The Value of Estuarine and Coastal       Ecosystem Services         EDWARD B. BARBIER,   SALLY D. HACKER, CHRIS KENNEDY, E...
Who is the author?Edward B. BarbierProfessor of Economics,Department of Economics andFinance, University of Wyoming.He h...
Main goal of this paper                  Integrating knowledge1. To illustrate the current state of identifying,   assessi...
5 Critical Estuarine Coastal         Ecosystems            Coral reef          Sea Grass         Salt marshes          Man...
Coral reefshttp://en.bestpicturesof.com/gelatinous%20zooplankton                                                        ht...
Coral Reef Services          Raw materials (lime)           Coastal protection       Maintenance of fisheries            N...
The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef system, composed of      more than 2900 coral reefs and more than ...
Limehttp://www.healthtotem.com/en/coral/c_safe.html          http://imageshack.us/f/193/2321342412.png/
Coral Reef Stressors
Overfishing http://sitemaker.umich.edu/gc2sec7labgroup3/over-fishing
Dynamite fishing    http://plaza.ufl.edu/bettie/coralreef.html
Sumatra TsunamiWhere dynamite fishing had occurred suffered 70% greater wave heights thanundisturbed areas during the 2004...
Cyanide Fishinghttp://www.braaschphotography.com/pages/077.htm
Tropical islands disappearing as a result of      coral mining and sea level rise        Indian Ocean’s Gulf of Mannar Bio...
Eutrophication                                                                      Baltic Sea                            ...
Gulf of OmanThe Gulf of Oman scientists found almost 500 square kilometers of coral reef simplyoverwhelmed a massive algae...
Coastal Development, dredging and                  sedimentationAn aerial view of the coastline along Hawaii Kai on the Ha...
Biological InvasionIn 1992, Hurricane Andrew smashed an aquarium tank in Florida. About a half-       dozen spiny, venomou...
Bleaching
Seagrass Beads Shallow marine estuarine habitats  ~ 11% of surface light Soft substrates (mud, sand, cobble)  Wave-she...
Seagrasses Services                      Coastal protection                       Erosion control                      Wat...
Australia SeagrassAction                                        Planninghttp://www.seagrasswatch.org/training.html    http...
Seagrass Stressors1.   Eutrophication2.   Overharvesting3.   Sediment runoff4.   Algal blooms5.   Commercial fisheries    ...
Salt Marshes                  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_marsh• Intertidal grasslands• Low energy-wave  protected s...
Salt Marshes Services•   Coastal protection•   Erosion control•   Water purification•   Maintenance of fisheries•   Carbon...
Longton Marsh                 Ribble Estuary EnglandRibble Estuary on England’s west coast, annual net income from grazing...
Louisiana USA$785 to $15 000/acre year in savings      on wastewater treatment                                http://comit...
Salt Marshes Stressors             Biological invasions                Eutrophication                Climate change       ...
Oil contamination Louisiana Marshes   Grant to study effects of oil and dispersants on Louisiana salt   marsh ecosystem: h...
Mangroves•   Coastal Forests•   Saline tidal areas•   Sheltered bays, estuaries, and inlets•   Tropic and subtropics•   50...
Mangrove food web(Ecosystem processes and function)                       http://www.mesa.edu.au/habitat/chall04.asp
Mangroves Services1.   Raw materials and food2.   Coastal protection3.   Erosion control4.   Water purification5.   Mainte...
Mangrove Stressors• Deforestation for aquaculture expansion 52%  (Shrimp farms 38%)• Industrial lumbrer and woodship• Fres...
Lumber and charcoalSingapoore de-barked logs for carcoal                        Women harvesting mangrove wood inproductio...
Mangroves in ThailandMany of the coastal provincesin Thailand have mangroveforests. However, the numberof mangroves over t...
Sand Beaches and Dunes Low-lying coastal margins     structures Sand transported by ocean    Marine and terrestrial  wa...
Sand Beaches and Dunes Services1.   Raw materials2.   Coastal protection3.   Erosion control4.   Water catchment and     p...
The Greater St Lucia Wetland Park has 8 inter-linking ecosystemsand is considered the most definitive Eco-tourist experien...
Sand Beaches and Dunes       Stressors           Mining         Human use      Species invasions       Climate change     ...
Coastal Dune MiningMaphelane Dunes , South Africa    (Photo. Paul Dutton)  http://www.satsa.com/Downloads/ZWF%203rd%20Appe...
One regular summer day at beach in   Haeundae Beach South Korea
Conclusion  Toward a management action plan• More interdisciplinary studies (sea grass beads  and sand dunes have not been...
Conclusion    Toward a management action plan•   Time and space variability•   Interconnection (single “seascape”)•   Rate...
FAO thematic paper: The role of coastal forests and trees in            protecting against coastal erosion                ...
