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    Intel Core i7 Intel Core i7 Document Transcript

    • A SEMINAR REPORT ON “CORE i7 PROCESSORS” Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Requirement for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Computer Engineering. ACADEMIC SESSION 2012-13Submitted To : Submitted By :Mr. Andleeb Hussain Anagha Vijayvargia (HOD Deptt. of Computer Engineering) (09EMHCS006) MAHARISHI ARVIND INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KOTA (RAJ.) (Approved by AICTE, Affiliated to Rajasthan Technical University, Kota)
    • CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that Mr. Anagha Vijayvargia student of Maharishi Arvind InternationalInstitute of Technology, Kota pursuing B.Tech in Computer Engineering has presented aSeminar on CORE i7 PROCESSORS the topic allotted to him under the Seminar Lab.He has presented a seminar on CORE i7 PROCESSORS and this report is approved forsubmission.Place : KotaDate :Mr. Ankur Agrawal(Lecturer, Computer Engineering) Mr. Andleeb Hussain (HOD of Computer Engineering)
    • PREFACEThe Intel Core i7 processor is the latest in cutting edge processor with fastest, intelligent,multi core technology for the desktop PC.Intel Core i7 processor delivers four complete execution cores within a single processor,delivering unprecedented performance and responsiveness in multi-threaded and multi-tasking business and home use environments.More instructions can be carried out per clock cycle, shorter and wider pipelines executecommands more quickly, and improved bus lanes move data throughout the system faster.Their performance is almost always higher, which is especially evident in case of multi-threaded load and their power consumption is comparable with that of their predecessors.Over clocking the core i7 processors also seems to be easier. Servers will also likely benefitgreatly from using an i7 - the memory bandwidth is simply insane. Core i7 is first processorusing Nehalem Micro-architecture, with faster, intelligent, multi-core technology that appliesprocessing power where its needed most, new Intel Core i7 processors deliver an incrediblebreakthrough in PC performance. They are the best desktop processor family on the planet. Itis the combination of Intel Turbo Boost technology and Intel Hyper-Threading technology,which maximizes performance to match our workload.
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI take this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude to the Head of Department,Computer Engineering of Maharishi Arvind International Institute of Technology, Kota.Mr. Andleeb Hussain who has provided this opportunity to me to present a seminar onCORE i7 PROCESSORS.Further I am grateful to Mr. Ankur Agrawal, for his precious guidance and support inpreparation of this seminar report. Anagha Vijayvargia ( 09EMHCS006 )
    • Table of ContentsChapter 1. Introduction .......................................................................................................... 1 1.1. What is Processor ? ..................................................................................................... 1 1.2. Central Processing Unit ............................................................................................... 1Chapter 2. INTEL .................................................................................................................. 4Chapter 3. Intel Core ............................................................................................................. 6 3.1. Overview ..................................................................................................................... 6Chapter 4. Enhanced Pentium M based ................................................................................. 8 4.1. Core Duo ..................................................................................................................... 8 4.2. Core Solo ..................................................................................................................... 9Chapter 5. 64-Bit Core Microarchitecture Based ................................................................ 10 5.1. Core 2 Solo ................................................................................................................ 10 5.2. Core 2 Duo ................................................................................................................ 11 5.3. Core 2 Quad .............................................................................................................. 12 5.4. Core 2 Extreme.......................................................................................................... 13Chapter 6. Nehalem Microarchitecture Based ..................................................................... 15 6.1. Core i3 ....................................................................................................................... 15 6.2. Core i5 ....................................................................................................................... 16 6.3. Core i7 ....................................................................................................................... 17Chapter 7. Sandy Bridge Microarchitecture Based ............................................................. 20 7.1. Core i3 ....................................................................................................................... 20 7.2. Core i5 ....................................................................................................................... 21 7.3. Core i7 ....................................................................................................................... 22Chapter 8. INTEL CORE i7 ................................................................................................ 25Chapter 9. Features And Benefits ........................................................................................ 27 9.1. Quad-Core Processor................................................................................................. 27 9.2. 8 MB Intel Smart Cache ............................................................................................ 27 9.3. Intel Hyper-Threading Technology........................................................................... 27 9.4. Intel 64-bit architecture ............................................................................................. 27 9.5. Intel Turbo Boost Technology .................................................................................. 27 9.6. Integrated memory controller .................................................................................... 28 9.7. Enhanced Intel Speed-Step Technology ................................................................... 28Chapter 10. Specifications And Instruction Set ................................................................. 29 10.1. Specifications......................................................................................................... 29
