Manet, the realist, eventually became an Impressionists. Hey, don’t confuse Manet with Monet. Manet organized an exhibition of Les Refusees, or The Refused One. He was very influential in bringing the style of the Impressionists to the public eye.
If someone told you today, your art looks like the Impressionists’ you’d probably say THANK YOU. But it actually started out as an insult.. .the famous art critic Louis Leroy skewered Monet’s Sunrise painting, saying it looked like an Impression of a Painting and that too bad Monet couldn’t actually finish the artwork. Well, the name stuck… because they WERE trying to capture a moment. Ironically, today it is one of the best known movements in Western art.
Although today this style of painting is very familiar to us, at the time it was very avant-garde and breaking with tradition. The impressionists were greatly influence by the Japanese ukioye prints, and could care less about religion, mythology, or history. Impressionism was all about the moment; contemporary life of the middle class and the down-and-outs, or capturing a moment.
Monet painted the same subjects at different times of day, to capture those effects of light that pass so quickly. With the invention of the oil paint tube, the impressionists could go outdoors and paint easily, or even take a train to the country side to paint.
Monet’s friend Renoir also captured the fleeting effects of light. Renoir was the most famous figure painter of the Impressionists. He did spontaneous paintings from live models, with loose, fast impasto paint, like we see here with a group of friends eating lunch along the Seine river in Paris.
Renoir’s paintings feel very spontaneous and lively paintings; he often painted middle class Parisians enjoying leisure time. The Impressionists got away from stiff, posed portraits and into a loose and free style.
Edgar Degas was the exception to painting out doors; he focused on ballet dancers and performers, as did Henri Toulouse-Lautrec. Degas worked in both pastels and oils, and was highly influenced by Japanese prints that were popular at the time.
But a female Impressionist did the best job of all at capturing the theme of the mother and child. Mary Cassatt did hundreds of paintings, prints, and pastel drawings of women and children, in a very natural style that families can relate to. However, she did more than paint domestic scenes; she was hugely influential in bringing the French Impressionists to the U.S. to exhibit. Unlike in Europe, their paintings were VERY popular and still draw huge crowds in US museums today.
Like the French Impressionists, Cassatt loved the clean lines and patterns of Japanese woodblock prints, as shown in this print of a mom getting the baby out of the bathtub.
Yet Impressionism was soon taken to the next level by a group of artists
Artist: Hiroshige Title: Plum Orchard, Kameido Medium: Woodblock print Size: 13¼ X 8 ⅝ X (33.6 X 47 cm) Date: 1857 Source/ Museum: From One Hundred Famous Views of Edo / The Brooklyn Museum, New York
Van Gogh filtered reality through his “temperament”, with expressive lines, vibrant colors, and impasto brushwork. Though he did not gain popularity in his lifetime, today he is one of the most recognized Western artists. A
Cezanne emphasized form and structure with simplified landscapes with geometric shapes and pure colors. You look at the sapce, but don’t enter it. Did not use traditional perspective, simply color.
Cezanne also began to play with the rules of perspective and tilted our vision a bit. But Seurat would truly go deep into structure and color with his pointillism paintings.
Very different from Impressionism ’ s informal, seemingly accidental quality, pointillism is intellectual and scientific with applying uniform sized dots in different colors. Seurat studied ancient Egyptian art and talked about the procession of life.
Gauguin went to Tahiti in search of paradise, and maybe he found it. He worked in a style that was known as primitivism or symbolism. He incorporated Tahitian gods and symbols of the cycle of life in somewhat unreal settings like this one.
The Art Deco/Art Nouveau style emerged at the turn of the century in Vienna and elsewhere. The emphasis was on decorative patterns rather than realistic modeling of forms. Klimt’s famous painting The Kiss epitomizes this style.