The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystems
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystems

1,491 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,491
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
50
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystems

  1. 1. The Value of Estuarine and Coastal Ecosystem Services EDWARD B. BARBIER, SALLY D. HACKER, CHRIS KENNEDY, EVAMARIA W. KOCH, ADRIAN C. STIER, AND BRIAN R. SILLIMAN
  2. 2. Who is the author?Edward B. BarbierProfessor of Economics,Department of Economics andFinance, University of Wyoming.He has over 25 yearsexperience as an environmentaland resource economist, workingon natural resource anddevelopment issues as well as theinterface between economics andecology.He has served as a consultantand policy analyst for a variety ofnational, international and non-governmental agencies, includingmany UN organizations and theWorld Bank.
  3. 3. Main goal of this paper Integrating knowledge1. To illustrate the current state of identifying, assessing, and valuing the key ecosystem services of Estuarine Coastal Ecosystems.2. What is the current state of progress in integrating knowledge about the “Ecological production function”.3. Economic valuation methods to value changes in services in terms of Impacts on human welfare.
  4. 4. 5 Critical Estuarine Coastal Ecosystems Coral reef Sea Grass Salt marshes Mangrove Sand Beaches Dunes
  5. 5. Coral reefshttp://en.bestpicturesof.com/gelatinous%20zooplankton http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archivo:Coral_reef_locations.jpg
  6. 6. Coral Reef Services Raw materials (lime) Coastal protection Maintenance of fisheries Nutrient cyclingTourism, Recreation, Education, Research
  7. 7. The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef system, composed of more than 2900 coral reefs and more than 900 individual islands http://cool-travel-vacations.blogspot.com/2008/07/great-barrier-reef-spans-almost-350000.htmlNortheast of Queensland, Australia, some 2 million tourists come to the Great Barrier Reef every year. In 2005, it was estimated that this tourism generated 5.1 Billion Australian dollars, up from 4 Billion Australian dollars in 2003.
  8. 8. Limehttp://www.healthtotem.com/en/coral/c_safe.html http://imageshack.us/f/193/2321342412.png/
  9. 9. Coral Reef Stressors
  10. 10. Overfishing http://sitemaker.umich.edu/gc2sec7labgroup3/over-fishing
  11. 11. Dynamite fishing http://plaza.ufl.edu/bettie/coralreef.html
  12. 12. Sumatra TsunamiWhere dynamite fishing had occurred suffered 70% greater wave heights thanundisturbed areas during the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (Fernando et al. 2005). http://www.enterprisemission.com/hyperquake.htm
  13. 13. Cyanide Fishinghttp://www.braaschphotography.com/pages/077.htm
  14. 14. Tropical islands disappearing as a result of coral mining and sea level rise Indian Ocean’s Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve http://theseamonster.net/2011/05/tropical-islands-disappearing-as-a-result-of-coral-mining/
  15. 15. Eutrophication Baltic Sea Finland underwater image is from the southern coasthttp://coastalchallenges.com/category/eutrophication/ of Finland, photo (c) 2010 Erkki Siirila.
  16. 16. Gulf of OmanThe Gulf of Oman scientists found almost 500 square kilometers of coral reef simplyoverwhelmed a massive algae bloom. The researchers found that almost 95% of thecoral under the surface of these blooms died rapidly under the foreign conditions. http://electrictreehouse.com/aglae-blooms-are-killing-coral/
  17. 17. Coastal Development, dredging and sedimentationAn aerial view of the coastline along Hawaii Kai on the Hawaiian Island of Oahu where organic sediment is one of the major threat to the reef. Photograph: Ed Darack/Corbis http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/sep/02/coral-catastrophic-future
  18. 18. Biological InvasionIn 1992, Hurricane Andrew smashed an aquarium tank in Florida. About a half- dozen spiny, venomous lionfish washed into the Atlantic Ocean… Originally from the Pacific Ocean, the spiny, venomous lionfish can kill three-quarters of an Atlantic coral reefs fish population in just five weeks (Hixon, 2005) http://www.worldzootoday.com/2009/08/11/spreading-lionfish-invasion-threatens-bahamas/
  19. 19. Bleaching
  20. 20. Seagrass Beads Shallow marine estuarine habitats  ~ 11% of surface light Soft substrates (mud, sand, cobble)  Wave-sheltered conditions http://www.seagrasswatch.org/seagrass.html
  21. 21. Seagrasses Services Coastal protection Erosion control Water purification Maintenance of fisheriesCarbon sequestration (~50% of carbon burial in the ocean) Tourism, recreation, education and research
  22. 22. Australia SeagrassAction Planninghttp://www.seagrasswatch.org/training.html http://ian.umces.edu/bill/pdfs/seagrass_in_australia.pdf Loss of 12,700 ha of seagrasses in Australia is associated with lost fishery production of AU$23, 000 (McArthur and Boland 2006)
  23. 23. Seagrass Stressors1. Eutrophication2. Overharvesting3. Sediment runoff4. Algal blooms5. Commercial fisheries Seaweed farming on seagrass beds at6. Aquaculture practices Bwejuu beach island of Zanzibar Tanzania http://www.photographersdirect.com/buyers/stockphoto.asp?imageid=15224687. Vegetation disturbance8. Global warming
  24. 24. Salt Marshes http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_marsh• Intertidal grasslands• Low energy-wave protected shorelines• Continental margins• Sharp zonation of plants• Low species diversity• High primary and secondary production
  25. 25. Salt Marshes Services• Coastal protection• Erosion control• Water purification• Maintenance of fisheries• Carbon sequestration• Tourism, recreation, education, and research http://saltmarshlife.com/salt-marsh/ecology.html
  26. 26. Longton Marsh Ribble Estuary EnglandRibble Estuary on England’s west coast, annual net income from grazing in a saltmarsh nature reserve is: £15.27/ha yr (King and Lester 1995).