    • 10.2. Instruction Set ........................................................................................................ 30Chapter 11. Advantages And Disadvantages ..................................................................... 31 11.1. Advantages ............................................................................................................ 31 11.2. Disadvantages ........................................................................................................ 31Chapter 12. Comparison Between i3, i5 and i7 ................................................................. 32Chapter 13. Conclusion...................................................................................................... 34Refrences.................................................................................................................................. 35
    • Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION1.1. What is Processor ?A processor is multipurpose, programmable device that read binary instructions frommemory, accepts binary data as input and processes data according to that instruction, andprovides results as output.It can be viewed as data processing unit of a computer. It hascomputing and decision-making capability.1.2. Central Processing UnitA central processing unit (CPU), also referred to as a central processor unit, is thehardware within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program byperforming the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system. Theterm has been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s. The form, design,and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but theirfundamental operation remains much the same.In older computers, CPUs require one or more printed circuit boards. With the invention ofthe microprocessor, a CPU could be contained within a single silicon chip. The firstcomputers to use microprocessors were personal computers and small workstations. Since the1970s the microprocessor class of CPUs has almost completely overtaken all other CPUimplementations, to the extent that even mainframe computers use one or moremicroprocessors. Modern microprocessors are large scale integrated circuits in packagestypically less than four centimeters square, with hundreds of connecting pins.A computer can have more than one CPU; this is called multiprocessing. Somemicroprocessors can contain multiple CPUs on a single chip; those microprocessors arecalled multi-core processors.Two typical components of a CPU are the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performsarithmetic and logical operations, and the control unit (CU), which extracts instructionsfrom memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary.Not all computational systems rely on a central processing unit. An array processor or vectorprocessor has multiple parallel computing elements, with no one unit considered the "center".In the distributed computing model, problems are solved by a distributed interconnected setof processors. 1
    • 1.3. Generation of ProcessorIn this section we discuss main generations of processor of Intel family.Intel 80386:Intel 80836 is the first 32-bit microprocessor incorporating several main framecomputer Features. It has extensive memory management capabilities. Semiconductormanufacturing process technology used is 1.0µm (micrometer).It has integrated memorymanagement unit.Intel 80486:It is the first Intel microprocessor with internal cache memory. It instructionpipeline is more sophisticated than that of 80386 specially. Internal data conversion logic forboth 8 bit subsystem and 16-bit subsystem. Semiconductor manufacturing process technologyused is 1.0µm and 0.8µm (micrometer).Pentium processor:The Pentium is highly sophisticated compared to 80486. Pentium processor has several newfeature as compared to 80486; they are Superscalar architecture, Power management, 3.3voperation. Pentium Processor is also abbreviated as Pentium Pro. Semiconductormanufacturing process technology used is 0.8µm and 0.6µm and 0.35µm (micrometer).Pentium II processor:The Pentium II is a Pentium pro with on chip MMX. It has four low power states: Auto halt,Stop Grant, Sleep and Deep sleep. Available also as a boxed processor along with heat sink.Semiconductor manufacturing process technology used is 0.35µm and 0.25µm (micrometer).Pentium III processor:The dual processing Pentium Xeon processor is now available at speeds upto 1 GHz andprovides best choice for the entry to mid- range servers and workstations Solution. It utilizes 2
    • a 133 MHz system bus. Semiconductor manufacturing process technology used is 0.25µmand 0.18µm (micrometer).Pentium 4 processor:The Pentium 4 microprocessor is externally superior microprocessor based on The Intel NetBurst micro-architecture. The Pentium 4 microprocessor provides high performance for highend applications. Semiconductor manufacturing process technology used is 0.18µm and0.13µm(micrometer)and 90nm and 65nm(nanometer).Core processor:Core processor means it having more than one core working simultaneously to complete theoperation within time. It uses the size of manufacture technology 65 nm. It includes dual coreprocessor and core to duo processor. Semiconductor manufacturing process technology usedis 65nm (nanometer).Core 2 processor:Core 2 processor uses quad core architecture. It uses the 65nm and 45nm size of core size. Asit is quad core so 4 cores working simultaneously to work faster. Semiconductormanufacturing process technology used is 65nm (nanometer).Core i7 processor:Core i7 processor also uses four core. It is the fastest processor on the planet. Semiconductormanufacturing process technology used is 45 nm (nanometer). 3
