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History of Microbiology
Course : B.SC. (MICRO)
Subject: ELEMENTARY MICROBIOLOGY
Unit: 1.3
1
Historical background
Aristotle – first to classify living things.
-two major groups... plants and animals.
Plants separat...
3
1
History cont’
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1707-1836)
established the major subdivisions of the
plant kingdom.
Georges Leop...
History cont’
Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) German introduced the
monera kingdom.
Herbert F. Copeland (1902-1968) an American
...
Taxonomy
• Branch in biology that names organisms
according to their characteristics
• Phylogeny – evolutionary history of...
Taxonomy
• Taxonomy produces a
formal system for
naming and classifying
species to illustrate
their evolutionary
relations...
To understand how the classification system works, let’s
compare finding a species to mailing a letter from overseas.
Clas...
Phylogenetic tree
• Represents hypothesis based on lines of
evidence (i.e. fossils, homologous form)
• Family tree shows e...
103
Insert figure 1.15
Woese-Fox System
11
4
12
The Six Kingdoms
• Archaebacteria
• Eubacteria
• Protists
• Fungi
• Plants
• Animals
13
How are organism placed into their
kingdoms?
– Cell type, complex or simple
– The number of cells in their body
– Their ab...
Plants
• contains - flowering plants, mosses,
and ferns.
• all multicellular with complex cells.
• Autotrophs
• second lar...
Animals
• largest kingdom
• many complex cells
• heterotrophs Sumatran Tiger
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mam...
Archaebacteria
• found in extreme environments such as hot
boiling water and thermal vents on seafloor
with no oxygen or h...
Eubacteria
• complex and single celled
• found everywhere
• classified in their own kingdom because their
chemical makeup ...
Fungi
• Mushrooms, mold and mildew
• multicellular and many complex cells
• cannot make their own food
• obtain food from ...
Protists
• Slime molds and algae
• Complex cells
• Most are unicellular
• members are so different from one another.
• all...
3 domains
• Domain Archaea
• Domain Bacteria
• Domain Eukarya
Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia
Ba...
A Closer Look at the Taxa
•As one goes from the
Kingdom to the
Species
(DOWNWARD)…An
increase in the
similarity between
or...
Categories Within Kingdoms
• Kingdoms are divided into groups called phyla
• Phyla are subdivided into classes
• Classes a...
Human Classification
• Kingdom : Animalia (animal in Latin)
• Phylum : Chordata (spinal cord)
• Class : Mammalia (mammary ...
New Species
• Work in pairs to create a new animal species.
• Imagine that you have discovered a new species of animal
tha...
• We classify people in many ways; for
example, by race, religion, physical
appearance, ethnic origin, profession, life
st...
Classifying Organisms
• Phylogenetics – based on common
evolutionary descent
– Phylogeny – a representation of organisms b...
Classifying Organisms cont.
• Phylogeny - based on various evidence, including form and
structure (observable traits). Mus...
Homologous Structures
All have the same
bones, but are
used in different
ways and for
various functions -
remember,
homolo...
• Phylogenetics is usually based on a combination of these
lines of evidence:
– Fossil record
– Morphology
– Embryological...
• A phylogenetic tree is a family tree that
shows a hypothesis about the evolutionary
relationships thought to exist among...
Why a Hypothesis?
• First, what is a hypothesis?
– A scientist's best estimation, based on scientific
knowledge and assump...
• Like family trees, phylogenetic trees represent patterns of
ancestry. However, while families have the opportunity to
re...
Some Important Terms
• Autotrophs
– Make own food by photosynthesis
• Heterotrophs
– Organisms that use organic materials ...
Types of Classification Systems
First classification system developed by
Aristotle.
• Aristotle divided living organisms ...
1. Using Aristotle's 3-group system (based on
movement), name 2 animals that would fit
each of the 3 groups.
2. Discuss wh...
Types of Classification Systems cont.
• Carlolus Linnaeus proposed the Two Kingdom
Classification in 1758.
• The two kingd...
Types of Classification Systems cont.
• The next classification system that came about
consisted of 5 kingdoms.
• It was p...
Robert Whittaker’s Five Kingdom System
• Plantae
– Plants are immobile, multicellular eukaryotes that
produce their food b...
