• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Wild Animals, Zoos, and You: The Influence of Habitat on Health (John Durant)
 

Wild Animals, Zoos, and You: The Influence of Habitat on Health (John Durant)

on

  • 5,704 views

What do zoos teach us about human health? The history of wild animals in captivity teach us about species living outside their natural habitat, including the impact of diet and lifestyle factors on ...

What do zoos teach us about human health? The history of wild animals in captivity teach us about species living outside their natural habitat, including the impact of diet and lifestyle factors on longevity and chronic disease.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
5,704
Views on SlideShare
4,679
Embed Views
1,025

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
1
Comments
0

20 Embeds 1,025

http://ethicaleats.blogspot.com 477
http://ethicaleats.blogspot.com 477
http://ethicaleats.blogspot.in 20
http://ethicaleats.blogspot.co.uk 19
http://ethicaleats.blogspot.com.au 8
http://ethicaleats.blogspot.ca 5
http://www.blogger.com 3
http://www.blogger.com 3
http://ethicaleats.blogspot.nl 2
http://ethicaleats.blogspot.se 1
http://ethicaleats.blogspot.com.ar 1
http://ethicaleats.blogspot.co.nz 1
http://ethicaleats.blogspot.com.es 1
http://ethicaleats.blogspot.sg 1
http://ethicaleats.blogspot.ie 1
http://ethicaleats.blogspot.de 1
http://ethicaleats.blogspot.hk 1
http://translate.googleusercontent.com 1
http://www.ethicaleats.blogspot.com 1
http://ethicaleats.blogspot.ae 1
More...

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Wild Animals, Zoos, and You: The Influence of Habitat on Health (John Durant) Wild Animals, Zoos, and You: The Influence of Habitat on Health (John Durant) Presentation Transcript

    • Wild Animals, Zoos, and You
      The influence of habitat on health
    • John Durant
      Hunter-Gatherer.com
      @JohnDurant
      Paleo NYC
      Barefoot Runners NYC
    • NYCBarefootRun.com
    • References
      Books
      A Different Nature by David Hancocks
      Zoo Animals: Behavior, Management, and Welfare by Hoesy, Melfi, Pankhurst
      Animals Make Us Human by Temple Grandin
      Wild Animals in Captivity by HeiniHediger