    • Chapter 2. INTELIntel Corporation is an American multinational semiconductor chip maker corporationheadquartered in Santa Clara, California. Intel is the worlds largest and highest valuedsemiconductor chip maker, based on revenue. It is the inventor of the x86 seriesof microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers. Intel Corporation,founded on July 18, 1968, is a portmanteau of Integrated Electronics (the fact that "intel" isthe term for intelligence information was also quite suitable).Intel alsomakes motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flashmemory, graphic chips, embedded processors and other devices related to communicationsand computing. Founded by semiconductor pioneers Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore andwidely associated with the executive leadership and vision of Andrew Grove, Intel combinesadvanced chip design capability with a leading-edge manufacturing capability. Though Intelwas originally known primarily to engineers and technologists, its "Intel Inside" advertisingcampaign of the 1990s made it and its Pentium processor household names.Intel was an early developer of SRAM and DRAM memory chips, and this represented themajority of its business until 1981. Although Intel created the worlds first commercialmicroprocessor chip in 1971, it was not until the success of the personal computer (PC) thatthis became its primary business. During the 1990s, Intel invested heavily in newmicroprocessor designs fostering the rapid growth of the computer industry. During thisperiod Intel became the dominant supplier of microprocessors for PCs, and was known foraggressive and sometimes illegal tactics in defense of its market position, particularlyagainst Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), as well as a struggle with Microsoft for controlover the direction of the PC industry. The 2011 rankings of the worlds 100 most valuablebrands published by Millward Brown Optimor showed the companys brand value at number58 and in 2012 at number 49.Intel has also begun research in electrical transmission and generation. Intel has recentlyintroduced a 3-D transistor that improves performance and energy efficiency. Intel has begunmass producing this 3-D transistor, named the Tri-Gate transistor, with their 22 nm process,which is currently used in their 3rd generation core processors initially released on April 29,2012. In 2011, SpectraWatt Inc., a solar cell spinoff of Intel, filed for bankruptcy underChapter 11. 4
    • The Open Source Technology Center at Intel hosts PowerTOP and LatencyTOP, andsupports other open-source projects such as Wayland, Intel Array Building Blocks, IntelThreading Building Blocks, and Xen. 5
    • Chapter 3. Intel CoreIntel Core is a brand name used for various mid-range to high-end consumer andbusiness microprocessors made by Intel.In general, processors sold as Core are more powerful variants of the same processorsmarketed as entry-level Celeron and Pentium. Similarly, identically or more capable versionsof Core processors are also sold as Xeon processors for the server and workstation market.As of 2013 the current lineup of Core processors includes the latest Intel Core i7, Intel Corei5, and Intel Core i3, and the older Intel Core 2 Solo, Intel Core 2 Duo, Intel Core 2 Quad,and Intel Core 2 Extreme lines. Clock speed slowest 1.2 GHZ to fastest 3.5 GHZ (Or 3.9GHZvia Intel Turbo Boost Technology)3.1. Overview Desktop Laptop Brand Code- Code-named Cores Fab Date released Cores Fab Date released named Core Solo Desktop version not available Yonah 1 65 nm January 2006 Core Duo Desktop version not available Yonah 2 65 nm January 2006 September Merom-L 1 65 nm Core 2 Solo Desktop version not available 2007 Penryn-L 1 45 nm May 2008 Conroe 2 65 nm August 2006 Merom 2 65 nm July 2006 Core 2 Duo Allendale 2 65 nm January 2007 Penryn 2 45 nm January 2008 Wolfdale 2 45 nm January 2008 Kentsfield 4 65 nm January 2007 Core 2 Quad Penryn 4 45 nm August 2008 Yorkfield 4 45 nm March 2008 6
    • Conroe XE 2 65 nm July 2006 Merom XE 2 65 nm July 2007Core 2 Extreme Kentsfield XE 4 65 nm November 2006 Penryn XE 2 45 nm January 2008 Yorkfield XE 4 45 nm November 2007 Penryn XE 4 45 nm August 2008 January 2010 Arrandale Clarkdale 2 32 nm 2 32 nm January 2010 February 2011 Sandy Core i3 Sandy Bridge 2 32 nm 2 32 nm February 2011 September Bridge Ivy Bridge 2 22 nm 2 22 nm June 2012 2012 Ivy Bridge September Lynnfield 4 45 nm 2009 Arrandale Clarkdale 2 32 nm 2 32 nm January 2010 January 2010 Sandy Sandy Bridge 4 32 nm 2 32 nm February 2011 January 2011 Bridge Core i5 Sandy Bridge 2 32 nm 2 22 nm May 2012 February 2011 Ivy Bridge Ivy Bridge 4 22 nm 4 22 nm June 2013 April 2012 Haswell Ivy Bridge 2 22 nm 2 22 nm June 2013 April 2012 Haswell Haswell 4 22 nm June 2013 Bloomfield November 2008 4 45 nm Clarksfield Lynnfield September September 4 45 nm Arrandale 4 45 nm Gulftown 2009 2009 6 32 nm Sandy 2 32 nm Sandy Bridge July 2010 January 2010 Core i7 4 32 nm Bridge 4 32 nm Sandy Bridge- January 2011 January 2011 4/6 32 nm Sandy 2 32 nm E November 2011 February 2011 4 22 nm Bridge 2 22 nm Ivy Bridge April 2012 May 2012 4 22 nm Ivy Bridge Haswell June 2013 Bloomfield Clarksfield September Core i7 4 45 nm November 2008 4 45 nm Gulftown Sandy 2009 Extreme 6 32 nm March 2010 4 32 nm Sandy Bridge- Bridge January 2011 Edition 6 32 nm November2011 4 22 nm E Ivy Bridge May 2012 7
    • Chapter 4. Enhanced Pentium M basedThe original Core brand refers to Intels 32-bit mobile dual-core x86 CPUs that derived fromthe Pentium M branded processors. The processor family used a more enhanced version ofthe Intel P6 microarchitecture. It emerged in parallel with the NetBurstmicroarchitecture (Intel P68) of the Pentium 4 brand, and was a precursor of the 64-bit Coremicroarchitecture of Core 2 branded CPUs. The Core brand comprised two branches:the Duo (dual-core) and Solo (Duo with one disabled core, which replaced the Pentium Mbrand of single-core mobile processor).Intel launched the Core brand on January 6, 2006 with the release of the 32-bit Yonah CPU –Intels first dual-core mobile (low-power) processor. Its dual-core layout closely resembledtwo interconnected Pentium M branded CPUs packaged as a single die (piece) silicon chip(IC). Hence, the 32-bit microarchitecture of Core branded CPUs – contrary to its name – hadmore in common with Pentium M branded CPUs than with the subsequent 64-bit Coremicroarchitecture of Core 2 branded CPUs. Despite a major rebranding effort by Intel startingJanuary 2006, some computers with the Yonah core continued to be marked as Pentium M.The Core series is also known for being the first Intel processor to be used as the main CPUfor an Apple Macintosh computer. The Core Duo was the CPU for the first generationMacBook Pro while the Core Solo appeared in Apples Mac mini line. Core Duo signified thebeginning of Apples shift to Intel processors across their entire line. Intel began branding theYonah core CPUs intended for mainstream mobile computers as Pentium Dual-Core, not tobe confused with the desktop 64-bit Core microarchitecture CPUs also branded as PentiumDual-Core.September 2007 and January 4, 2008 marked the discontinuation of a numberof Core branded CPUs including several Core Solo, Core Duo, Celeron and one Core 2 Quadchip. 4.1. Core DuoIntel Core Duo (product code 80539) consists of two cores on one die, a 2 MB L2 cacheshared by both cores, and an arbiter bus that controls both L2 cache and FSB (front-side bus)access. 8