Robert Whittaker’s Five Kingdom System
• Fungi
– Fungi are a eukaryotic, heterotrophic, usually
multicellular group having...
Robert Whittaker’s Five Kingdom System
• Monera
– Monera are the only kingdom composed of
prokaryotic organisms, they have...
Types of Classification Systems cont.
• In the 1970’s, microbiologist Carl Woese,
among other researchers conducted studie...
• Archaebacteria
– Unicellular
– Prokaryotic
– Exist in extreme environments – they do not need oxygen or
light to live
– ...
Six Kingdom System
• The six kingdom system consists of:
– Eubacteria
– Archaebacteria
– Protista
– Fungi
– Plantae
– Anim...
Binomial Nomenclature
• What is it?
– A two name system for writing scientific names
1. Genus name – written first and alw...
Advantages to Binomial Nomenclature
• Indicates similarities in anatomy, embryology,
and evolutionary ancestry
• Example:
...
References
Image 1: Microbiology 10th Edition by Tortora
Image 2: Microbiology VI Edition, M.J. Pelczar, E.C.S. Chan and
N...
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B.sc. (micro) i em unit 1.3 nomenclature

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B.sc. (micro) i em unit 1.3 nomenclature

  1. 1. History of Microbiology Course : B.SC. (MICRO) Subject: ELEMENTARY MICROBIOLOGY Unit: 1.3 1
  2. 2. Historical background Aristotle – first to classify living things. -two major groups... plants and animals. Plants separated by size (structure) ... herbs, shrubs, and trees. Animals grouped by where they lived ...land, sea, or air. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) a Swedish naturalist "Father of Taxonomy" developed the system we use to name organisms today. 2
  3. 3. 3 1
  4. 4. History cont’ Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1707-1836) established the major subdivisions of the plant kingdom. Georges Leoplod Cuvier (1769-1832) established major "embranchments" known as phyla, for the animal kingdom. 4
  5. 5. History cont’ Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) German introduced the monera kingdom. Herbert F. Copeland (1902-1968) an American reclassified microorganisms, introduced Kingdom protistica Robert H. Whitaker (1924-1980) the American founded the five kingdom system by elevating the fungi to kingdom statis. 5
  6. 6. Taxonomy • Branch in biology that names organisms according to their characteristics • Phylogeny – evolutionary history of organism 6
  7. 7. Taxonomy • Taxonomy produces a formal system for naming and classifying species to illustrate their evolutionary relationship. 72
  8. 8. To understand how the classification system works, let’s compare finding a species to mailing a letter from overseas. Classification Hierarchy Letter Hierarchy Kingdom Animalia Country United States Phylum/Division* Chordata State Pennsylvania Class Mammal City/Town DuBois Order Primate Street Orient Avenue Family Homoidae House Number 1 Genus Homo Last Name Horse Species sapiens First Name Charlie 8
  9. 9. Phylogenetic tree • Represents hypothesis based on lines of evidence (i.e. fossils, homologous form) • Family tree shows evolutionary relationships 9
  10. 10. 103
  11. 11. Insert figure 1.15 Woese-Fox System 11 4
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. The Six Kingdoms • Archaebacteria • Eubacteria • Protists • Fungi • Plants • Animals 13
  14. 14. How are organism placed into their kingdoms? – Cell type, complex or simple – The number of cells in their body – Their ability to make food 14
  15. 15. Plants • contains - flowering plants, mosses, and ferns. • all multicellular with complex cells. • Autotrophs • second largest kingdom. Without plants, life on Earth would not exist! Plants feed almost all the heterotrophs on Earth. Wow! 15
  16. 16. Animals • largest kingdom • many complex cells • heterotrophs Sumatran Tiger Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Felidae Genus: Pathera Species: tigris 16
  17. 17. Archaebacteria • found in extreme environments such as hot boiling water and thermal vents on seafloor with no oxygen or highly acid environments (likes salty water) 17
  18. 18. Eubacteria • complex and single celled • found everywhere • classified in their own kingdom because their chemical makeup is different. 18
  19. 19. Fungi • Mushrooms, mold and mildew • multicellular and many complex cells • cannot make their own food • obtain food from parts of plants that are decaying in the soil. 19
