Wild Animals, Zoos, and You<br />The influence of habitat on health<br />
John Durant<br />Hunter-Gatherer.com<br />@JohnDurant<br />Paleo NYC<br />Barefoot Runners NYC<br />
NYCBarefootRun.com<br />
References<br />Books<br />A Different Nature by David Hancocks<br />Zoo Animals: Behavior, Management, and Welfare by Hoe...
Humans do not live in zoos<br />
Zoos teach us about removing animals from their natural habitat<br />Longevity and mortality                              ...
Outline<br />Intro: Jumbo the Elephant<br />A brief history of zoos<br />Habitat design and health<br />A neutral approach...
Jumbo the Elephant(1860-1885)<br />
Before Jumbo was jumbo<br />1860-1861: Born, captured in Sudan<br />~1862: Bought by Paris Zoo (Ménagerie du Jardindes Pla...
1870 – Siege of Paris<br />
1865–1882: Jumbo becomes jumbo<br />
1882 – P.T. Barnum buys Jumbo<br />
1882 – Jumbo arrives in New York<br />
1885 – Tragedy on the tracks<br />
1889 – The Tufts Jumbos<br />
1941 – Dumbo<br />
Jumbo shrimp<br />
Jumbo jet<br />
Jumbo loans<br />
JumboTron<br />
Chanel “Jumbo grey” handbag<br />
1991 – Impacted molars<br />“His unnatural diet, devoid of coarse grasses, leaves, and the roughage of bark, dirt, and roo...
The Jumbo Diet™<br />Daily<br />200 lbs. of hay<br />2 bushels of oats<br />1 bushel of sweet biscuits<br />15 loaves of b...
Jumbo’s Story<br />What is normal?<br />What is the role of zoos?<br />How do you keep wild animals healthy?<br />How can ...
A Brief History of Zoos<br />
Why?<br />Entertainment<br />Status<br />Research<br />Conservation<br />
A 3-word history of humanity<br />WILD<br />AGRICULTURAL<br />INDUSTRIAL<br />Hunter-Gatherers<br />Herder-Farmers<br />Pr...
A brief history of wild animals in captivity<br />AGRICULTURAL<br />INDUSTRIAL<br />WILD<br />Royal Menageries<br />Zoolog...
Timeline<br />WILD<br />[small scale: trap, tame, domesticate]<br />Agricultural Revolution<br />3,500 BCE – Hierakonpolis...
Agricultural: Royal Menageries<br />power, prestige, control over Nature, blood sport<br />Nero (37-68 AD). "Christians Fl...
Agricultural: Royal Menageries<br />power, prestige, control over Nature, bloodsport<br />Menagerie at Versailles under Lo...
Industrial: Zoological Collections<br />reductive, organized taxonomically, sterile, modernist<br />Snow leopard at the Br...
Industrial: Zoological Collections<br />reductive, organized taxonomically, sterile, modernist<br />Rhinos at the Berlin Z...
Industrial: Zoological Collections<br />reductive, organized taxonomically, sterile, modernist<br />Polar bear exhibit at ...
Industrial: Zoological Collections<br />reductive, organized taxonomically, sterile, modernist<br />Penguin Pool at the Lo...
Q: What is the most dangerous animal in the zoo?<br />A: The Architect<br />
As we have entered the information age, zoos have undergone a parallel revolution<br />INFORMATION<br />AGRICULTURAL<br />...
Information: Habitat Immersion<br />Nature is the model, habitat-based, holistic, enrichment <br />HagenbeckTierpark (1907...
Information: Habitat Immersion<br />Nature is the model, habitat-based, holistic, enrichment <br />Woodland Park Zoo, Gori...
Information: Habitat Immersion<br />Nature is the model, habitat-based, holistic, enrichment <br />London Zoo, Penguin Poo...