    • Codename Brand name (list) L2 Cache Socket TDP(main article) Core Duo T2xxx 31 WYonah Core Duo L2xxx 2 MB Socket M 15 W Core Duo U2xxx 9W 4.2. Core SoloIntel Core Solo (product code 80538) uses the same two-core die as the Core Duo, butfeatures only one active core. Depending on demand, Intel may also simply disable one of thecores to sell the chip at the Core Solo price—this requires less effort than launching andmaintaining a separate line of CPUs that physically only have one core. Intel used the samestrategy previously with the 486CPU in which early 486SX CPUs were in fact manufacturedas 486DX CPUs but with the FPU disabled. Codename Brand name (list) L2 Cache Socket TDP(main article) Core Solo T1xxx 27–31 WYonah 2 MB Socket M Core Solo U1xxx 5.5–6 W 9
    • Chapter 5. 64-Bit Core Microarchitecture BasedThe successor to Core is the mobile version of the Intel Core 2 line of processors using coresbased upon the Intel Core microarchitecture, released on July 27, 2006. The release of themobile version of Intel Core 2 marks the reunification of Intels desktop and mobile productlines as Core 2 processors were released for desktops and notebooks, unlike the first IntelCore CPUs that were targeted only for notebooks (although some small form factor and all-in-one desktops, like the iMac and the Mac Mini, also used Core processors).Unlike the Intel Core, Intel Core 2 is a 64-bit processor, supporting Intel 64. Anotherdifference between the original Core Duo and the new Core 2 Duo is an increase in theamount of Level 2 cache. The new Core 2 Duo has tripled the amount of on-board cache to 6MB. Core 2 also introduced a quad-core performance variant to the single- and dual-corechips, branded Core 2 Quad, as well as an enthusiast variant, Core 2 Extreme. All three chipsare manufactured at a 65 nm lithography, and in 2008, a 45 nm lithography and support FrontSide Bus speeds ranging from 533 MHz to 1600 MHz In addition, the 45 nm die shrink of theCore microarchitecture adds SSE4.1 support to all Core 2 microprocessors manufactured at a45 nm lithography, therefore increasing the calculation rate of the processors. 5.1. Core 2 SoloThe Core 2 Solo introduced in September 2007, is the successor to the Core Solo and isavailable only as an ultra-low-power mobile processor with 5.5 Watt thermal design power.The original U2xxx series "Merom-L" used a special version of the Merom chipwith CPUIDnumber 10661 (model 22, stepping A1) that only had a single core and was alsoused in some Celeron processors. The later SU3xxx are part of Intels CULV range ofprocessors in a smaller µFC-BGA 956 package but contain the same Penryn chip as the dual-core variants, with one of the cores disabled during manufacturing. Codename Brand name (list) L2 Cache Socket TDP(main article) Merom-L Mobile Core 2 Solo U2xxx 1 MB FCBGA 5.5 W Penryn-L Mobile Core 2 Solo SU3xxx 3 MB BGA956 5.5 W 10
    • 5.2. Core 2 DuoThe majority of the desktop and mobile Core 2 processor variants are Core 2 Duo with twoprocessor cores on a single Merom, Conroe, Allendale, Penryn, or Wolfdale chip. Thesecome in a wide range of performance and power consumption, starting with the relativelyslow ultra-low-power Uxxxx (10 W) and low-power Lxxxx (17 W) versions, to the moreperformance oriented Pxxxx (25 W) and Txxxx (35 W) mobile versions and the Exxxx (65W) desktop models. The mobile Core 2 Duo processors with an S prefix in the name areproduced in a smaller µFC-BGA 956 package, which allows building more compact laptops.Within each line, a higher number usually refers to a better performance, which dependslargely on core and front-side bus clock frequency and amount of second level cache, whichare model-specific. Core 2 Duo processors typically use the full L2 cache of 2, 3, 4, or 6 MBavailable in the specific stepping of the chip, while versions with the amount of cachereduced during manufacturing are sold for the low-end consumer marketas Celeron or Pentium Dual-Core processors. Like those processors, some low-end Core 2Duo models disable features such as Intel Virtualization Technology. Details can be found atthe list of Intel Core 2 microprocessors. Codename Brand name (list) L2 Cache Socket TDP(main article) Mobile Core 2 Duo U7xxx 2 MB 10 W BGA479 Mobile Core 2 Duo L7xxx 4 MB 17 W Merom Mobile Core 2 Duo T5xxx 2 MB Socket M Socket P 35 W BGA479 Mobile Core 2 Duo T7xxx 2–4 MB Core 2 Duo E4xxx 2 MBConroe and LGA 775 65 W Allendale Core 2 Duo E6xxx 2–4 MB 11
    • Mobile Core 2 Duo SU7xxx 3 MB 10W Mobile Core 2 Duo SU9xxx BGA956 Mobile Core 2 Duo SL9xxx 17 W 6 MB Mobile Core 2 Duo SP9xxx 25 W Mobile Core 2 Duo P7xxx 3 MB Penryn Mobile Core 2 Duo P8xxx 25 W Mobile Core 2 Duo P9xxx 6 MB Socket P FCBGA6 Mobile Core 2 Duo T6xxx 2 MB Mobile Core 2 Duo T8xxx 3 MB 35 W Mobile Core 2 Duo T9xxx 6 MB Mobile Core 2 Duo E8xxx 6 MB Socket P 35-55 W Core 2 Duo E7xxx 3 MB Wolfdale LGA 775 65 W Core 2 Duo E8xxx 6 MB 5.3. Core 2 QuadCore 2 Quad processors are multi-chip modules consisting of two dies similar to those usedin Core 2 Duo, forming a quad-core processor. This allows twice the performance of dual-core processors at the same clock frequency in ideal conditions. 12
    • All Core 2 Quad models were versions of Core 2 Duo desktop processors, Kentsfield derivedfrom Conroe and Yorkfield from Wolfdale, but later Penryn-QC was added as a high-endversion of the mobile dual-core Penryn.The Xeon 32xx and 33xx processors are mostly identical versions of the desktop Core 2Quad processors and can be used interchangeably. Codename Brand name (list) L2 Cache Socket TDP(main article) Kentsfield Core 2 Quad Q6xxx 2×4 MB 95–105 W Core 2 Quad Q7xxx 2×1 MB 95 W LGA 775 Yorkfield Core 2 Quad Q8xxx 2×2 MB 65–95 W Core 2 Quad Q9xxx 2×3–2×6 MB Penryn-QC Mobile Core 2 Quad Q9xxx 2×3–2×6 MB Socket P 45 W 5.4. Core 2 ExtremeCore 2 Extreme processors are enthusiast versions of Core 2 Duo and Core 2 Quadprocessors, usually with a higher clock frequency and an unlocked clock multiplier, whichmakes them especially attractive for overclocking.This is similar to earlier Pentium processors labeled as Extreme Edition. Core 2 Extremeprocessors were released at a much higher price than their regular version, often $999 ormore. Codename(main article) Brand name (list) L2 Cache Socket TDP Merom Mobile Core 2 Extreme X7xxx 4 MB Socket P 44 W 13
