The Value of Estuarine and Coastal Ecosystem Services EDWARD B. BARBIER, SALLY D. HACKER, CHRIS KENNEDY, EVAMARIA W. KOCH, ADRIAN C. STIER, AND BRIAN R. SILLIMAN
Who is the author?Edward B. BarbierProfessor of Economics,Department of Economics andFinance, University of Wyoming.He has over 25 yearsexperience as an environmentaland resource economist, workingon natural resource anddevelopment issues as well as theinterface between economics andecology.He has served as a consultantand policy analyst for a variety ofnational, international and non-governmental agencies, includingmany UN organizations and theWorld Bank.
Main goal of this paper Integrating knowledge1. To illustrate the current state of identifying, assessing, and valuing the key ecosystem services of Estuarine Coastal Ecosystems.2. What is the current state of progress in integrating knowledge about the “Ecological production function”.3. Economic valuation methods to value changes in services in terms of Impacts on human welfare.
Coral Reef Services Raw materials (lime) Coastal protection Maintenance of fisheries Nutrient cyclingTourism, Recreation, Education, Research
The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef system, composed of more than 2900 coral reefs and more than 900 individual islands http://cool-travel-vacations.blogspot.com/2008/07/great-barrier-reef-spans-almost-350000.htmlNortheast of Queensland, Australia, some 2 million tourists come to the Great Barrier Reef every year. In 2005, it was estimated that this tourism generated 5.1 Billion Australian dollars, up from 4 Billion Australian dollars in 2003.
Sumatra TsunamiWhere dynamite fishing had occurred suffered 70% greater wave heights thanundisturbed areas during the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (Fernando et al. 2005). http://www.enterprisemission.com/hyperquake.htm
Tropical islands disappearing as a result of coral mining and sea level rise Indian Ocean’s Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve http://theseamonster.net/2011/05/tropical-islands-disappearing-as-a-result-of-coral-mining/
Eutrophication Baltic Sea Finland underwater image is from the southern coasthttp://coastalchallenges.com/category/eutrophication/ of Finland, photo (c) 2010 Erkki Siirila.
Gulf of OmanThe Gulf of Oman scientists found almost 500 square kilometers of coral reef simplyoverwhelmed a massive algae bloom. The researchers found that almost 95% of thecoral under the surface of these blooms died rapidly under the foreign conditions. http://electrictreehouse.com/aglae-blooms-are-killing-coral/
Coastal Development, dredging and sedimentationAn aerial view of the coastline along Hawaii Kai on the Hawaiian Island of Oahu where organic sediment is one of the major threat to the reef. Photograph: Ed Darack/Corbis http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/sep/02/coral-catastrophic-future
Biological InvasionIn 1992, Hurricane Andrew smashed an aquarium tank in Florida. About a half- dozen spiny, venomous lionfish washed into the Atlantic Ocean… Originally from the Pacific Ocean, the spiny, venomous lionfish can kill three-quarters of an Atlantic coral reefs fish population in just five weeks (Hixon, 2005) http://www.worldzootoday.com/2009/08/11/spreading-lionfish-invasion-threatens-bahamas/
Seagrasses Services Coastal protection Erosion control Water purification Maintenance of fisheriesCarbon sequestration (~50% of carbon burial in the ocean) Tourism, recreation, education and research
Australia SeagrassAction Planninghttp://www.seagrasswatch.org/training.html http://ian.umces.edu/bill/pdfs/seagrass_in_australia.pdf Loss of 12,700 ha of seagrasses in Australia is associated with lost fishery production of AU$23, 000 (McArthur and Boland 2006)
Seagrass Stressors1. Eutrophication2. Overharvesting3. Sediment runoff4. Algal blooms5. Commercial fisheries Seaweed farming on seagrass beds at6. Aquaculture practices Bwejuu beach island of Zanzibar Tanzania http://www.photographersdirect.com/buyers/stockphoto.asp?imageid=15224687. Vegetation disturbance8. Global warming
Salt Marshes http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_marsh• Intertidal grasslands• Low energy-wave protected shorelines• Continental margins• Sharp zonation of plants• Low species diversity• High primary and secondary production
Salt Marshes Services• Coastal protection• Erosion control• Water purification• Maintenance of fisheries• Carbon sequestration• Tourism, recreation, education, and research http://saltmarshlife.com/salt-marsh/ecology.html
Longton Marsh Ribble Estuary EnglandRibble Estuary on England’s west coast, annual net income from grazing in a saltmarsh nature reserve is: ￡15.27/ha yr (King and Lester 1995).