The Un-Zoo<br />
The Un-Zoo<br />
Habitat Design and Health<br />
Stereotypies<br />
?<br />
Mokolo and Bebac<br />
Gorilla Biscuits<br />
Before<br />
After<br />
Feeding time<br />Human time?<br />Gorilla time<br />Lion time<br />
Sexy time<br />
Prey species<br />
A Neutral Approach to Health<br />
The Veil of Ignorance in morality<br />“no one knows his place in society, his class position or social status; nor does h...
A tool for designing a healthy habitat<br />The Veil of Ignorance in health<br />“no one knows his place in Nature, his ge...
If you could end up as anything….<br />…how do you make anything healthy?<br />
The Berlin Zoo holds 1,500+ species<br />
Potential rules for habitat design<br />Feed processed whole grains<br />Remove predators<br />Use surfaces easy to steril...
Where do you start?<br />Avoid death– Decrease extrinsic causes of mortality (predators, infectious disease, intra-species...
Where do you start?<br />
When was the last time<br />you were closeto<br />a large, wild animal?<br />
In the city<br />Picture Credit: Johan Rosenmunthe<br />
Camping<br />
Hunting<br />
In the arena<br />
On safari<br />
At the zoo<br />
Lots of people go to zoos<br />Source: MLB (2009), NBA (2008-09), NHL (2008-2009), NFL (2009-10) http://en.wikipedia.org/w...
Zoos have enormous potential<br />London Zoo, 1955<br />London Zoo, 2009<br />Photo Credit: Daniel Coomber<br />Pathetic<b...
Zoos connect us to the wild<br />Thank you!<br />
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Wild Animals, Zoos, and You: The Influence of Habitat on Health (John Durant)

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What do zoos teach us about human health? The history of wild animals in captivity teach us about species living outside their natural habitat, including the impact of diet and lifestyle factors on longevity and chronic disease.

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Wild Animals, Zoos, and You: The Influence of Habitat on Health (John Durant)

  1. 1. Wild Animals, Zoos, and You<br />The influence of habitat on health<br />
  2. 2. John Durant<br />Hunter-Gatherer.com<br />@JohnDurant<br />Paleo NYC<br />Barefoot Runners NYC<br />
  3. 3. NYCBarefootRun.com<br />
  4. 4. References<br />Books<br />A Different Nature by David Hancocks<br />Zoo Animals: Behavior, Management, and Welfare by Hoesy, Melfi, Pankhurst<br />Animals Make Us Human by Temple Grandin<br />Wild Animals in Captivity by HeiniHediger<br />…<br />Interviews<br />Jon Coe (Jon Coe Designs)<br />Kristin Lukas, Elena Less (Gorilla Species Survival Plan, Cleveland Zoo)<br />Gary Lee (CLR Design)<br />David Towne (Woodland Park Zoo)<br />Ron Kagan (Detroit Zoo)<br />Papers (various)<br />
  5. 5. Humans do not live in zoos<br />
  6. 6. Zoos teach us about removing animals from their natural habitat<br />Longevity and mortality (extrinsic vs. intrinsic causes of mortality, lifespan, aging)<br />Lifestyle factors and health (diet, movement, sun, social groupings, sleep, and chronic disease)<br />The human element (cost, bureaucratic rules, conventional wisdom, commercial influences)<br />A neutral approach to health (carnivores, omnivores, herbivores, insectivores, frugivores, predators, prey, warm-blooded, cold-blooded, animals, plants, etc.)<br />
  7. 7. Outline<br />Intro: Jumbo the Elephant<br />A brief history of zoos<br />Habitat design and health<br />A neutral approach to health<br />Close: The importance of zoos<br />
  8. 8. Jumbo the Elephant(1860-1885)<br />
  9. 9. Before Jumbo was jumbo<br />1860-1861: Born, captured in Sudan<br />~1862: Bought by Paris Zoo (Ménagerie du Jardindes Plantes)<br />~1862-1865: Neglected and malnourished<br />1865: Traded to the London Zoo, arrived in London covered in sores<br />
  10. 10. 1870 – Siege of Paris<br />
  11. 11. 1865–1882: Jumbo becomes jumbo<br />
  12. 12. 1882 – P.T. Barnum buys Jumbo<br />
  13. 13. 1882 – Jumbo arrives in New York<br />
  14. 14. 1885 – Tragedy on the tracks<br />
  15. 15. 1889 – The Tufts Jumbos<br />
  16. 16. 1941 – Dumbo<br />
  17. 17. Jumbo shrimp<br />