    • Conroe Core 2 Extreme X6xxx 4 MB LGA 775 75 WKentsfield Core 2 Extreme QX6xxx 2×4 MB LGA 775 130 W Penryn Mobile Core 2 Extreme X9xxx 6 MB Socket P 44 WPenryn-QC Mobile Core 2 Extreme QX9xxx 2×6 MB Socket P 45 WYorkfield Core 2 Extreme QX9xxx 2×6 MB LGA 775 / LGA 771 130–150 W 14
    • Chapter 6. Nehalem Microarchitecture BasedWith the release of the Nehalem microarchitecture in November 2008, Intel introduced anew naming scheme for its Core processors. There are three variants, Core i3, Core i5 andCore i7, but the names no longer correspond to specific technical features like the number ofcores. Instead, the brand is now divided from low-level (i3), through mid-range (i5) to high-end performance (i7), which correspond to three, four and five stars in Intels Intel ProcessorRating following on from the entry-level Celeron (one star) and Pentium (two stars)processors.Common features of all Nehalem based processors include an integrated DDR3memory controller as well as QuickPath Interconnect or PCI Express and Direct MediaInterface on the processor replacing the aging quad-pumped Front Side Bus used in all earlierCore processors. All these processors have 256 KB L2 cache per core, plus up to 12 MBshared level 3 cache. Because of the new I/O interconnect, chipsets and mainboards fromprevious generations can no longer be used with Nehalem based processors. 6.1. Core i3The Core i3 was intended to be the new low end of the performance processor linefrom Intel, following the retirement of the Core 2 brand. The first Core i3 processors werelaunched on January 7, 2010. The first Nehalem based Core i3 was Clarkdale-based, with anintegrated GPU and two cores. The same processor is also available as Core i5 and Pentium,with slightly different configurations.The Core i3-3xxM processors are based on Arrandale, the mobile version of the Clarkdaledesktop processor. They are similar to the Core i5-4xx series but running at lower clockspeeds and without Turbo Boost. According to an Intel FAQ they do not support ErrorCorrection Code (ECC) memory. According to motherboard manufacturer Supermicro, if aCore i3 processor is used with a server chipset platform such as Intel 3400/3420/3450, theCPU will support ECC with UDIMM. When asked, Intel confirmed that, although the Intel 5series chipset supports non-ECC memory only with the Core i5 or i3 processors, using thoseprocessors on a motherboard with 3400 series chipsets it will support the ECC function ofECC memory. A limited number of motherboards by other companies also support ECC withIntel Core ix processors; the Asus P8B WS is an example, but it does not support ECCmemory under Windows non-server operating systems. 15
    • Codename Brand name (list) Cores L3 Cache Socket TDP I/O Bus(main article) Clarkdale Core i3-5xx 4 MB LGA 1156 73 W Direct Media Interface, Integrated GPU Core i3-3xxM 2 3 MB rPGA-988A 35 W Arrandale Core i3-3xxUM 3 MB BGA-1288 18 W 6.2. Core i5The first Core i5 using the Nehalem microarchitecture was introduced on September 8, 2009,as a mainstream variant of the earlier Core i7, theLynnfield core.Lynnfield Core i5 processorshave an 8 MB L3 cache, a DMI bus running at 2.5 GT/s and support for dual-channel DDR3-800/1066/1333 memory and have Hyper-threading disabled. The same processors withdifferent sets of features (Hyper-Threading and other clock frequencies) enabled are soldas Core i7-8xx and Xeon 3400-series processors, which should not be confused with high-endCore i7-9xx and Xeon 3500-series processors based on Bloomfield.The Core i5-5xx mobile processors are named Arrandale and based on the 32 nmWestmere shrink of the Nehalem microarchitecture. Arrandale processors have integratedgraphics capability but only two processor cores. They were released in January 2010,together with Core i7-6xx and Core i3-3xx processors based on the same chip. The L3 cachein Core i5-5xx processors is reduced to 3 MB, while the Core i5-6xx will use the full cacheand the Core i3-3xx will have no support for Turbo Boost. Clarkdale, the desktop version ofArrandale, is sold as Core i5-6xx, along with related Core i3 and Pentium brands. It hasHyper-Threading enabled and the full 4 MB L3 cache.According to Intel "Core i5 desktop processors and desktop boards typically do not supportECC memory", but information on limited ECC support in the Core i3 section also applies toCore i5 and i7. 16
    • Codename Brand name (list) Cores L3 Cache Socket TDP I/O Bus(main article) Core i5-7xx 95 W Lynnfield 4 8 MB Direct Media Interface Core i5-7xxS LGA 1156 82 W Clarkdale Core i5-6xx 4 MB 73–87 W Core i5-5xxM rPGA-988A 35 W Direct Media Interface, Core i5-4xxM 2 Integrated GPU Arrandale 3 MB Core i5-5xxUM BGA-1288 18 W Core i5-4xxUM[32] 6.3. Core i7Intel Core i7 as an Intel brand name applies to several families of desktop and laptop 64 bit x86-64 processors using the Nehalem Westmere, SandyBridge and Ivy Bridge microarchitectures. TheCore i7 brand targets the business and high-end consumer markets for both desktop and laptopcomputers, and is distinguished from the Core i3 (entry-level consumer), Core i5 (mainstreamconsumer), and Xeon (server and workstation) brands.Intel introduced the Core i7 name with the Bloomfield Quad-core processor in late 2008. In2009 new Core i7 models based on the Lynnfield desktop quad-core processor andthe Clarksfield quad-core mobile were added, and models based on the Arrandale dual-coremobile processor were added in January 2010. The first six-core processor in the Core lineupis the Gulftown, which was launched on March 16, 2010. Both the regular Core i7 andthe Extreme Edition are advertised as five stars in the Intel Processor Rating. In January2011, Intel released the second generation of Core i7 processors. Both the first and secondgeneration of Intel Core i7 processors are rated as 5 stars in the Intel processor rating. The 17
    • second generation of Intel core processors are based on the "Sandy Bridge" core and wereupdated in April 2012 with "Ivy Bridge".In each of the first three microarchitecture generations of the brand, Core i7 has familymembers using two distinct system-level architectures, and therefore two distinct sockets (forexample, LGA 1156 and LGA 1366 with Nehalem). In each generation, the highest-performing Core i7 processors use the same socket and QPI-based architecture as the low-endXeon processors of that generation, while lower-performing Core i7 processors use the samesocket and PCIe/DMI/FDI architecture as the Core i5."Core i7" is a successor to the Intel Core 2 brand. Intel representatives stated thatthe moniker Core i7 is meant to help consumers decide which processor to purchase as thenewer Nehalem-based products are released in the future. Code L3 Release Brand name Cores Socket TDP Process Busses name Cache Date Core i7-9xxX Extreme Mar Edition 2010Gulftown 6 12 MB 32 nm Core i7-9xx QPI, Jul 2010 130 LGA 1366 3 W × DDR3 Core i7-9xx Extreme Edition NovBloomfield 2008 Core i7-9xx Core i7-8xx 95 W Sep 2009Lynnfield LGA 1156 4 8 MB 45 nm Core i7-8xxS 82 W Jan 2010 DMI, PCI-e, 2 Core i7-9xxXM Extreme 55 W × DDR3 Edition rPGA-Clarksfield Sep 2009 988A Core i7-8xxQM 45 W 18