In the decorative arts, many artists and artisans rebelled against the mass production of the Industrial Revolution. William Morris started the Arts and Crafts movement, that returned to handmade tapestries and simple wood furniture with clean lines. This style still continues today, though ironically mass-produced in China and sold at places like Target and Home Depot.
Artist: Auguste Rodin Title: Burghers of Calais Medium: Bronze Size: 6'10½" X 7'11" X 6'6" (2.1 X 2.4 X 2 m) Date: 1884–89 Source/ Museum: Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of Joseph H. Hirshhorn, 1966
Louis Sullivan pioneered the development of modern architecture, with bulidings such as The Wainwright Building. The invention of the elevator by Otis allowed high buildings, along with the use of steel infrastructure. Sullivan told us that “Form follows function,” and his style still continues in today’s cities.
Impressionism and Beyond “That looks like an impression of a painting…” - critic Louis Leroy Late 19th Century Art and Architecture
Bar at the Folies-Bergere, Manet, 1882 Barmaid stares out at us What is the mirror reflecting? More impressionistic than Manet’s early works
French ImpressionismMonets early work, Impression: Sunrise,harshly criticized at exhibition.impression of light in a scene. Single most successful and identifiable "movement" ever, still practiced today.
Subjects• Turned away from tradition – uninterested in religion, mythology & history – Japanese influence• Contemporary life • Leisure middle class • transportation • Capturing light and nature
Monet’s Rouen Cathedral in Sun,1894, (and sunset…en plein aire)
The Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881) Pierre Auguste Renoir
Renoir’s Moulin de la Galette Dappling effect of fleeting light People not posed, enjoying meals and dancing Photographic randomness of clipped figures
Rehearsal on Stage, Degas, 1874, pastel Asymmetrical compositions Feathery brushstrokes showing the dancers’ costumes Japanese print influence
American Impressionist – Mary CassattTheme of motherand child.Influential inbringingImpressionistpaintings to US-huge hit
Maternal Caress,Mary Cassatt, 1891Influence of Japanese ukiyo-e.
Post-Impressionism: setting stage for 20 Century Art th Unhappy with limitations of Impressionist style, exploredemotion & structure - though still influenced by Japanese.
Japanese Influence continues…Plum Orchard, Hiroshige, Ukiyo-e print, 1857 Japonisme Flowering Plum Tree, Van Gogh, oil, 1887
Surely you know this painting…emotion Thick short brushstrokes, impasto paint View from hospital room in St-Remy At one with forces of nature
Post Impressionism emphasizing structure … Mont Sainte-Victoire, Cezanne, 1887
Still Life with Basket of Apples, Cezanne, 1894 Tilted perspective Contrast of solid forms with flat surfaces Painterly brushstrokes
A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of la Grande Jatte (1884-86). Georges Seurat Statuesque figures not interacting… anonymity of modern society? Scientific analysis of color relationships (pointillism)
Primitivism: Manaha No Atua, (Day of the God), Paul Gauguin, 1894. Symbolism Tahitian gods shown Painted native peoples in geomatric bright colors Exotic primitivism Symbolic, mysterios Color to express emotion
Other Connections Art NouveauArchitecture, Sculpture
The Kiss,Gustav Klimt,1907Art Nouveau (artdeco) styleGolden paintingDecorative patterns,gold more importantthan realisticmodeling of forms
The Arts and Craftsmovement began in the late19th century, LED BYWILLIAM MORRIS.The idea was for everydayitems to be made by trainedcraftspeople, not high pricedartists, but to have beauty ineveryday objects.
Burghers of Calais, Auguste Rodin, bronze, 1889 Six burghers offer their lives to English king in return for saving their besieged city during Hundred Years war Parallels between Paris in 1870 war and war in 1347 Central figure is ready for his execution
Wainwright Building, 1890, Louis Sullivan,Chicago School of Architecture •Otis invented elevator, which allowed high buildings •Prototype of modern office building or Skyscraper •“Form follows function” was his motto, now very famous in architecture