Plan Introduction.I. The Development of Media. - Forms of mediaII. Media Influence - Media influences young people - Effects of violence in the MediaIII. Media affecting culture - How much are we really affected by the media?IV. Connection between media and public opinion Conclusion
Introduction.Media is the most powerful tool for the formation of Public opinion incontemporary times. It is the Television, the press, the radio and the Internet.(Films, magazines, posters, studies, reports, theater, art, dance, public speeches,hearings) Talking about the media is like talking about a mission. A source ofinformation and education that will shape the daily choices in people’s life. Thatwill shape the thinking, and the perception of things. But Media is a politicalpower and tool, occupied in a way by the big powers, international corporations,big agencies using for their political and economic objectives that control and canpay. Among the most powerful news agencies in the West are the BBC, CNN,Euro-news, Monte Carlo, while, Al Jazira, Al Aarabia, LBC, Al Shark El Awsatare the news agencies in the Middle East. The religious and political leaders ofthese media agencies are always around to talk, freely and passing news, stands,and positions to their communities, to the public using them to serve their politicaland economic ends.It is important that the media redefines its goals and mission, for the rule of thejungle, “la raison du plus fort” is the world order today. The role and the missionof the media is to commit itself to values that are imperative for today, and it ispossible to achieve this goal only if civil societies commit themselves into risksand understand the need for it and encourage agencies that can play this role.
I.The Development of Mass Media.The mass media are all those media technologies that are intended to reach a largeaudience by mass communication. Broadcast media (also known as electronicmedia) transmit their information electronically and comprise television, radio,film, movies, CDs, DVDs, and other devices such as cameras and videoconsoles. Alternatively, print media use a physical object as ameans of sending their information, such as a newspaper, magazines, comics,books, brochures, newsletters, leaflets, and pamphlets. The organizations thatcontrol these technologies, such as television stations or publishing companies, arealso known as the mass media. Internet media is able to achieve mass media statusin its own right, due to the many mass media services it provides, such as email,websites, blogging, Internet and television. For this reason, many mass mediaoutlets have a presence on the web, by such things as having TV ads that link to awebsite, or having games in their sites to entice gamers to visit their website. Inthis way, they can utilise the easy accessibility that the Internet has, and theoutreach that Internet affords, as information can easily be broadcast to manydifferent regions of the world simultaneously and cost-efficiently. Outdoor mediais a form of mass media that comprises billboards, signs, placards placed insideand outside of commercial buildings and objects like shops and buses, flyingbillboards (signs in tow of airplanes), blimps, and skywriting. Public speaking andevent organising can also be considered as forms of mass media.Forms of mediaBroadcastThe sequencing of content in a broadcast is called a schedule. With alltechnological endeavours a number of technical terms and slang are developedplease see the list of broadcasting terms for a glossary of terms used.Television and radio programs are distributed through radio broadcasting overfrequency bands that are highly regulated by the Federal Communications
Commission. Such regulation includes determination of the width of the bands,range, licencing, types of receivers and transmitters used, and acceptable content.Cable programs are often broadcast simultaneously with radio and televisionprograms, but have a more limited audience. By coding signals and having a cableconverter box in homes, cable also enables subscription-based channels and pay-per-view services.A broadcasting organisation may broadcast several programs at the same time,through several channels (frequencies), for example BBC One and Two. On theother hand, two or more organisations may share a channel and each use it during afixed part of the day. Digital radio and digital television may alsotransmit multiplexed programming, with several channels compressedintoone ensemble.When broadcasting is done via the Internet the term webcasting is often used. In2004 a new phenomenon occurred when a number of technologies combined toproduce podcasting. Podcasting is an asynchronous broadcast/narrowcast medium,with one of the main proponents being Adam Curry and his associatesthe Podshow.FilmFilm encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field ingeneral. The name comes from the photographic film (also called filmstock),historically the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures.Many other terms exist—motion pictures (or just pictures and "picture"), the silverscreen, photoplays, the cinema, picture shows, flicks—and commonlymovies.Films are produced by recording people and objects with cameras, or by creatingthem using animation techniques and/or special effects. They comprise a series ofindividual frames, but when these images are shown rapidly in succession, theillusion of motion is given to the viewer. Flickering between frames is not seen dueto an effect known as persistence of vision—whereby the eye retains a visualimage for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Also of