  18. 18. Jumbo jet<br />
  19. 19. Jumbo loans<br />
  20. 20. JumboTron<br />
  21. 21. Chanel “Jumbo grey” handbag<br />
  22. 22. 1991 – Impacted molars<br />“His unnatural diet, devoid of coarse grasses, leaves, and the roughage of bark, dirt, and roots, did not allow his molars to wear sufficiently quickly, and when his fifth pair erupted, they buckled and grew inward.”<br />Source: Van Gelder, Richard G. (1991) A Big Pain, Natural History, 100: 22 in A Different Nature (Hancocks)<br />
  23. 23. The Jumbo Diet™<br />Daily<br />200 lbs. of hay<br />2 bushels of oats<br />1 bushel of sweet biscuits<br />15 loaves of bread<br />3 quarts of onions<br />Occasional<br />Buckets of apples, oranges, figs, nuts, cakes, and candies<br />“enthusiastically taken hefty swigs of whiskey”<br />Source: Preston, D. J. (1983) Jumbo, king of elephants, Natural History, 92: 80–3 in A Different Nature (Hancocks)<br />
  24. 24. Jumbo’s Story<br />What is normal?<br />What is the role of zoos?<br />How do you keep wild animals healthy?<br />How can zoos influence the popular imagination?<br />
  25. 25. A Brief History of Zoos<br />
  26. 26. Why?<br />Entertainment<br />Status<br />Research<br />Conservation<br />
  27. 27. A 3-word history of humanity<br />WILD<br />AGRICULTURAL<br />INDUSTRIAL<br />Hunter-Gatherers<br />Herder-Farmers<br />Producer-Consumers<br />
  28. 28. A brief history of wild animals in captivity<br />AGRICULTURAL<br />INDUSTRIAL<br />WILD<br />Royal Menageries<br />Zoological Gardens<br />none /<br />small scale<br />
  29. 29. Timeline<br />WILD<br />[small scale: trap, tame, domesticate]<br />Agricultural Revolution<br />3,500 BCE – Hierakonpolis (Egypt)<br />1,150 BCE – Tanki (China)<br />1,100 BCE – Tiglath-Pileser(Assyria)<br />600 BCE – Nebuchadnezzar II (Babylon)<br />300 BCE – Roman gladiatorial games<br />1521 – Montezuma’s menagerie (Aztec) destroyed by Cortez<br />1626 – Menagerie at Versailles<br />1795 – Menagerie du Jardin des Plantes (Paris)<br />1826 – Zoological Society of London forms<br />1828 – Zoological Gardens opens<br />1849 – First reptile house opens<br />1853 – First public aquarium opens<br />1867 – The word “zoo” appears in OED<br />DOMESTICATED<br />Industrial Revolution<br />INDUSTRIAL<br />
  30. 30. Agricultural: Royal Menageries<br />power, prestige, control over Nature, blood sport<br />Nero (37-68 AD). "Christians Flung To The Wild Beasts", engraving from “A Popular History of Rome” by D. Rose, 1886. <br />
  31. 31. Agricultural: Royal Menageries<br />power, prestige, control over Nature, bloodsport<br />Menagerie at Versailles under Louis XIV (1660s)<br />
  32. 32. Industrial: Zoological Collections<br />reductive, organized taxonomically, sterile, modernist<br />Snow leopard at the Bronx Zoo (1906)<br />
  33. 33. Industrial: Zoological Collections<br />reductive, organized taxonomically, sterile, modernist<br />Rhinos at the Berlin Zoo (1960s)<br />
  34. 34. Industrial: Zoological Collections<br />reductive, organized taxonomically, sterile, modernist<br />Polar bear exhibit at the Louisville Zoo (mid-20th century)<br />
  35. 35. Industrial: Zoological Collections<br />reductive, organized taxonomically, sterile, modernist<br />Penguin Pool at the London Zoo (1934-2003)<br />
  36. 36. Q: What is the most dangerous animal in the zoo?<br />A: The Architect<br />
  37. 37. As we have entered the information age, zoos have undergone a parallel revolution<br />INFORMATION<br />AGRICULTURAL<br />Habitat<br />Immersion<br />
  38. 38. Information: Habitat Immersion<br />Nature is the model, habitat-based, holistic, enrichment <br />HagenbeckTierpark (1907)<br />
  39. 39. Information: Habitat Immersion<br />Nature is the model, habitat-based, holistic, enrichment <br />Woodland Park Zoo, Gorilla Exhibit by Jones and Jones (1978-79)<br />
  40. 40. Information: Habitat Immersion<br />Nature is the model, habitat-based, holistic, enrichment <br />London Zoo, Penguin Pool (2011)<br />
  41. 41. The Un-Zoo<br />
  42. 42. The Un-Zoo<br />
  43. 43. Habitat Design and Health<br />
  44. 44. Stereotypies<br />
  45. 45.