      Interviews
      Jon Coe (Jon Coe Designs)
      Kristin Lukas, Elena Less (Gorilla Species Survival Plan, Cleveland Zoo)
      Gary Lee (CLR Design)
      David Towne (Woodland Park Zoo)
      Ron Kagan (Detroit Zoo)
      Papers (various)
    • Humans do not live in zoos
    • Zoos teach us about removing animals from their natural habitat
      Longevity and mortality (extrinsic vs. intrinsic causes of mortality, lifespan, aging)
      Lifestyle factors and health (diet, movement, sun, social groupings, sleep, and chronic disease)
      The human element (cost, bureaucratic rules, conventional wisdom, commercial influences)
      A neutral approach to health (carnivores, omnivores, herbivores, insectivores, frugivores, predators, prey, warm-blooded, cold-blooded, animals, plants, etc.)
    • Outline
      Intro: Jumbo the Elephant
      A brief history of zoos
      Habitat design and health
      A neutral approach to health
      Close: The importance of zoos
    • Jumbo the Elephant(1860-1885)
    • Before Jumbo was jumbo
      1860-1861: Born, captured in Sudan
      ~1862: Bought by Paris Zoo (Ménagerie du Jardindes Plantes)
      ~1862-1865: Neglected and malnourished
      1865: Traded to the London Zoo, arrived in London covered in sores
    • 1870 – Siege of Paris
    • 1865–1882: Jumbo becomes jumbo
    • 1882 – P.T. Barnum buys Jumbo
    • 1882 – Jumbo arrives in New York
    • 1885 – Tragedy on the tracks
    • 1889 – The Tufts Jumbos
    • 1941 – Dumbo
    • Jumbo shrimp
    • Jumbo jet
    • Jumbo loans
    • JumboTron
    • Chanel “Jumbo grey” handbag
    • 1991 – Impacted molars
      “His unnatural diet, devoid of coarse grasses, leaves, and the roughage of bark, dirt, and roots, did not allow his molars to wear sufficiently quickly, and when his fifth pair erupted, they buckled and grew inward.”
      Source: Van Gelder, Richard G. (1991) A Big Pain, Natural History, 100: 22 in A Different Nature (Hancocks)
    • The Jumbo Diet™
      Daily
      200 lbs. of hay
      2 bushels of oats
      1 bushel of sweet biscuits
      15 loaves of bread
      3 quarts of onions
      Occasional
      Buckets of apples, oranges, figs, nuts, cakes, and candies
      “enthusiastically taken hefty swigs of whiskey”
      Source: Preston, D. J. (1983) Jumbo, king of elephants, Natural History, 92: 80–3 in A Different Nature (Hancocks)
    • Jumbo’s Story
      What is normal?
      What is the role of zoos?
      How do you keep wild animals healthy?
      How can zoos influence the popular imagination?
    • A Brief History of Zoos
    • Why?
      Entertainment
      Status
      Research
      Conservation
    • A 3-word history of humanity
      WILD
      AGRICULTURAL
      INDUSTRIAL
      Hunter-Gatherers
      Herder-Farmers
      Producer-Consumers
    • A brief history of wild animals in captivity
      AGRICULTURAL
      INDUSTRIAL
      WILD
      Royal Menageries
      Zoological Gardens
      none /
      small scale
    • Timeline
      WILD
      [small scale: trap, tame, domesticate]
      Agricultural Revolution
      3,500 BCE – Hierakonpolis (Egypt)
      1,150 BCE – Tanki (China)
      1,100 BCE – Tiglath-Pileser(Assyria)
      600 BCE – Nebuchadnezzar II (Babylon)
      300 BCE – Roman gladiatorial games
      1521 – Montezuma’s menagerie (Aztec) destroyed by Cortez
      1626 – Menagerie at Versailles
      1795 – Menagerie du Jardin des Plantes (Paris)
      1826 – Zoological Society of London forms
      1828 – Zoological Gardens opens
      1849 – First reptile house opens
      1853 – First public aquarium opens
      1867 – The word “zoo” appears in OED
      DOMESTICATED
      Industrial Revolution
      INDUSTRIAL
    • Agricultural: Royal Menageries
      power, prestige, control over Nature, blood sport
      Nero (37-68 AD). "Christians Flung To The Wild Beasts", engraving from “A Popular History of Rome” by D. Rose, 1886.
    • Agricultural: Royal Menageries
      power, prestige, control over Nature, bloodsport
      Menagerie at Versailles under Louis XIV (1660s)
    • Industrial: Zoological Collections
      reductive, organized taxonomically, sterile, modernist
      Snow leopard at the Bronx Zoo (1906)
    • Industrial: Zoological Collections
      reductive, organized taxonomically, sterile, modernist
      Rhinos at the Berlin Zoo (1960s)
    • Industrial: Zoological Collections
      reductive, organized taxonomically, sterile, modernist
      Polar bear exhibit at the Louisville Zoo (mid-20th century)
    • Industrial: Zoological Collections
      reductive, organized taxonomically, sterile, modernist
      Penguin Pool at the London Zoo (1934-2003)
    • Q: What is the most dangerous animal in the zoo?
      A: The Architect
    • As we have entered the information age, zoos have undergone a parallel revolution
      INFORMATION
      AGRICULTURAL
      Habitat
      Immersion
    • Information: Habitat Immersion
      Nature is the model, habitat-based, holistic, enrichment
      HagenbeckTierpark (1907)
    • Information: Habitat Immersion
      Nature is the model, habitat-based, holistic, enrichment
      Woodland Park Zoo, Gorilla Exhibit by Jones and Jones (1978-79)
    • Information: Habitat Immersion
      Nature is the model, habitat-based, holistic, enrichment
      London Zoo, Penguin Pool (2011)
    • The Un-Zoo
    • The Un-Zoo
    • Habitat Design and Health
    • Stereotypies
    • ?
    • Mokolo and Bebac
    • Gorilla Biscuits
    • Before
    • After
    • Feeding time
      Human time?
      Gorilla time
      Lion time
    • Sexy time
    • Prey species
    • A Neutral Approach to Health
    • The Veil of Ignorance in morality
      “no one knows his place in society, his class position or social status; nor does he know his fortune in the distribution of natural assets and abilities, his intelligence and strength, and the like"
      A tool for designing a moral habitat
    • A tool for designing a healthy habitat
      The Veil of Ignorance in health
      “no one knows his place in Nature, his genus or species; nor does he know his fortune in the distribution of natural assets and abilities, his intelligence and strength, and the like"
    • If you could end up as anything….
      …how do you make anything healthy?
    • The Berlin Zoo holds 1,500+ species
    • Potential rules for habitat design
      Feed processed whole grains
      Remove predators
      Use surfaces easy to sterilize (concrete, steel)
      Give access to antibiotics (as needed)
      House each organism in isolation
      Feed the optimal ratio of fat, protein, and carbs
      House each organism in groups
    • Where do you start?
      Avoid death– Decrease extrinsic causes of mortality (predators, infectious disease, intra-species violence, exposure, accidents, starvation)
      Live well – Decrease intrinsic causes of mortality by replicating salient aspects of the habitat(s) to which the species is adapted (diet, movement, sun, climate, social groupings, etc.)
    • Where do you start?
    • When was the last time
      you were closeto
      a large, wild animal?
    • In the city
      Picture Credit: Johan Rosenmunthe
    • Camping
    • Hunting
    • In the arena
    • On safari
    • At the zoo
    • Lots of people go to zoos
      Source: MLB (2009), NBA (2008-09), NHL (2008-2009), NFL (2009-10) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports_attendance_figures
      Source: Association of Zoos and Aquariums (2008) http://www.aza.org/visitor-demographics/
    • Zoos have enormous potential
      London Zoo, 1955
      London Zoo, 2009
      Photo Credit: Daniel Coomber
      Pathetic
      Negative attitudes
      Entertainment
      Animal cruelty
      Majestic
      Positive attitudes
      Education and conservation
      Animal wellbeing
    • Zoos connect us to the wild
      Thank you!