relevance is what causes the perception of motion; a psychological effect identifiedas beta movement.Film is considered by many to be an important art form; films entertain, educate,enlighten and inspire audiences. Any film can become a worldwide attraction,especially with the addition ofdubbing or subtitles that translate the film message.Films are also artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures,and, in turn, affect them.InternetThe Internet (also known simply as "the Net" or less precisely as "the Web") is amore interactive medium of mass media, and can be briefly described as "anetwork of networks". Specifically, it is the worldwide, publicly accessiblenetwork of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packetswitching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It consists of millions ofsmaller domestic, academic, business, and governmental networks, which togethercarry various information and services, such as email, online chat, file transfer, andthe interlinked web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web.Contrary to some common usage, the Internet and the World Wide Web are notsynonymous: the Internet is the system of interconnected computer networks,linked by copper wires, fiber-opticcables, wireless connections etc.; the Web is thecontents, or the interconnected documents, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. TheWorld Wide Web is accessible through the Internet, along with many otherservices including e-mail, file sharing and others described below.Toward the end of the 20th century, the advent of the World Wide Web marked thefirst era in which most individuals could have a means of exposure on a scalecomparable to that of mass media. Anyone with a web site has the potential toaddress a global audience, although serving to high levels of web traffic is stillrelatively expensive. It is possible that the rise of peer-to-peertechnologies mayhave begun the process of making the cost of bandwidth manageable. Although avast amount of information, imagery, and commentary (i.e. "content") has been
made available, it is often difficult to determine the authenticity and reliability ofinformation contained in web pages (in many cases, self-published). The inventionof the Internet has also allowed breaking news stories to reach around the globewithin minutes. This rapid growth of instantaneous, decentralized communicationis often deemed likely to change mass media and its relationship to society."Cross-media" means the idea of distributing the same message through differentmedia channels. A similar idea is expressed in the news industry as "convergence".Many authors understand cross-media publishing to be the ability to publish inboth print and on the web without manual conversion effort. An increasing numberof wireless devices with mutually incompatible data and screen formats make iteven more difficult to achieve the objective “create once, publish many”.The Internet is quickly becoming the center of mass media. Everything isbecoming accessible via the internet. Instead of picking up a newspaper, orwatching the 10 oclock news, people can log onto the internet to get the news theywant, when they want it. For example, many workers listen to the radio through theInternet while sitting at their desk.Even the education system relies on the Internet. Teachers can contact the entireclass by sending one e-mail. They may have web pages where students can getanother copy of the class outline or assignments. Some classes have class blogs inwhich students are required to post weekly, with students graded on theircontributions.MobileMobile phones were introduced in Japan in 1979 but became a mass media only in1998 when the first downloadable ringing tones were introduced in Finland. Soonmost forms of media content were introduced on mobile phones, and today thetotal value of media consumed on mobile towers over that of internet content, andwas worth over 31 billion dollars in 2007 (source Informa). The mobile mediacontent includes over 8 billion dollars worth of mobile music (ringing tones,ringback tones, truetones, MP3 files, karaoke, music videos, music streaming
