The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystems

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  • Limestone habitat,Shallow coastal waters,Tropics,Hundreds of kilometers,Knidarian + zooplacton,Coralline algae
  • Sodium cyanide  is a potent inhibitor of respiration. Cyanide salts are among the most rapidly acting of all known poisons. Cyanide concentration slows photosynthesis in zooxanthellae.Cyanide fishing is practiced mainly in saltwater fishing regions of Southeast Asia. 
  • With an increase in temperature the symbiosis between the zooxantela and
  • The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystems

    1. 1. The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services<br />EDWARD B. BARBIER, <br />SALLY D. HACKER, CHRIS KENNEDY, EVAMARIA W. KOCH, ADRIAN C. STIER,<br />AND BRIAN R. SILLIMAN<br />
    2. 2. Edward B. Barbier<br /><ul><li>Professor of Economics, Department of Economics and Finance, University of Wyoming.
    3. 3. He has over 25 years experience as an environmental and resource economist, working on natural resource and development issues as well as the interface between economics and ecology.
    4. 4. He has served as a consultant and policy analyst for a variety of national, international and non-governmental agencies, including many UN organizations and the World Bank.</li></ul>Who is the author?<br />
    5. 5. Main goal of this paper<br />Integrating knowledge <br />To illustrate the current state of identifying, assessing, and valuing the key ecosystem services of Estuarine Coastal Ecosystems.<br />What is the current state of progress in integrating knowledge about the “Ecological production function”.<br />Economic valuation methods to value changes in services in terms of Impacts on human welfare.<br />
    6. 6. 5 Critical Estuarine Coastal Ecosystems<br />
    7. 7.
    8. 8. Coral reefs<br />http://en.bestpicturesof.com/gelatinous%20zooplankton<br />http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archivo:Coral_reef_locations.jpg<br />
    9. 9. Raw materials (lime)<br />Coastal protection<br />Maintenance of fisheries<br />Nutrient cycling<br />Tourism, Recreation, Education, Research<br />Coral Reef Services<br />
    10. 10. The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system, composed of more than 2900 coral reefs and more than 900 individual islands<br />http://cool-travel-vacations.blogspot.com/2008/07/great-barrier-reef-spans-almost-350000.html<br />Northeast of Queensland, Australia, some 2 million tourists come to the Great Barrier Reef every year. In 2005, it was estimated that this tourism generated 5.1 Billion Australian dollars, up from 4 Billion Australian dollars in 2003.<br />
    11. 11. Lime<br />http://www.healthtotem.com/en/coral/c_safe.html<br />http://imageshack.us/f/193/2321342412.png/<br />
    12. 12. Coral Reef Stressors<br />
    13. 13. Overfishing<br />http://sitemaker.umich.edu/gc2sec7labgroup3/over-fishing<br />
    14. 14. Dynamite fishing<br />http://plaza.ufl.edu/bettie/coralreef.html<br />
    15. 15. Sumatra Tsunami<br />Where dynamite fishing had occurred suffered 70% greater wave heights than undisturbed areas during the 2004 IndianOcean Tsunami (Fernando et al. 2005).<br />http://www.enterprisemission.com/hyperquake.htm<br />
    16. 16. Cyanide Fishing <br />http://www.braaschphotography.com/pages/077.htm<br />
    17. 17. Tropical islands disappearing as a result of coral mining and sea level rise <br />Indian Ocean’s Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve<br />http://theseamonster.net/2011/05/tropical-islands-disappearing-as-a-result-of-coral-mining/<br />
    18. 18. Eutrophication Baltic Sea <br />Finland<br />underwater image is from the southern coast of Finland, photo (c) 2010 ErkkiSiirila.<br />http://coastalchallenges.com/category/eutrophication/<br />
    19. 19. Gulf of Oman<br />The Gulf of Oman scientists found almost 500 square kilometers of coral reef simply overwhelmed a massive algae bloom. The researchers found that almost 95% of the coral under the surface of these blooms died rapidly under the foreign conditions.<br />http://electrictreehouse.com/aglae-blooms-are-killing-coral/<br />