Louisiana USA$785 to $15 000/acre year in savings on wastewater treatment http://comiteresources.net/wa_bernard.asp
Salt Marshes Stressors Biological invasions Eutrophication Climate change Sea level rise Increasing air and sea surface temperatures Increasing CO2 concentrations Altered hydrologic regimes Marsh reclamation Vegetation disturbance Pollution
Oil contamination Louisiana Marshes Grant to study effects of oil and dispersants on Louisiana salt marsh ecosystem: http://www.physorg.com/news201229977.html The coast of Louisiana is lined with extensive salt marshes whose foundation is two species of Spartina grass. Credit: USGS
Mangroves• Coastal Forests• Saline tidal areas• Sheltered bays, estuaries, and inlets• Tropic and subtropics• 50-75 woody species• 1970=75% of coastlines• 35% is lost• Disappearing rate = 1-2% annually
Mangrove food web(Ecosystem processes and function) http://www.mesa.edu.au/habitat/chall04.asp
Mangroves Services1. Raw materials and food2. Coastal protection3. Erosion control4. Water purification5. Maintenance of fisheries6. Carbon sequestration7. Tourism, recreation, education and research Mangrove Channel Cabo Rojo, P.R.
Mangrove Stressors• Deforestation for aquaculture expansion 52% (Shrimp farms 38%)• Industrial lumbrer and woodship• Freshwater diversion• Reclamation of land• Herbicides• Agriculture• Salt ponds Pondicherry, India Salt Pond: https://picasaweb.google.com/KolamTamilNadu2008/TamilNaduTourJanuary2009
Lumber and charcoalSingapoore de-barked logs for carcoal Women harvesting mangrove wood inproduction. http://wildshores.blogspot.com/2009/04/how-is- Cameroon. Photo courtesy of Feka andcharcoal-made-from-mangroves.html Manzano (2008).
Mangroves in ThailandMany of the coastal provincesin Thailand have mangroveforests. However, the numberof mangroves over the last 30years or so have decreasedgreatly. In 1961 there were909,346 acres of mangroveforests. By 2002 this numberhad reduced to only 593,052acres. This is mainly due tourbanization, agriculture andaquaculture. In Samut Prakan,many mangroves weredestroyed to make room for http://www.thai-blogs.com/2009/08/10/mangrove-reforestation-in-samut-prakan/shrimp farms, factories andhousing estates.
Sand Beaches and Dunes Low-lying coastal margins structures Sand transported by ocean Marine and terrestrial waves components Vegetation Cover roughly 34% of the Dynamic geomorphic worlds ice-free coastlines. Dunes of Isabela, Puerto Rico
Sand Beaches and Dunes Services1. Raw materials2. Coastal protection3. Erosion control4. Water catchment and purification5. Maintenance of wildlife6. Carbon sequestration7. Tourism, recreation, education and research Meijendel dunes in The Netherlands http://www.boerhaavextern.nl/SPNHC2009/LightNEasy.php?page=Fieldtrips
The Greater St Lucia Wetland Park has 8 inter-linking ecosystemsand is considered the most definitive Eco-tourist experience.The vegetated coastal dunes are estimated to be 25 000 years old and are the highestdune forests (exceeding 180 m in height) in the World. There are 36 snake species, 80dragonfly species, 526 bird species, 110 butterfly species; 114 species of fish…. http://www.lidikolodge.co.za/wb/pages/home/the-greater-st-lucia-wetland-park.php
Sand Beaches and Dunes Stressors Mining Human use Species invasions Climate change http://www.jstor.org/pss/25098214
Coastal Dune MiningMaphelane Dunes , South Africa (Photo. Paul Dutton) http://www.satsa.com/Downloads/ZWF%203rd%20Appeal%20Ref%202811%20B.htm
One regular summer day at beach in Haeundae Beach South Korea
Conclusion Toward a management action plan• More interdisciplinary studies (sea grass beads and sand dunes have not been assessed properly)• Destruction of these ECEs can no longer be viewed as costless• In many developing countries, local government should involve co-management• Encourage ecological restoration
Conclusion Toward a management action plan• Time and space variability• Interconnection (single “seascape”)• Rate of degradation + human drivers• Monetary value vs. survival (infinite value) Why should we put monetary value to coastal estuarine ecosystems? Can we consider a good approach to set an infinite monetary value and focus on restoration and sustainable management?
FAO thematic paper: The role of coastal forests and trees in protecting against coastal erosion http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/ag127e/AG127E09.htm