    • Core i7-7xxQM 6 MB Core i7-6xxM 35 W DMI, PCI-e,Arrandale Core i7-6xxLM 2 4 MB 25 W 32 nm FDI, Jan 2010 2 BGA-1288 × DDR3 Core i7-6xxUM 18 W 19
    • Chapter 7. Sandy Bridge Microarchitecture BasedIn early 2011, a new microarchitecture named Sandy Bridge microarchitecture wasintroduced; whilst keeping all the existing brands from Nehalem, including Core i3/i5/i7, itintroduces new model numbers. The initial set of Sandy Bridge processors includes dual- andquad-core variants, all of which use a single 32 nm die for both the CPU and integrated GPUcores, unlike the earlier microarchitectures. All Core i3/i5/i7 processors with the SandyBridge microarchitecture have a four-digit model number. With the mobile version,the thermal design power can no longer be determined from a one- or two-letter suffix but isencoded into the CPU number. Starting with Sandy Bridge, Intel no longer distinguishes thecode names of the processor based on number of cores, socket or intended usage; they all usethe same code name as the microarchitecture itself. Ivy Bridge is the codename for Intels22 nm die shrink of the Sandy Bridge microarchitecture based on tri-gate ("3D") transistors,introduced in April 2012. 7.1. Core i3Released on January 20, 2011, the Core i3-2xxx line of desktop and mobile processors is adirect replacement of the 2010 "Clarkdale" Core i3-5xx and "Arrandale" Core i3-3xxMmodels, based on the new microarchitecture. While they require new sockets and chipsets, theuser-visible features of the Core i3 are largely unchanged, including the lack of supportfor Turbo Boost and AES-NI. Unlike the Sandy Bridge based Celeron and Pentiumprocessors, the Core i3 line does support the new Advanced Vector Extensions.The Ivy Bridge based Core-i3-3xxx line is a minor upgrade to 22 nm process technology andbetter graphics. Codename Brand name (list) Cores L3 Cache Socket TDP I/O Bus (main article) Core i3-21xx 65 WSandy Bridge (Desktop) LGA 1155 Direct Media Interface, Core i3-21xxT 2 3 MB Integrated GPU 35 WSandy Bridge (Mobile) Core i3-2xx0M rPGA-988B 20
    • BGA-1023 Core i3-2xx7M BGA-1023 17 W rPGA-988B Core i3-3xx0M 35 W BGA-1023 Ivy Bridge (Mobile) 17 W Core i3-3xx7U 9Y BGA-1023 13 W 7.2. Core i5In January 2011, Intel released new quad-core Core i5 processors based on the "SandyBridge" microarchitecture at CES 2011. New dual-core mobile processors and desktopprocessors arrived in February 2011.The Core i5-2xxx line of desktop processors are mostly quad-core chips, with the exceptionof the dual-core Core i5-2390T, and include integrated graphics, combining the key featuresof the earlier Core i5-6xx and Core i5-7xx lines. The suffix after the four-digit model numberdesignates unlocked multiplier (K), low-power (S) and ultra-low-power (T).The desktop CPUs now all have four non-SMT cores (like the i5-750), with the exception ofthe i5-2390T. The DMI bus is running at 5 GT/s.The mobile Core i5-2xxxM processors are all dual-core chips like the previous Core i5-5xxMseries and share most the features with that product line. Codename Brand name (list) Cores L3 Cache Socket TDP I/O Bus (main article) Core i5-2xxx 95 W Core i5-2xxxK Direct Media Interface,Sandy Bridge (Desktop) 4 6 MB LGA 1155 Integrated GPU Core i5-2xxxS 65 W 21
    • Core i5-25xxT 45 W Core i5-23xxT 2 3 MB 35 W Core i5-3xxx 77 W Core i5-3xxxK 4 6 MB Core i5-3xxxS 65 W Ivy Bridge (Desktop) Core i5-35xxT 45 W Core i5-34xxT 2 3 MB 35 W rPGA-988B Core i5-2xxxM 35 W BGA-1023Sandy Bridge (Mobile) Core i5-2xx7M BGA-1023 17 W 2 3 MB rPGA-988B Core i5-3xx0M 35 W BGA-1023 Ivy Bridge (Mobile) 17 W Core i5-3xx7U 9Y BGA-1023 13 W 7.3. Core i7The Core i7 brand remains the high-end for Intels desktop and mobile processors, featuringthe Sandy Bridge models with the largest amount of L3 cache and the highest clockfrequency. Most of these models are very similar to their smaller Core i5 siblings. The quad-core mobile Core i7-2xxxQM/XM processors follow the previous "Clarksfield" Core i7-xxxQM/XM processors, but now also include integrated graphics. 22
    • Codename Brand name L3 Release Cores Socket TDP Process I/O Bus (main article) (list) Cache Date Core i7-37xx 77 W Core i7-37xxK Direct Media Ivy Bridge LGA 4 8 MB 22 nm Interface, April 2012 (Desktop) 1155 Integrated GPU Core i7-37xxS 65 W Core i7-37xxT 45 W Core i7-39xxX 15 MB 6Sandy Bridge-E LGA 130 Direct Media November Core i7-39xxK 12 MB (Desktop) 2011 W Interface 2011 Core i7-38xx 10 MB 32 nm Core i7-2xxxK, 95 W i7-2xxx Sandy Bridge LGA January (Desktop) 1155 2011 Core i7-2xxxS 65 W 4 Direct Media Core i7- 8 MB Interface, 3xx0QM, i7- 45 W Integrated GPU 3xx0QE rPGA- Ivy Bridge 988B 22 nm April 2012 (Mobile) BGA- Core i7- 1023 3xx2QM, i7- 35 W 3xx2QE 23
    • Core i7- 3xxxXM 55 W Core i7- 2xxxXM January Core i7- 6 or 8 2011 2xxxQM MB 45 WSandy Bridge Core i7-2xxxQE 6 MB 32 nm (Mobile) Core i7-2xx0M 35 W February Core i7-2xx9M 2 4 MB 25 W 2011 BGA- 1023 Core i7-2xx7M 17 W 24
    • Chapter 8. INTEL CORE i7Core i7 is first processor using Nehalem Micro-architecture, withfaster, intelligent, multi-core technology that applies processingpower where its needed most, new Intel Core i7 processors deliver anincredible breakthrough in PC performance. They are the best desktopprocessor family on the planet.You will multitask applications faster and unleash incredible digital media creation. Andyoull experience maximum performance for everything you do, thanks to the combination ofIntel Turbo Boost technology and Intel Hyper-Threading technology, which maximizesperformance to match your workload. Following figure shows internal representation of corei7 processor. Fig.01 - Internal representation of processor i7 Among the key peculiarities of the new CPU we absolutely have to point out the following: Native quad-core structure. Single processor die contains four cores with 32-KB L1 cache for each and 256KB L2 cache each and 8MB shared L3 cache for all of them. Memory controller built into the CPU supports triple-channel DDR3 SDRAM. Each channel can work with two unbuffered DIMM modules. There is SMT (Simultaneous Multithreading) technology It allows each Core i7 core to process two computational threads simultaneously, so the operating system sees the processor as an 8-core one. 25
