Leader of the Impressionists <ul><ul><li>Aesthetic aim : fleeting effects of light, shadow and atmosphere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application of paint : thick, heavy layers or strokes (impasto). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by : Baroque “painterliness” (ex: Rubens) </li></ul></ul>Distinguished from Renaissance ideal that used flat, smooth paint surface
    14. 14. MONET, Claude Impression, Sunrise ( 1873) Oil on canvas, 19 x 24 3/8&quot; Musee Marmottan, Paris.
    15. 15. Monet’s Rouen Cathedral in sun , 1894, oil on canvas, 40” x 26” (and in sunset…)
    16. 16. Monet’s Water Lilies (c. 1900) Monet did a series of large canvases on water lilies. He frequently painted his house at Giverny with the gardens and Japanese bridge. His friend Renoir painted him, painting in his garden.
    17. 17. The Luncheon of the Boating Party 1881 Renoir <ul><ul><li>Narrative: photographic effect and aura of spontaneity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light and shadow : fleeting effects of sunlight falls in patches, dappling the surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handling of paint : loose and rapid thick “impasto” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects : outdoor scenes leisure time & gaiety of middle-class Parisians </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. RENOIR. The Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881) Oil on canvas, 51 x 68 in. Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.
    19. 19. Renoir’s Moulin de la Galette, oil on canvas, 4 ft x 6’ approximately Dappling effect of fleeting light People not posed, enjoying meals and dancing Photographic randomness of clipped figures
    20. 20. The Dance Class 1881 Degas <ul><ul><li>Pastels and Oil Paintings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects : ballet dancers, the opera </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Rehearsal on Stage, Edgar Degas, Pastel drawing Worked mostly indoors (not plein aire0 Asymetrical compositions Feathery brushstrokes showing the dancers’ costumes Japanese print influence in composition Rehearsal on Stage , Degas, 1874, pastel drawing
    22. 22. Degas’ The Absinthe Drinkers (c. 1875)
    23. 23. Young Mother 1891 Mary Cassatt <ul><ul><li>Friend of Degas & Renoir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalism, innocence of children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Japanese prints. Pastel & Oil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects : Mothers and children, her sister </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Breakfast in Bed, Mary Cassatt Cassatt did a series of paintings and pastel drawings on the theme of mother and child. Tenderness foreign to other Impressionists American expatriate Influential in bringing Impressionist paintings to US where they were a huge hit Natural charm Japanese influence Everyday life of women, independent, living their lives
    25. 25. Maternal Caress, woodblock print, Mary Cassatt was influenced by Japanese prints tilted style, outlining, pattern, and treatment of space. She did a series of woodblock prints inspired by ukiyo-e.
    26. 26. Oil on canvas, 32” x 23” Shows her sister at the opera Again, women going about their daily activities Dazzling colors and brushwork Lydia in a Loge , Mary Cassatt, 1879
    27. 27. Summer’s Day , Berthe Morisot, oil on canvas, 1879 Sister in law of Manet and grandaughter of Fragonard Sketchy, painterly brushwork Middle class women Asymmetrical composition Another female Impressionist
    28. 28. James Whistler’s Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket , 1875 <ul><li>Subtle harmonies of painting comparable to music </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese influence-Japanese signature </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric effect of fireworks, study in harmony of color, shape, light </li></ul><ul><li>Whistler successfully sued a critic over negative comments </li></ul>
    29. 29. Impressionism Questions: <ul><li>What was the name of Monet’s painting that started the Impressionism movement? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the role of a Impressionist artist? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the impressionists felt the need to alter their style and compositional techniques? </li></ul><ul><li>Who paints the subjects of outdoor scenes leisure time & gaiety of middle-class Parisians? </li></ul>
    30. 30. French Connection Post-Impressionism
    31. 31. Post-Impressionism <ul><ul><li>Post-Impressionism artists were dissatisfied with limitations of Impressionist style. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were influenced by Impressionism but took their art in other directions, it is less idyllic and more emotionally charged than Impressionist work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzed structure, and solidity of forms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still strong influence of Japanese prints… </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Post-Impressionism 1885-1905 <ul><ul><li>Characteristics : bright color and visible, distinctive brushwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trends : more emphasis on composition and form and greater psychological depth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact : set the stage for major directions of early 20th century art </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><ul><li>Very different from Impressionism’s informal, seemingly accidental quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intellectual & scientific </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>methodical application of uniformly sized dots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strongly based on system of rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mathematical precision </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>color theory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Sunday Afternoon at the Park 1885 Seurat Style : Pointillism
    34. 34. SEURAT, Georges. A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of la Grande Jatte (1884-86) Oil on canvas, 6’10” x 10’1 1/4” Art Institute of Chicago. Statuesque figures not interacting… anonymity of modern society? Scientific analysis of color relationshiops (pointilism)
    35. 35. The Bather 1885 Cezanne Figure : non-formulaic Composition : tight, construction of upright & horizontal forms <ul><ul><ul><li>Figure coincides with the lines of landscape: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upper body the sky </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower body the earth. </li></ul></ul></ul>Landscape : conceptual, not ‘plein air.’