  46. 46. ?<br />
  47. 47. Mokolo and Bebac<br />
  48. 48. Gorilla Biscuits<br />
  49. 49. Before<br />
  50. 50. After<br />
  51. 51. Feeding time<br />Human time?<br />Gorilla time<br />Lion time<br />
  52. 52.
  53. 53.
  54. 54. Sexy time<br />
  55. 55. Prey species<br />
  56. 56. A Neutral Approach to Health<br />
  57. 57. The Veil of Ignorance in morality<br />“no one knows his place in society, his class position or social status; nor does he know his fortune in the distribution of natural assets and abilities, his intelligence and strength, and the like"<br />A tool for designing a moral habitat<br />
  58. 58. A tool for designing a healthy habitat<br />The Veil of Ignorance in health<br />“no one knows his place in Nature, his genus or species; nor does he know his fortune in the distribution of natural assets and abilities, his intelligence and strength, and the like"<br />
  59. 59. If you could end up as anything….<br />…how do you make anything healthy?<br />
  60. 60. The Berlin Zoo holds 1,500+ species<br />
  61. 61. Potential rules for habitat design<br />Feed processed whole grains<br />Remove predators<br />Use surfaces easy to sterilize (concrete, steel)<br />Give access to antibiotics (as needed)<br />House each organism in isolation<br />Feed the optimal ratio of fat, protein, and carbs<br />House each organism in groups<br />
  62. 62. Where do you start?<br />Avoid death– Decrease extrinsic causes of mortality (predators, infectious disease, intra-species violence, exposure, accidents, starvation)<br />Live well – Decrease intrinsic causes of mortality by replicating salient aspects of the habitat(s) to which the species is adapted (diet, movement, sun, climate, social groupings, etc.)<br />
  63. 63. Where do you start?<br />
  64. 64. When was the last time<br />you were closeto<br />a large, wild animal?<br />
  65. 65. In the city<br />Picture Credit: Johan Rosenmunthe<br />
  66. 66. Camping<br />
  67. 67. Hunting<br />
  68. 68. In the arena<br />
  69. 69. On safari<br />
  70. 70. At the zoo<br />
  71. 71. Lots of people go to zoos<br />Source: MLB (2009), NBA (2008-09), NHL (2008-2009), NFL (2009-10) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports_attendance_figures<br />Source: Association of Zoos and Aquariums (2008) http://www.aza.org/visitor-demographics/<br />
  72. 72. Zoos have enormous potential<br />London Zoo, 1955<br />London Zoo, 2009<br />Photo Credit: Daniel Coomber<br />Pathetic<br />Negative attitudes<br />Entertainment<br />Animal cruelty<br />Majestic<br />Positive attitudes<br />Education and conservation<br />Animal wellbeing<br />
  73. 73. Zoos connect us to the wild<br />Thank you!<br />

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