  20. 20. Protists • Slime molds and algae • Complex cells • Most are unicellular • members are so different from one another. • all microscopic organisms that are not bacteria, not animals, not plants and not fungi. • Not in the Archaebacteria or Eubacteria kingdoms. because, unlike bacteria, protists are complex cells. These delicate looking diatoms are classified in the protist kingdom. 20
  21. 21. 3 domains • Domain Archaea • Domain Bacteria • Domain Eukarya Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia Bacteria (eubacteria) Archaea (archaebacteria) Eukarya (eukaryotes) 21
  22. 22. A Closer Look at the Taxa •As one goes from the Kingdom to the Species (DOWNWARD)…An increase in the similarity between organisms occur •There are fewer numbers of different kinds of organisms 22 5
  23. 23. Categories Within Kingdoms • Kingdoms are divided into groups called phyla • Phyla are subdivided into classes • Classes are subdivided into orders • Orders are subdivided into families • Families are divided into genera • Genera contain closely related species • Species is unique 23
  24. 24. Human Classification • Kingdom : Animalia (animal in Latin) • Phylum : Chordata (spinal cord) • Class : Mammalia (mammary glands) • Order : Primates (two mammary glands) • Family : Hominidae (bipedalism) • Genus : Homo • Species : sapiens 24
  25. 25. New Species • Work in pairs to create a new animal species. • Imagine that you have discovered a new species of animal that has never been seen before. • Draw a picture of your animal. • Describe its physical and behavioural characteristics and its habitat. • Come up with a name for it that would fit into the system of binomial nomenclature. • Use your imagination! 25
  26. 26. • We classify people in many ways; for example, by race, religion, physical appearance, ethnic origin, profession, life style, and so on. • In which ways can classification of human beings be helpful? • In which ways can it be harmful? 26
  27. 27. Classifying Organisms • Phylogenetics – based on common evolutionary descent – Phylogeny – a representation of organisms based on and describing evolutionary relationships. It is the cornerstone of a branch of biology called systematic taxonomy. – Systematics – the study of the evolution of biological diversity 27
  28. 28. Classifying Organisms cont. • Phylogeny - based on various evidence, including form and structure (observable traits). Must be based on homologous, not analogous structures – a. Homologous structures - similarity in structure due to common descent, not reliant on function. E.g. vertebrate forearms: human hand, bat wing, whale fin, cat leg. – b. Analogous structures - similarity in structure based on adaptation for the same function, not common descent. E.g. wings have developed independently in insects, reptiles, birds, and bats. 28
  29. 29. Homologous Structures All have the same bones, but are used in different ways and for various functions - remember, homologous structures have common ancestry! 296
  30. 30. • Phylogenetics is usually based on a combination of these lines of evidence: – Fossil record – Morphology – Embryological patterns of development – Chromosomes and DNA – How do you think these lines of evidence help to determine evolutionary relationships? 30
  31. 31. • A phylogenetic tree is a family tree that shows a hypothesis about the evolutionary relationships thought to exist among groups of organisms. It does not show the actual evolutionary history of organisms. • Why a hypothesis? 31
  32. 32. Why a Hypothesis? • First, what is a hypothesis? – A scientist's best estimation, based on scientific knowledge and assumptions, of the results of an experiment. It usually describes the anticipated relationship among variables in an experiment. • So, scientists reach assumptions through various types of evidence since they are not able to witness the evolution of every species. 32
  33. 33. • Like family trees, phylogenetic trees represent patterns of ancestry. However, while families have the opportunity to record their own history as it happens, evolutionary lineages do not—species in nature do not come with pieces of paper showing their family histories. Instead, biologists must reconstruct those histories by collecting and analyzing evidence, which they use to form a hypothesis about how the organisms are related—a phylogeny. 33
  34. 34. Some Important Terms • Autotrophs – Make own food by photosynthesis • Heterotrophs – Organisms that use organic materials for every and growth • Chemotrophs – Get food by breaking down inorganic matter • Prokaryotic – Unicellular – No nucleus – No membrane-bound organelles • Eukaryotic – Contain nucleus – Contain membrane-bound organelles – Most multicellular 34