services etc.); over 5 billion dollars worth of mobile gaming; and various news,entertainment and advertising services. In Japan mobile phone books are sopopular that five of the ten best-selling printed books were originally released asmobile phone books.Similar to the internet, mobile is also an interactive media, but has far wider reach,with 3.3 billion mobile phone users at the end of 2007 to 1.3 billion internet users(source ITU). Like email on the internet, the top application on mobile is also apersonal messaging service, but SMS text messaging is used by over 2.4 billionpeople. Practically all internet services and applications exist or have similarcousins on mobile, from search to multiplayer games to virtual worlds to blogs.Mobile has several unique benefits which many mobile media pundits claim makemobile a more powerful media than either TV or the internet, starting with mobilebeing permanently carried and always connected. Mobile has the best audienceaccuracy and is the only mass media with a built-in payment channel available toevery user without any credit cards or PayPal accounts or even an age limit.Mobile is often called the 7th Mass Medium and either the fourth screen (ifcounting cinema, TV and PC screens) or the third screen (counting only TV andPC).Print media:MagazineA magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles, generallyfinanced by advertising and/or purchase by readers.Magazines are typicallypublished weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly, with a date on thecover that is in advance of the date it is actually published. They are often printedin color on coated paper, and are bound with a soft cover.Magazines fall into two broad categories: consumer magazines and businessmagazines. In practice, magazines are a subset of periodicals, distinct from thoseperiodicals produced by scientific, artistic, academic or special interest publishers
which are subscription-only, more expensive, narrowly limited in circulation, andoften have little or no advertising.Magazines can be classified as: General interest magazines (e.g. Frontline, India Today, The Week, The Sunday Times etc.) Special interest magazines (womens, sports, business, scuba diving, etc.)NewspaperA newspaper is a publication containing news and information and advertising,usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. It may be general or specialinterest, most often published daily or weekly. The first printed newspaper waspublished in 1605, and the form has thrived even in the face of competition fromtechnologies such as radio and television. Recent developments on the Internet areposing major threats to its business model, however. Paid circulation is decliningin most countries, and advertising revenue, which makes up the bulk of anewspapers income, is shifting from print to online; some commentators,nevertheless, point out that historically new media such as radio and television didnot entirely supplant existing.Outdoor mediaOutdoor media is a form of mass media which comprises billboards, signs,placards placed inside and outside of commercial buildings/objects likeshops/buses, flying billboards (signs in tow of airplanes), blimps, and skywriting.Many commercial advertisers use this form of mass media when advertising insports stadiums. Tobacco and alcohol manufacturers used billboards and otheroutdoor media extensively. However, in 1998, the Master Settlement Agreementbetween the US and the tobacco industries prohibited the billboard advertising ofcigarettes. In a 1994 Chicago-based study, Diana Hackbarth and her colleaguesrevealed how tobacco- and alcohol-based billboards were concentrated in poorneighbourhoods. In other urban centers, alcohol and tobacco billboards were much
more concentrated in African-American neighborhoods than in whiteneighborhoods.II. Media InfluenceIn the last 50 years the media influence has grown exponentially with the advanceof technology, first there was the telegraph, then the radio, the newspaper,magazines, television and now the internet.We live in a society that depends on information and communication to keepmoving in the right direction and do our daily activities like work, entertainment,health care, education, personal relationships, traveling and anything else that wehave to do.A common person in the city usually wakes up checks the TV news or newspaper,goes to work, makes a few phone calls, eats with their family when possible andmakes his decisions based on the information that he has either from their coworkers, news, tv, friends, family, financial reports, etc.What we need to be aware is that most of our decisions, beliefs and values arebased on what we know for a fact, our assumptions and our own experience. In ourwork we usually know what we have to do based on our experience and studies,however on our daily lives we rely on the media to get the current news and factsabout what is important and what we should be aware of.We have put our trust on the media as an authority to give us news, entertainmentand education. However, the influence of mass media on our kids, teenagers andsociety is so big that we should know how it really works.
