Dynamic Evolution and The GutPresentation Transcript
Dynamic evolution and the gut Hypothesis hunting with Melissa McEwen Huntgatherlove.com
What is so special about the human gut????
Why not just eat like this nice ape, shown in the picture on the left?
She eats a healthy high fiber diet! Low in fat! High in leaves! Leaves are good for you!!! Your doctor says so!
Whither The Cambrian Diet??? 52 vs. ~2.5 There’s been no biological change in humans in 40,000 or 50,000 years. Everything we call culture and civilization we’ve built with the same body and brain --Stephen J. Gould, 2000.
Dynamism Relatively unexplored Shift towards exogenous food processing
Cells in the Human Body 10 trillion
Fight off infections
Role in nearly every disease, even diseases you might not expect
Metabolites in heart disease
Sexy fruit flies
Do other primate diets have relevance to human health?
Nutritional characteristics of wild primate foods: do the diets of our closest living relatives have lessons for us? By Katherine Milton
The Western Lowland Gorilla Diet Has Implications for the Health of Humans and Other Hominoids by Popovich et al.
Primate Diet for Humans Revisited
“ The western lowland gorilla , whose diet may approximate a paleolithic human diet, has been estimated to take nearly 60% of its calories through the colon ” from Case Closed?: Diverticulitis: Epidemiology and Fiber in Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Food Quality as Driver
Gut brain tradeoff
Funnel Shape Wide Pelvis
Evidence for paleolithic humans eating a high-fiber diet
Pecos basin paleolithic hunter-gatherers
Caries caused by tooth wear?
Impairment of calcium and Vitamin D
Infants on macrobiotic diets
Upper limit to fiber consumption?
Don’t Forget Culture
Uniquely Human Methods of Improving Food Quality Shift to exogenous
A Different Type of Culture
Bioavailability of protein and several micronutrients
Source of symbiotic bacteria????
Some fermented foods in danger of dying out
Butyric Acid Fiber vs. fiber byproducts???
The African Conundrum and Endogenous Sources of Butyric Acid
Exogenous Butyric Acid
Fat of grazing animals
Spoiled beer and other fermented foods
Crappy traditional foods from around the world??????
Differences between primates in the microbiome???
Methane and non methane excretors- different byproducts and transit times
Biodiversity interspecies and intraspecies
Potential Sources of Human Variation
Cooking and food prep techniques
Microbes in food
Types of fiber in food
Total fiber consumption
The Seaweed Revelation Co-evolution with plants? What about the future? GMOs?
Using Bacteria to Track Human History
What is Normal??? “ Pig bel”=Clostridial necrotizing enteritis Vegetarian case
Human Diversity and Dynamism
We humans are truly unique
And we still aren’t sure how we got this way
Within our population lies a biodiversity waiting to be discovered
Loss of biodiversity and cultural adaptations is a real issue
The Key is Balance
Thank you Dr. Ralph Holloway Chris Masterjohn Dr. Stephan Guyenet Dr. John Speth