  27. 27. Louisiana USA$785 to $15 000/acre year in savings on wastewater treatment http://comiteresources.net/wa_bernard.asp
  28. 28. Salt Marshes Stressors Biological invasions Eutrophication Climate change Sea level rise Increasing air and sea surface temperatures Increasing CO2 concentrations Altered hydrologic regimes Marsh reclamation Vegetation disturbance Pollution
  29. 29. Oil contamination Louisiana Marshes Grant to study effects of oil and dispersants on Louisiana salt marsh ecosystem: http://www.physorg.com/news201229977.html The coast of Louisiana is lined with extensive salt marshes whose foundation is two species of Spartina grass. Credit: USGS
  30. 30. Mangroves• Coastal Forests• Saline tidal areas• Sheltered bays, estuaries, and inlets• Tropic and subtropics• 50-75 woody species• 1970=75% of coastlines• 35% is lost• Disappearing rate = 1-2% annually
  31. 31. Mangrove food web(Ecosystem processes and function) http://www.mesa.edu.au/habitat/chall04.asp
  32. 32. Mangroves Services1. Raw materials and food2. Coastal protection3. Erosion control4. Water purification5. Maintenance of fisheries6. Carbon sequestration7. Tourism, recreation, education and research Mangrove Channel Cabo Rojo, P.R.
  33. 33. Mangrove Stressors• Deforestation for aquaculture expansion 52% (Shrimp farms 38%)• Industrial lumbrer and woodship• Freshwater diversion• Reclamation of land• Herbicides• Agriculture• Salt ponds Pondicherry, India Salt Pond: https://picasaweb.google.com/KolamTamilNadu2008/TamilNaduTourJanuary2009
  34. 34. Lumber and charcoalSingapoore de-barked logs for carcoal Women harvesting mangrove wood inproduction. http://wildshores.blogspot.com/2009/04/how-is- Cameroon. Photo courtesy of Feka andcharcoal-made-from-mangroves.html Manzano (2008).
  35. 35. Mangroves in ThailandMany of the coastal provincesin Thailand have mangroveforests. However, the numberof mangroves over the last 30years or so have decreasedgreatly. In 1961 there were909,346 acres of mangroveforests. By 2002 this numberhad reduced to only 593,052acres. This is mainly due tourbanization, agriculture andaquaculture. In Samut Prakan,many mangroves weredestroyed to make room for http://www.thai-blogs.com/2009/08/10/mangrove-reforestation-in-samut-prakan/shrimp farms, factories andhousing estates.
  36. 36. Sand Beaches and Dunes Low-lying coastal margins structures Sand transported by ocean  Marine and terrestrial waves components Vegetation  Cover roughly 34% of the Dynamic geomorphic worlds ice-free coastlines. Dunes of Isabela, Puerto Rico
  37. 37. Sand Beaches and Dunes Services1. Raw materials2. Coastal protection3. Erosion control4. Water catchment and purification5. Maintenance of wildlife6. Carbon sequestration7. Tourism, recreation, education and research Meijendel dunes in The Netherlands http://www.boerhaavextern.nl/SPNHC2009/LightNEasy.php?page=Fieldtrips
  38. 38. The Greater St Lucia Wetland Park has 8 inter-linking ecosystemsand is considered the most definitive Eco-tourist experience.The vegetated coastal dunes are estimated to be 25 000 years old and are the highestdune forests (exceeding 180 m in height) in the World. There are 36 snake species, 80dragonfly species, 526 bird species, 110 butterfly species; 114 species of fish…. http://www.lidikolodge.co.za/wb/pages/home/the-greater-st-lucia-wetland-park.php
  39. 39. Sand Beaches and Dunes Stressors Mining Human use Species invasions Climate change http://www.jstor.org/pss/25098214
  40. 40. Coastal Dune MiningMaphelane Dunes , South Africa (Photo. Paul Dutton) http://www.satsa.com/Downloads/ZWF%203rd%20Appeal%20Ref%202811%20B.htm
  41. 41. One regular summer day at beach in Haeundae Beach South Korea
  42. 42. Conclusion Toward a management action plan• More interdisciplinary studies (sea grass beads and sand dunes have not been assessed properly)• Destruction of these ECEs can no longer be viewed as costless• In many developing countries, local government should involve co-management• Encourage ecological restoration
  43. 43. Conclusion Toward a management action plan• Time and space variability• Interconnection (single “seascape”)• Rate of degradation + human drivers• Monetary value vs. survival (infinite value) Why should we put monetary value to coastal estuarine ecosystems? Can we consider a good approach to set an infinite monetary value and focus on restoration and sustainable management?
  44. 44. FAO thematic paper: The role of coastal forests and trees in protecting against coastal erosion http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/ag127e/AG127E09.htm

×