    • Integrated PCU microcontroller that independently adjusts voltages and core frequencies and can automatically over-clock some cores when others aren’t loaded too heavily. Core i7 is manufactured with 45nm process, consists of 731 million transistors.Nehalem is the codename for an Intel processor micro-architecture, successor to the Coremicro-architecture. The first processor released with the Nehalem architecture is the desktopCore i7.Various sources have stated the specifications of processors in the Nehalem family: Two, four, six, or eight cores 731 million transistors for the quad core variant 45 nm manufacturing process Integrated memory controller supporting two or three memory channels of DDR3 SDRAM Simultaneous multithreading (SMT) by multiple cores which enables two threads per core. Intel calls this hyper-threading. Native (monolithic, i.e. all processor cores on a single die) quad- and octa-core processors. The following caches: 32 KB L1 instruction and 32 KB L1 data cache per core. 256 KB L2 cache per core. 4–8 MB L3 cache shared by all cores 26
    • Chapter 9. FEATURES AND BENEFITS 9.1. Quad-Core ProcessorProvides four complete execution cores in a single processor with 256KB of L2 cache and8MB of L3 cache. Eight dedicated, physical threads help operating systems and applicationsdeliver additional performance, so end users can experience better multi-tasking and multi-threaded performance across many types of applications and workloads. 9.2. 8 MB Intel Smart CacheThis large last-level cache enables dynamic and efficient allocation of shared cache to all fourcores to match the needs of various applications for ultra efficient data storage andmanipulation. It provides a higher-performance, more efficient cache subsystem. Optimizedfor industry leading multi-threaded games. 9.3. Intel Hyper-Threading TechnologyThe processor supports Intel Hyper-Threading Technology which allows an execution core tofunction as two logical processors. While some execution resources such as caches, executionunits, and buses are shared, each logical processor has its own architectural state with its ownset of general-purpose registers and control registers.This feature must be enabled using the BIOS and requires operating system support. Intelrecommends enabling Hyper-Threading Technology with Microsoft Windows Vista,Microsoft Windows XP Professional/Windows XP Home, and disabling Hyper-ThreadingTechnology using the BIOS for all previous versions of Windows operating systems. 9.4. Intel 64-bit architectureIntel 64-bit architecture delivers 64-bit computing on server, workstation, desktop and mobileplatforms when combined with supporting software. Intel 64 architecture improvesperformance by allowing systems to address more than 4 GB of both virtual and physicalmemory. 9.5. Intel Turbo Boost TechnologyIntel Turbo Boost Technology is one of the many exciting new features that Intel has builtinto core i7 processor. It automatically allows processor cores to run faster than the base 27
    • operating frequency if its operating below power, current, andtemperature specification limits.The maximum frequency of Intel Turbo Boost Technology isdependent on the number of active cores. The amount of time theprocessor spends in the Intel Turbo Boost Technology statedepends on the workload and operating environment, providingthe performance you need, when and where you need it.Any of the following can set the upper limit of Intel Turbo Boost Technology on a givenworkload: Number of active cores Estimated current consumption Estimated power consumption Processor temperatureNo special hardware support is necessary for Intel Turbo Boost Technology. BIOS and theoperating system can enable or disable Intel Turbo Boost Technology. 9.6. Integrated memory controllerIntegrated memory controller enables three channels of DDR3 1066 MHz memory,resulting in up to 25.6 GB/sec memory bandwidth. This memory controllers lower latencyand higher memory bandwidth delivers amazing performance for data-intensive applications. 9.7. Enhanced Intel Speed-Step TechnologyRunning a processor at high clock speeds allows for better performance. However, when thesame processor is run at a lower frequency, it generates less heat and consumes less power. Inmany cases, the core voltage can also be reduced, Further reducing power. 28
    • Chapter 10. SPECIFICATIONS AND INSTRUCTION SET 10.1. Specifications Clock frequency 2.66 GHz to 3.33GHz Code name ―Bloomfield‖ & ―Lynnfield‖ Cores 4 Core Stepping C0 Core Voltage 1.18V-1.21V Bus/Core Ratio 20 Thermal Specification 62.2°C Typical heat(thermal design power) 105 W Manufacturing technology 45 nm No of Transistors 731 million Chipset support Express 58 Instruction set MMX,SSE,SSE2,SSE3, SSSE3,SSE4 Intel Hyper-Threading Technology Yes Intel Turbo Boost Technology Yes Intel Virtualization Technology Yes Enhanced Intel Speed Step Technology Yes Execute Disable Bit Yes Intel 64-bit architecture Yes Intel smart cache 8MB Processor Integrated Memory Controller Yes Number of Memory Channels 3 (DDR3 1066 MHz) 29
    • 10.2. Instruction SetAn instruction set is a list of all the instructions, and all their variations, that a processor canexecute. A single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) machine is one in which a singleinstruction stream has the ability to process multiple data streams simultaneously. Thesemachines are useful in applications such as general digital signal processing, imageprocessing, and multimedia applications such as audio and video. Originally, supercomputersknown as array processors or vector processors provided SIMD processing capabilities.Almost all computers today implement some form of SIMD instruction set. Intel core i7 processors implement the MMX, Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE),Streaming SIMD Extensions 2 (SSE2), and Streaming SIMD Extensions 3 (SSE3),Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extensions 3(SSSE4), Streaming SIMD Extensions 4(SSE4)instruction sets that are capable of processing multiple data elements in a single clock. Themultiple data elements are stored in the floating point registers. A multiple instruction,multiple data (MIMD) machine is capable of is executing multiple instruction streams, whileworking on a separate and independent data stream. The instruction set MMX is 64-bitinstruction set. The instruction set SSE is 128-bit instruction set. Name Description MMX MMX SIMD instructions SSE Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) instructions SSE2 Streaming SIMD Extensions 2 instructions SSE3 Streaming SIMD Extensions 3 instructions SSSE3 Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extensions 3 instructions SSE4 Streaming SIMD Extensions 4 instructions 30