    36. 36. CEZANNE The Bather (c. 1885) Oil on canvas, 50 x 38 1/8 in The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York.
    37. 37. Mont Sainte-Victoire , Cezanne, 1887 Part of a series from mature period Wanted to make objects geometric constructions with splashes of pure color Solid and firmly constructed, not dappled momentary glimpse like the Impressionists did (Post Impressionism) Look at apace, but not enter Used perspective by juxtaposing warm colors and receding cool colors
    38. 38. Still Life with Basket of Apples, Cezanne, 1894 Tilted perspective Contrast of solid forms with flat surfaces Painterly brushstrokes
    39. 39. Van Gogh <ul><ul><li>Aim : to filter emotions through his “temperament” </li></ul></ul>Color : vibrant <ul><ul><ul><li>Forms : simplified and outlined in black contours. </li></ul></ul></ul>Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear 1889 Brushwork : impasto
    40. 40. Starry Night , Vincent Van Gogh, 28” x 36”, 1889 Thick short brushstrokes, impasto paint View from hospital room in St-Remy At one with forces of nature Left to right wave impulse in his work, tree looks like green flames reaching to the sky exploding with stars
    41. 41. Plum Orchard , Hiroshige, Ukiyo-e print, 1857 Japonisme Flowering Plum Tree , Van Gogh, oil, 1887 Japanese Influence on Post Impressionists: Van Gogh
    42. 42. Manaha No Atua , (Day of the God), Paul Gauguin, oil on canvas. Symbolism (post impressionism), 1894. Gauguin traveled to Tahiti in search of paradise Painted native peoples in geomatric bright colors Exotic primitivism Symbolic, mysterios Color to express emotion
    43. 43. 1893, Art Nouveau style Noted graphic designer (not called that then.. Poster designer) Physically handicapped, short man Influence of Degas Influence of Japanese prints ukiyo-e Emphasis on curving lines, text integrated with the forms in the picture… Toulouse-Lautrec frequented the Moulin Rouge (check out the movie with Nicole Kidman!) Jane Avril , Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, lithograph
    44. 44. Other Connections Art Nouveau Architecture, Sculpture
    45. 45. Eiffel Tower , 1887-1889 Gustave Eiffel 19th Century more skeletal architecture.. Many buildings (remember Crystal Palace?) had skeleton holding up a exterior curtain of glass or steel. Land values soared, so buildings went UP (skyscrapers, etc.) Eiffel specialized in railway bridges Centerpiece of 1889 Paris Universal Exposition Interlocking members of a democratic society.. Innovative elevator swings up diagonally Also helped with Statue of Liberty and Panama Canal!
    46. 46. Marshall Field Wholesale Store , 1885, Chicago, Henry Hobson Richardson <ul><li>Influence of Medici palaces from Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy Romanesque arches </li></ul><ul><li>Iron columns for interior supports (Skeletal construction) </li></ul><ul><li>Interior arranged around a central court </li></ul><ul><li>Feminine department store + masculine warehouse look </li></ul><ul><li>Few historical illusions </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago School of architecture formed after Great Fire </li></ul>
    47. 47. <ul><li>Otis invented elevator, which allowed high buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Prototype of modern office building </li></ul><ul><li>Accent on horizontal thrust </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior: decorative terra cotta tiles </li></ul><ul><li>Same architect built Guaranty Building in NY, and Carson Pirie Scott in Chicago… </li></ul><ul><li>“ Form follows function” was his motto, now very famous in architecture </li></ul>Wainwright Building, 1890 Louis Sullivan, Chicago School
    48. 48. The Arts and Crafts movement was popular in the late 19th century, LED BY WILLIAM MORRIS. The idea was for everyday items to be made by trained craftspeople, not high priced artists, but to have beauty in everyday objects.
    49. 49. The Kiss , Gustav Klimt, 1907 Art Nouveau (art deco) style Golden painting Part of the Viennese secession movement Decorative patterns, gold more important than realistic modeling of forms Lovers are close to the edge of a cliff Art Deco style
    50. 50. The Waltz , Camille Claudel Originally cast with both figures nude, she had to modify it. 1892-1905 … Art deco or Art Nouveau style
    51. 51. Burghers of Calais , Auguste Rodin, bronze, 1889 Six burghers offer their lives to English king in return for saving their besieged city during Hundred Years war Parallels between Paris in 1870 war and war in 1347 Each figure has different emotion Sculpted individually, shown worn and hungry Central figure is ready for his execution