  35. 35. Types of Classification Systems First classification system developed by Aristotle. • Aristotle divided living organisms into: – Plants; • Herbs, • Bushes, • Trees. – Animals; • Land, • Water, • Air. 35
  36. 36. 1. Using Aristotle's 3-group system (based on movement), name 2 animals that would fit each of the 3 groups. 2. Discuss whether Aristotle's 3 group system had any built-in problems. Explain any problems that you detect with his system. 36
  37. 37. Types of Classification Systems cont. • Carlolus Linnaeus proposed the Two Kingdom Classification in 1758. • The two kingdoms consisted of: – Plantae – Animalia 37
  38. 38. Types of Classification Systems cont. • The next classification system that came about consisted of 5 kingdoms. • It was proposed by Robert Whittaker in 1969. • The 5 kingdoms consisted of: – Plantae – Animalia – Fungi – Protista – Monera 38
  39. 39. Robert Whittaker’s Five Kingdom System • Plantae – Plants are immobile, multicellular eukaryotes that produce their food by photosynthesis and have cells encased in cellulose cell walls. – Examples: Ferns, pine trees, roses • Animailia – Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes that are capable of mobility at some stage during their lives, and that have cells lacking cell walls. – Examples: Humans, worms, spiders 39
  40. 40. Robert Whittaker’s Five Kingdom System • Fungi – Fungi are a eukaryotic, heterotrophic, usually multicellular group having multinucleated cells enclosed in cells with cell walls. – They obtain their energy by decomposing dead and dying organisms and absorbing their nutrients from those organisms. – Examples: Mushrooms, moulds, yeast • Protista – The most ancient eukaryotic kingdom, protists include a variety of eukaryotic forms. – Perhaps they are best defined as eukaryotes that are NOT fungi, animals, or plants. – Examples: Paramecium, amoeba, some algae, slime moulds 40
  41. 41. Robert Whittaker’s Five Kingdom System • Monera – Monera are the only kingdom composed of prokaryotic organisms, they have a cell wall, and lack both membrane-bound organelles and multicellular forms. – Examples: Bacteria, blue-green bacteria (cyanobacteria) 41
  42. 42. Types of Classification Systems cont. • In the 1970’s, microbiologist Carl Woese, among other researchers conducted studies and concluded that a group of prokaryotic microorganisms called archaebacteria are separate from other monerans. • Therefore, they decided to split kingdom monera into two separate kingdoms: – Eubacteria – Archaebacteria 42
  43. 43. • Archaebacteria – Unicellular – Prokaryotic – Exist in extreme environments – they do not need oxygen or light to live – Examples: methanogens, extreme thermophiles, extreme halophiles • Eubacteria – Unicellular – Prokaryotic – Heterotrophic, autotrophic, and chemotrophic – Examples: Bacteria, cyanobacteria (blue-green bacteria) 43
  44. 44. Six Kingdom System • The six kingdom system consists of: – Eubacteria – Archaebacteria – Protista – Fungi – Plantae – Animalia • Come up with a mnemonic to remember these six kingdoms! – This mnemonic does not need to be in any particular order. 44
  45. 45. Binomial Nomenclature • What is it? – A two name system for writing scientific names 1. Genus name – written first and always capitalized 2. Species name – written second and never capitalized • Both words are to be italicized if typed, or underlined if hand written • Example: Felis concolor or F. concolor • Which is the genus? Which is the species? • The species name usually relates to some characteristic of the species or to the person who found the original. For example, the scientific name for humans is Homo sapiens. (Genus Homo=man, sapiens=thinking. Literally, in Latin, thinking man.) 45
  46. 46. Advantages to Binomial Nomenclature • Indicates similarities in anatomy, embryology, and evolutionary ancestry • Example: – The system suggests that the North American black bear (Ursus americanus) and the grizzly bear (Ursus horribilis) are closely related – Similar organisms are grouped into the same genus – in this case, Ursus 46
  47. 47. References Image 1: Microbiology 10th Edition by Tortora Image 2: Microbiology VI Edition, M.J. Pelczar, E.C.S. Chan and N.R. Kreig, Tata McGraw Hill Image 3: Microbiology VI Edition, M.J. Pelczar, E.C.S. Chan and N.R. Kreig, Tata McGraw Hill Image 4: Microbiology VI Edition, M.J. Pelczar, E.C.S. Chan and N.R. Kreig, Tata McGraw Hill Image5:https://gcps.desire2learn.com/d2l/lor/viewer/viewFile. d2lfile/6605/9435/TheLinnaeanClassificationSystem_print.ht ml Image 6: Solomon : Biology book 47

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