The Metis


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This lesson will follow the lesson on Aboriginal people in Canada. As usual we will go through it slide by slide together. Your homework is on the last slide.

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The Metis

  1. 1. The Métis and the Red Rebellion Lesson 2
  2. 2. Topics to be covered <ul><li>The Métis people </li></ul><ul><li>The Red River Rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Riel </li></ul><ul><li>The Saskatchewan Rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Big Bear </li></ul>
  3. 3. Métis <ul><li>Métis are the children of an Aboriginal woman and a French male., mainly in Manitoba. </li></ul><ul><li>Often times the men would come over from France to work in the fur trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Being that they built relationships with the native people, they would sometimes marry native women, resulting in their Métis children. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The start of the Red Rebellion <ul><li>The Métis who made up most of the Red River settlement were seeing it undergo much change and immigration. </li></ul><ul><li>The territory that had belonged to the Francophone Roman-Catholics was being taken by Protestants from Ontario as well as Americans, both of which were unwelcoming to the Métis culture. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Initially Red River settlement was part of Rupert’s Land, which was owned by the Hudson’s Bay Company. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1869, Canada bought the territory in order to prevent American expansion, thus the Métis became under the power of the Canadian government. </li></ul><ul><li>The Canadian government wasted no time in changing things in modern day Manitoba. </li></ul><ul><li>As the Métis had no clear claim to their land, the government divided the territory based on the townships system. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Louis Riel <ul><li>With the townships system in place the Métis feared losing their farms and way of life. </li></ul><ul><li>The Canadian government then appointed William McDougall as Lieutenant Governor of the territory. </li></ul><ul><li>McDougall was known to be very anti-French, which caused more unrest among the Métis. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The Métis were not opposed to Canadian rule, they however wanted their terms to be heard and met. </li></ul><ul><li>They stopped McDougall from entering into the territory, forcing him back to Ottawa, leaving them free of Canadian rule. </li></ul><ul><li>They took Fort Garry and set up a provisional government with Louis Riel as secretary and later as President. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Louis Riel was a French Métis with a good education. </li></ul><ul><li>The rebels remained in control under the power of Riel throughout the winter of 1869-1870, but not without English attempts at seizing Fort Garry. </li></ul><ul><li>In the spring of 1870, negotiators were sent in. They were able to negotiate a deal that lead to the province of Manitoba. </li></ul><ul><li>Riel and his followers fled to the States for refuge. </li></ul><ul><li>The Manitoba Act allowed both French and English to be provincial languages as well as the two different religions. </li></ul>
  9. 9. North-West Rebellion <ul><li>Louis Riel was called back to Canada by the Métis in Saskatchewan when they felt threatened by the building of the railroad and influx of English population. </li></ul><ul><li>On top of it the bison population that the Métis’ had depended on for survival was decreasing due to hunting by the Hudson’s Bay Company and the government. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Big Bear <ul><li>It just so happened that the Cree’s of the Prairies were also suffering hardships. </li></ul><ul><li>They were also affected by the bison population, they also felt that the government was violating the terms of their treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>It is for this reason Big Bear, Chief of the Plains First Nation, emerged. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Big Bear embarked on a campaign hoping to renegotiate the terms of the treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>He was against using violence and even apologized and expressed his regrets for it, especially during the Frog Lake Massacre. </li></ul><ul><li>Riel was sentenced to death and hanged, whereas Big Bear was imprisoned after the surrender of both the Cree and Métis. </li></ul><ul><li>Shortly after the first election took place in the North-West Territory, now Saskatchewan. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Homework <ul><li>Please research the many battles that occurred during the North-West Rebellion. Write a few sentences about each battle and what the result of them were. It is to be handed in at the beginning of next class for participation marks. </li></ul>