The future role of women in organic plant breeding Alessandra Galiè PhD candidate, Wageningen University, NL  Research Fel...
This presentation <ul><li>Aim : Present the findings of my research about women and participatory plant breeding (PPB) and...
My research is <ul><li>A social impact assessment (SIA) of Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) and  women farmers in Syria ...
Introductory concepts <ul><li>Participatory plant breeding (PPB) </li></ul><ul><li>PPB and gender </li></ul><ul><li>Organi...
Participatory Plant Breeding Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB)  is  the systematic and regular involvement of farmers  as...
PPB and Gender In PPB crops are the product of: Genotypes X agro-ecological environments X people  Gender issues because m...
Organic Plant Breeding  and  Gender <ul><li>Agricultural practices are site-specific  </li></ul><ul><li>and culturally emb...
OPB principles  and Women <ul><li>Fairness:   food sovereignty and poverty reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Health:  high quali...
Participation of women is  particularly relevant in OPB <ul><li>Women are much more likely than men to operate small scale...
International recommendations <ul><li>Convention for Biological Diversity  (1992) </li></ul><ul><li>The International Asse...
Reality on the  ground <ul><li>Women worldwide are: </li></ul><ul><li>Not acknowledged as farmers and natural resource man...
Consequences of gender-blind  Plant Breeding (PB) on: <ul><li>Progress towards poverty reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Safegua...
My research <ul><li>Conceptual framework </li></ul><ul><li>Women in the Syrian context </li></ul><ul><li>Research aim </li...
Conceptual framework <ul><li>The core of social and gender justice is  </li></ul><ul><li>self-determination </li></ul><ul>...
Women in the Syrian context <ul><li>Syrian women are not recognised as:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers and natural resour...
Research aim <ul><li>Baseline study to:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciate actual involvement of Syrian women in agronomic ...
Methodology <ul><ul><li>Social impact assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empirical study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sma...
Ajaz:   Population: 550 Rainfall: 320 mm  Main crops: barley, wheat (65% total) My research:  4 households  non-participat...
Methods and activities <ul><li>Fieldwork :  </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) approaches </li></ul><ul...
Fieldwork in Ajaz, February 2008 The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009  19
Visit to the fields, Farmers’ Conference, May 2008 The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2...
<ul><li>Seed and Food Fair, Farmers’ Conference, May 2008 </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A...
Findings <ul><li>Women and agronomic management </li></ul><ul><li>Access to resources </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of knowled...
Women and agronomic management (1) <ul><ul><li>Ajaz and Souran   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women work 8 hours a day in  <...
Women and agronomic management (2) <ul><ul><li>Lahetha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older women are involved in agriculture ...
Access to resources <ul><li>None of the women owns any property </li></ul><ul><li>Water is managed by the men </li></ul><u...
Women   Men Family Experience Experimentation over years Relatives Neighbours Women’s union Women’s meetings Extension off...
Perception of decision making  in women’s daily activities Y=decision-making power Y X
Perception of ‘who is a farmer’ <ul><li>Men only, are usually called ‘farmers’ because of: </li></ul><ul><li>gender roles ...
Achievements of PPB in: <ul><li>Increasing the visibility of women farmers and of  their knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Enhan...
Analysis and discussion (1) <ul><li>Impact of PPB varies between communities, households, individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Wo...
Analysis and discussion (2) <ul><li>Also, the women I work with: </li></ul><ul><li>Are disadvantaged in terms of accessing...
Potential achievements of  gender-balanced OPB <ul><li>Technology development for    food security and health </li></ul><u...
Conclusions <ul><li>Climate change and the increasing un-sustainability of  </li></ul><ul><li>small-scale farming: </li></...
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IFOAM Women and Organic Plant Breeding A Galie 24 August 09

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"The future role of women in organic plant breeding" - Alessandra Galiè, IFOAM, August 2009, Santa Fe, USA

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IFOAM Women and Organic Plant Breeding A Galie 24 August 09