    20. 20. Coastal Development, dredging and sedimentation<br />An aerial view of the coastline along Hawaii Kai on the Hawaiian Island of Oahu where organic sediment is one of the major threat to the reef. <br />Photograph: Ed Darack/Corbis<br />http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/sep/02/coral-catastrophic-future<br />
    21. 21. Biological Invasion<br />In 1992, Hurricane Andrew smashed an aquarium tank in Florida. About a half-dozen spiny, venomous lionfish washed into the Atlantic Ocean…<br />Originally from the Pacific Ocean, the spiny, venomous lionfish can kill three-quarters of an Atlantic coral reef's fish population in just five weeks(Hixon, 2005)<br />http://www.worldzootoday.com/2009/08/11/spreading-lionfish-invasion-threatens-bahamas/<br />
    22. 22. Bleaching<br />
    23. 23. Seagrass Beads<br /><ul><li>Shallow marine estuarine habitats
    24. 24. Soft substrates (mud, sand, cobble)
    25. 25. ~ 11% of surface light
    26. 26. Wave-sheltered conditions</li></ul>http://www.seagrasswatch.org/seagrass.html<br />
    27. 27. Seagrasses Services<br />Coastal protection<br />Erosion control<br />Water purification<br />Maintenance of fisheries<br />Carbon sequestration (~50% of carbon burial in the ocean)<br />Tourism, recreation, education and research<br />
    28. 28. Australia Seagrass<br />Action<br />http://www.seagrasswatch.org/training.html<br />Planning<br />http://ian.umces.edu/bill/pdfs/seagrass_in_australia.pdf<br />Loss of 12,700 ha of seagrasses in Australia is associated with lost fishery production of AU$23, 000 (McArthur and Boland 2006)<br />
    29. 29. Seagrass Stressors<br />Eutrophication<br />Overharvesting<br />Sediment runoff<br />Algal blooms<br />Commercial fisheries<br />Aquaculture practices<br />Vegetation disturbance<br />Global warming<br />Seaweed farming on seagrass beds at Bwejuubeach island of Zanzibar Tanzania <br />http://www.photographersdirect.com/buyers/stockphoto.asp?imageid=1522468<br />
    30. 30. Salt Marsheshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_marsh<br />Intertidal grasslands<br />Low energy-wave protected shorelines<br />Continental margins<br />Sharp zonation of plants <br />Low species diversity<br />High primary and secondary production <br />
    31. 31. Salt Marshes Services<br /><ul><li>Coastal protection
    32. 32. Erosion control
    33. 33. Water purification
    34. 34. Maintenance of fisheries
    35. 35. Carbon sequestration
    36. 36. Tourism, recreation, education, and research</li></ul>http://saltmarshlife.com/salt-marsh/ecology.html<br />
    37. 37. Longton MarshRibbleEstuary England<br />RibbleEstuary on England’s west coast, annual net income from grazing in a salt marsh nature reserve is: £15.27/ha yr (King and Lester 1995).<br />
    38. 38. Louisiana USA $785 to $15 000/acre year in savings on wastewater treatment<br />http://comiteresources.net/wa_bernard.asp<br />
    39. 39. Salt Marshes Stressors<br />Biological invasions<br />Eutrophication<br />Climate change<br />Sea level rise<br />Increasing air and sea surface temperatures<br />Increasing CO2 concentrations<br />Altered hydrologic regimes<br />Marsh reclamation<br />Vegetation disturbance<br />Pollution<br />
    40. 40. Oil contamination Louisiana Marshes<br />Grant to study effects of oil and dispersants on Louisiana salt marsh ecosystem: http://www.physorg.com/news201229977.html<br />The coast of Louisiana is lined with extensive salt marshes whose foundation is two species of Spartina grass. Credit: USGS<br />
    41. 41. Mangroves<br />Coastal Forests<br />Saline tidal areas<br />Sheltered bays, estuaries, and inlets<br />Tropic and subtropics<br />50-75 woody species<br />1970=75% of coastlines <br />35% is lost <br />Disappearing rate = 1-2% annually<br />
    42. 42. Mangrove food web(Ecosystem processes and function) <br />http://www.mesa.edu.au/habitat/chall04.asp<br />