How does mass media influence young people?The media makes billions of dollars with the advertising they sell and that we areexposed to. We buy what we are told to be good, after seeing thousands ofadvertisings we make our buying decisions based on what we saw on Tv,newspapers or magazines to be a product we can trust and also based on whateveryone else that we know is buying and their decision are also base don themedia.These are the effects of mass media in teenagers, they buy what they see on TV,what their favorite celebrity advertise and what is acceptable by society based onthe fashion that the media has imposed them.There are some positive and negative influences in young people.Here is a positive influence example, if there is a sport that is getting a lot ofattention by the media and gains popularity among your friends and society, youwill more likely want to practice the sport and be cool with all your friends. Theresult is that you will have fun with your friends and be more healthy because ofthe exercise your are doing.However a negative influence in teenagers is the use of cigars by celebrity moviestars, the constant exposure of sex images, the excessive images of violence andexposure to thousands of junk food ads.Young people are in a stage of life where they want to be accepted by their peers,they want to be loved and be successful. The media creates the ideal image of abeautiful men and women and tells you what are the characteristics of a successfulperson, you can see it in movies and tv. Its a subliminal way to tell you that if youare not like them you are not cool yet so its time to buy the stuff they buy and looklike they look.
Another negative influence in teenagers that has grown over the last years areanorexia and obesity. There are millions of adolescents fighting obesity, but at thesame time they are exposed to thousands of advertisements of junk food, while theideas image of a successful person is told to be thin and wealthy.Also more women are obsessive with losing weight even when they are not obese,there are many thin women that want to look like the super models and thincelebrities so they engage in eating disorders which leads to severe health issuesand even death.Effects of violence in the MediaWhen we watch TV or a movie we usually see many images of violence andpeople hurting others. The problem with this is that it can become traumaticespecially in our children as we see it more and more. Our kids that are starting togrow and are shaping their personality values and beliefs can become aggressive orthey can lose a sense of reality and fiction of what they are seeing.In the past years there have been some cases of kids carrying a gun at school andeven hurting others with it. Those kids have been linked to excessive use of violentvideo games and war images.Another problem is that real war is used as a form of entertainment by the media,we should make our kids and teen aware that war is not a form of entertainmentand that there is no win or lose like in video games, in real war everyone lose.III. Media Affecting CultureHow is culture affected by media? We can analyze how media impacts culture, butsince forms of media are abundant everywhere we turn, and media in some form oranother has been around for thousands of years, it’s impossible to analyze how theabsence of media impacts culture. For a mature and healthy culture, however, canmedia play a role in its development? For the purposes of this question it should
be understood that a mature and healthy culture is media literate. With thatunderstanding, the question of whether or not this kind of culture exists is derived.The NewsThe news gives us information of everything that’s happening from local tointernational scales. Some news is good and some is bad. The news lets us peoplethat live in colder climates no how long a snow emergency is going to last so weknow if we have to park on a certain side of the street or not (Dec. 5, 2010,Wisconsin State Journal Online). We also are provided with horrible news like 23fur seals being clubbed to death in New Zealand (Dec. 5, 2010, Yahoo! News). Nomatter what the news is, it’s there so that we know what is happening everywherein the world.Other Forms of MediaThe news isn’t the only form of media that informs us. Documentaries, news radio,and even blockbuster movies are educating. Documentaries, obviously, arenonfiction and they provide informative accounts of a situation. News radio keepsus up to date on local, national, and world-wide events. A lot of movies do provideus with useable information, as well; “The Day After Tomorrow” lays out a veryreal possibility of what might happen in our future (2004).In the textbook, Media & Culture, Scott Lehigh of the Boston Globe is quoted, “Ifwe’re a nation possessed of murderous imagination, we didn’t start thebloodletting. Look at Shakespeare… His plays are written in blood.” This bringsabout the point that horror, blood, and violence aren’t a product of media in thefree world; they’re a product of humanity. Blame for the things that are wrong withour culture always seems to shift to television, music, and books, but the thingsthat are wrong have always been there. Media is just an easy scapegoat to point a