    • Chapter 11. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES11.1. Advantages: Big cache size: This processor has 8 Mb last level caches shared among four cores. This helps to increase Instruction execution speed. Very fast: Using the combination of Intel Turbo Boost Technology and Intel Hyper-Threading Technology processor speed is becomes faster. It is very fast processor as compared to other processor. Better cooling system: A 4-pin connector is included for fan speed control to help minimize the acoustic noise levels generated from running the fan at higher speeds for thermal performance. For the cooling of processor it provides Cooler running technology, less heat and less noise. Supplied with Intel reference heat-sink & fan, as temperature increase speed of fan get become increase. 11.2. Disadvantages Cost: The main disadvantage of core i7 processor is its cost, It a expensive processor as compared to previous processor. Its cost is over 15000 Rs. Power Consumption: Power consumption of core i7 processor is not better as compared with the core 2 duo processors. 31
    • Chapter 12. COMPARISON BETWEEN i3, i5 and i7 Fig. - Processors i3, i5 and i7Intel Core i3 Processor This particular Intel processor is the entry level processor of this new series of Intelprocessors. While it may not be the fastest one of the bunch, it can get the job done, at leastfor most applications. Uses 4 threads. Yes, it uses hyperthreading technology which is the latest craze due to its improved efficiency over earlier processors that were put on the market. This processor consists of 2-4 cores, depending on which one you get your hands on. Contains A 3-4 MB Cache Uses less heat and energy than earlier processors, which is always a good thing in this day and age.Intel Core i5 ProcessorThis is the mid-size processor of this bunch, recommended for those who demand a littlespeed, but not quite enough where the user will be running resource-intensive applications. 32
    • As with the Core i3 processor, this comes with 2-4 cores, the main difference is that it has a higher clock speed than the Core i3. This is also a heat and energy efficient processor, but it does seem to be better at this particular job than the Core i3 processor. The number of threads used in this is no different than the Core i3 with 2-4 threads, and it also uses hyperthreading technology for a boost in performance. The cache of the Core i5 is bigger than the Core i3, it’s at 3-8 MB. The Core i5 is where the turbo mode is made available, this provides users with the opportunity to turn off a core if it’s not being utilized.Intel Core i7 ProcessorThis is for the users that demand power, yes it does provide more power and Great for gamersand other resource intensive users. The cache on this one is 4-8 MB. This processor comes with 8 threads, definitely enough to get the job done quickly, may be even at the speed of light if you’re lucky. It also utilizes hyper-threading technology as well as turbo boost technology. You will have four cores to take advantage of with this particular series. And just like the other ones in this Intel series of processors, it is more energy efficient and produces less heat. 33
    • Chapter 13. CONCLUSIONWe have finally got acquainted with the new Core i7 processors, the first solutions onNehalem micro architecture targeted for desktop systems.This processor is brilliant from multiple standpoints. It supports new interesting technologies,such as SMT and Turbo Boost, and has an integrated memory controller with unprecedentedperformance. In most applications except a few gaming titles, the new processors turned outfaster than Core 2 processors working at the same clock speed.New Core i7 are indisputably better in most aspects than Core 2 Quad processors ofcomparable price. Their performance is almost always higher, which is especially evident incase of multi-threaded load and their power consumption is comparable with that of theirpredecessors.Over-clocking the core i7 processors also seems to be easier. Servers will also likely benefitgreatly from using an i7 - the memory bandwidth is simply insane. It is more energy efficientand produces less heat.The core i7 utilizes Hyper-Threading technology as well as Turbo Boost Technology. Core i7is first processor using Nehalem Micro-architecture, with faster, intelligent, multi-coretechnology that applies processing power where its needed most, new Intel Core i7processors deliver an incredible breakthrough in PC performance. 34
    • REFRENCES Intel Core - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaURL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_Core Intel® Core™ Processor FamilyURL : http://www.intel.in/content/www/us/en/processors/core/core-processor-family.html Intel® Core™ i7 ProcessorURL : http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/processors/core/core-i7-processor.html Intel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaURL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel Processor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaURL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Processor Central processing unit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaURL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_processing_unit Intel Turbo Boost - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaURL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_Turbo_Boost List of Intel Core i7 microprocessors - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaURL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_Core_i7_microprocessors I7 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaURL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I7 Intel Core i7 - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaURL : http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_Core_i7 Intel Core - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaURL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_Core#Core_i7_2 35
    • Nehalem (microarchitecture) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaURL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nehalem_(microarchitecture) Sandy Bridge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaURL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandy_Bridge Nehalem (microarchitecture) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaURL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_Westmere#Westmere Ivy Bridge (microarchitecture) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaURL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivy_Bridge_(microarchitecture) Microarchitecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaURL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microarchitecture 36