    43. 43. Mangroves Services<br />Raw materials and food<br />Coastal protection<br />Erosion control<br />Water purification<br />Maintenance of fisheries<br />Carbon sequestration<br />Tourism, recreation, education and research<br />Mangrove Channel <br />CaboRojo, P.R.<br />
    44. 44. Mangrove Stressors<br />Deforestation for aquaculture expansion 52% (Shrimp farms 38%)<br />Industrial lumbrer and woodship<br />Freshwater diversion<br />Reclamation of land<br />Herbicides<br />Agriculture<br />Salt ponds<br />Pondicherry, India Salt Pond: https://picasaweb.google.com/KolamTamilNadu2008/TamilNaduTourJanuary2009<br />
    45. 45. Lumber and charcoal<br />Women harvesting mangrove wood in Cameroon. Photo courtesy of Feka and Manzano (2008).<br />Singapoorede-barked logs for carcoal production. http://wildshores.blogspot.com/2009/04/how-is-charcoal-made-from-mangroves.html<br />
    46. 46. Mangrooves in Tailand<br />Many of the coastal provinces in Thailand have mangrove forests. However, the number of mangroves over the last 30 years or so have decreased greatly. In 1961 there were 909,346 acres of mangrove forests. By 2002 this number had reduced to only 593,052 acres. This is mainly due to urbanization, agriculture and aquaculture. In SamutPrakan, many mangroves were destroyed to make room for shrimp farms, factories and housing estates.<br />http://www.thai-blogs.com/2009/08/10/mangrove-reforestation-in-samut-prakan/<br />
    47. 47. Sand Beaches and Dunes<br /><ul><li>Low-lying coastal margins
    48. 48. Sand transported by ocean waves
    49. 49. Vegetation
    50. 50. Dynamic geomorphic structures
    51. 51. Marine and terrestrial components
    52. 52. Cover roughly 34% of the worlds ice-free coastlines. </li></ul>Dunes ofIsabela, Puerto Rico<br />
    53. 53. Sand Beaches and Dunes Services<br />Raw materials<br />Coastal protection<br />Erosion control<br />Water catchment and purification<br />Maintenance of wildlife<br />Carbon sequestration<br />Tourism, recreation, education and research<br />Meijendel dunes in The Netherlands<br />http://www.boerhaavextern.nl/SPNHC2009/LightNEasy.php?page=Fieldtrips<br />
    54. 54. The Greater St Lucia Wetland Park has 8 inter-linking ecosystems and is considered the most definitive Eco-tourist experience.<br />The vegetated coastal dunes are estimated to be 25 000 years old and are the highest dune forests (exceeding 180 m in height) in the World. There are 36 snake species, 80 dragonfly species, 526 bird species, 110 butterfly species; 114 species of fish….<br />http://www.lidikolodge.co.za/wb/pages/home/the-greater-st-lucia-wetland-park.php<br />
    55. 55. Sand Beaches and Dunes Stressors<br />Mining<br />Human use<br />Species invasions<br />Climate change<br />http://www.jstor.org/pss/25098214<br />
    56. 56. Coastal Dune Mining MaphelaneDunes , South Africa (Photo. Paul Dutton) http://www.satsa.com/Downloads/ZWF%203rd%20Appeal%20Ref%202811%20B.htm<br />
    57. 57. One regular summer day at  beach in HaeundaeBeach SouthKorea<br />
    58. 58. ConclusionToward a management action plan<br />More interdisciplinary studies (sea grass beads and sand dunes have not been assessed properly)<br />Destruction of these ECEs can no longer be viewed as costless (Infinite value)<br />In many developing countries, local government should involve co-management<br />Encourage ecological restoration<br />
    59. 59. ConclusionToward a management action plan<br />Time and space variability<br />Interconnection (single “seascape”)<br />Rate of degradation + human drivers<br />Monetary value vs. survival (infinite value)<br />Why should we put monetary value to coastal estuarine ecosystems? <br />Can we consider a good approach to set an infinite monetary value and focus on restoration and sustainable management? <br />
    60. 60. FAO thematic paper: The role of coastal forests and trees in protecting against coastal erosion<br />http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/ag127e/AG127E09.htm<br />

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