finger at because people that would otherwise not be exposed to these things thatare wrong see them on the news, and relate them to scenes that they saw on T.V. orlyrics they heard in a song. What the media is actually doing by exposing thepublic to things that are considered wrong and bad, is informing us on the waythings are or could be, giving us knowledge that we can use to protect ourselvesand even change the way that things are. A fictional movie that portrays theassassination of a foreign dignitary on U.S. soil plotted by corrupt governmentofficials doesn’t mean that someone who saw that movie is going to play it out(2007, Hunter, S., & Lemkin, L.). What it does mean is that someone out therethought of this as a movie plot, the idea didn’t originate from the movie. It’s easierto think of a movie as a page in history that has never been written. It’s somethingthat we can be educated from even if it is fictional.How Much Are We Really Affected by the Media?All of the forms of media would be useless if we didn’t understand them. If webelieved the first thing we heard from the news all the time, we wouldn’t be able toform an educated opinion or response. If we reenacted what we saw in movies orT.V. shows because we thought that by watching someone else do something it’sokay for to do it too, then we wouldn’t be allowing ourselves to make our owndecisions; it goes along with that excuse you made when you were a kid: “But myfriends do that.” Your mother would then respond, “And if all of your friendsjumped off a cliff would you do that too?”Media in all forms is there to help us better understand the world, form educatedopinions, and learn from others. According to Pew Research in June of 2010 theaverage American spent 70 minutes a day listening, watching, or reading up on thenews (Sep. 12, 2010). That’s over 17 solid days of learning every year! Yes, thereis some entertainment in the news, but mainly it’s there for reporting what’shappening, and even presenting some forms of research. There’s always going to
be some form of media out there that may be harmful to certain groups or even tothe vast majority of recipients, but in a mature and healthy culture we should besmart enough to understand what is for entertainment and what is important toknow. With proper understanding, laws, and ethics media serves a large role in aflourishing society.IV. Connection between media and public opinionThe public responsibility and controlling power of the mass media are organizedfor the benefit of the citizens and by protecting universal rights both through theConstitution and the regulations. The right of the individual to obtain informationis under constitutional guarantee. The related articles of the Constitution envisagethe freedom and the privacy of the communication. The expression anddissemination of thoughts, to be able to learn and disseminate science and artfreely is also a constitutional right for the citizens of Turkey. The publication anddistribution of foreign publications in Turkey are organized under the control ofthe law. In addition to all of these, Article 28 of the Constitution has the decree,"the press is free and cannot be censored." Again Article 29 of the Constitution isrelated to the right of periodical or non-periodical publications, and Article 30 isrelated to the protection of printing facilities, and Article 32 is related to the rightof reply and rectification.
ConclusionThe media is actually very powerful because it can influence and shape theperception of the public. This is the main reason why there are a lot ofresponsibilities involved with the press because of the big impact that they have onthe minds of different individuals. But a lot of people ask, does the press or theonline media truly have a great effect on millions of people? How do theyinfluence the opinions and perception of the public? If you watch the news, youwill definitely get a lot of information and updates on various fields of interests.The media has the power to present all of the reports regarding a specific event,which is the main source of information for millions of people from around theworld. If you want to understand what happened during a particular event, then youcan simply watch some news and media updates regarding that event.If you take a very close look at television shows and news reports, you willprobably notice that some of these outlets have a narrow message that can beetched within the minds of people. In previous years, news reports were highlylimited to presenting the different facts and information surrounding a specificevent. It was considered to be irresponsible for reports and news anchors toincorporate their own thoughts and ideas regarding a certain situation. But thingsare quite different these days. More and more anchors and news presenters alreadygive in their own opinions and interjections, which can also strongly influence howone perceives a specific news item. Some of news reports are also based accordingto how the press TV wants the public to perceive a specific person. For example, ashow may present all of the possibilities of a suspected murdered to be guilty, butfails to present the other side of the story. This is truly one of the most importanttopics that most experts discuss about media bias, press release and other mediamatters.
On the other hand, there is another side to the story because mass media can alsohave a very positive effect on people. It can evoke feelings of love, national prideand patriotism, especially in situations involving national difficulties orcatastrophes. Mass media definitely has a great impact on how people get themessage regarding a specific news item.Based on the above points, media definitely has a great responsibility in shapingthe perception and opinions of different people.