  1. 1. The future role of women in organic plant breeding Alessandra Galiè PhD candidate, Wageningen University, NL Research Fellow, ICARDA Supported by: Participatory Research and Gender Analysis (PRGA) and Wageningen University
  2. 2. This presentation <ul><li>Aim : Present the findings of my research about women and participatory plant breeding (PPB) and show the importance of women in organic plant breeding (OPB) </li></ul><ul><li>Structure : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief introduction to PPB, OPB and gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why women and OPB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My research: Methodology, methods, findings and analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 1
  3. 3. My research is <ul><li>A social impact assessment (SIA) of Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) and women farmers in Syria </li></ul><ul><li>The SIA is complemented by a </li></ul><ul><li>system analysis that interlocks issues of rights, governance, and action research with women farmers </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 2
  4. 4. Introductory concepts <ul><li>Participatory plant breeding (PPB) </li></ul><ul><li>PPB and gender </li></ul><ul><li>Organic plant breeding (OPB) and gender </li></ul><ul><li>OPB principles and women </li></ul><ul><li>Participation of women in OPB </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 3
  5. 5. Participatory Plant Breeding Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) is the systematic and regular involvement of farmers as decision-makers in all stages of a plant breeding programme. Crop varieties are produced reflecting the agro-ecological, geographical and socio-cultural context farmers live in and the traits both men and women farmers need and prefer (Ceccarelli et al 2000) The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 4
  6. 6. PPB and Gender In PPB crops are the product of: Genotypes X agro-ecological environments X people Gender issues because men and women might have different uses of crops that entail specific knowledge, needs and varietal traits priorities A gender-balanced PPB is necessary to achieve equity, efficiency and effectiveness The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 5
  7. 7. Organic Plant Breeding and Gender <ul><li>Agricultural practices are site-specific </li></ul><ul><li>and culturally embedded: </li></ul><ul><li>participatory strategies are needed </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of fairness, care and effectiveness entail focus on: </li></ul><ul><li>most marginal and poor areas of the world </li></ul><ul><li>most poor and marginal households and individuals </li></ul><ul><li>most disadvantaged individuals in the farming system </li></ul><ul><li>A gender approach is needed </li></ul><ul><li>to properly involve all these stakeholders </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 6
  8. 8. OPB principles and Women <ul><li>Fairness: food sovereignty and poverty reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Health: high quality and nutritious food </li></ul><ul><li>Ecology: adaptation to local conditions and involvement of all stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Care: local knowledge and experience </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 7
  9. 9. Participation of women is particularly relevant in OPB <ul><li>Women are much more likely than men to operate small scale farms and farms in marginal environments (Farnworth and Hutchings 2009: 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Women have limited access to water, land and biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Women have a central role in weed, pest and disease management </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 8
  10. 10. International recommendations <ul><li>Convention for Biological Diversity (1992) </li></ul><ul><li>The International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>FAO, WB and IFAD (2009) </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 9
  11. 11. Reality on the ground <ul><li>Women worldwide are: </li></ul><ul><li>Not acknowledged as farmers and natural resource managers (FAO, WB and IFAD 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Marginalised in resource access (CEDAW 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Excluded from participation in agricultural development and natural resource management ( World Bank 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantaged in sharing benefits from natural resources and genetic material (FAO, WB and IFAD 2009) </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 10
  12. 12. Consequences of gender-blind Plant Breeding (PB) on: <ul><li>Progress towards poverty reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Safeguarding local biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Fair access to genetic resources and benefit sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Social and gender justice </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 11
  13. 13. My research <ul><li>Conceptual framework </li></ul><ul><li>Women in the Syrian context </li></ul><ul><li>Research aim </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Methods and activities </li></ul><ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis and discussion </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 12
  14. 14. Conceptual framework <ul><li>The core of social and gender justice is </li></ul><ul><li>self-determination </li></ul><ul><li>Three pillars of self-determination are : </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 13
  15. 15. Women in the Syrian context <ul><li>Syrian women are not recognised as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers and natural resource managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens equal to men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women have been little addressed by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conventional agricultural development </li></ul></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 14
  16. 16. Research aim <ul><li>Baseline study to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciate actual involvement of Syrian women in agronomic management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore the recognition of their role in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>agronomic management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess their control of and access to resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate their access to opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social impact assessment to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the impact of PPB on the recognition, access to resources and opportunities of women farmers </li></ul></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 15
  17. 17. Methodology <ul><ul><li>Social impact assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empirical study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small-N research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action research </li></ul></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 16
  18. 18. Ajaz: Population: 550 Rainfall: 320 mm Main crops: barley, wheat (65% total) My research: 4 households non-participating in PPB Souran : Population: 32.000 Rainfall: 300 mm Main crops: barley, olives, wheat My research: 1 household participating in PPB Lahetha : Population: 3500 Rainfall: 174 mm Main crops: barley, wheat My research: 5 households participating in PPB
  19. 19. Methods and activities <ul><li>Fieldwork : </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Single-sex group interviews in 3 villages with 11 women </li></ul><ul><li>4-5 months a year over 3 years (2008-2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Main crop: barley </li></ul><ul><li>PPB activities : </li></ul><ul><li>meetings for crop selection </li></ul><ul><li>meeting between women farmers from Jordan and Syria </li></ul><ul><li>conferences on seed legislation and farmers’ knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g.: The Farmers’ Conference – ICARDA, May 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.icarda.org/farmersconference/ </li></ul></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 18
  20. 20. Fieldwork in Ajaz, February 2008 The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 19
  21. 21. Visit to the fields, Farmers’ Conference, May 2008 The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 20
  22. 22. <ul><li>Seed and Food Fair, Farmers’ Conference, May 2008 </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 21
  23. 23. Findings <ul><li>Women and agronomic management </li></ul><ul><li>Access to resources </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Perception of decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Perception of ‘who is a farmer’ </li></ul><ul><li>Achievements of PPB </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 22
  24. 24. Women and agronomic management (1) <ul><ul><li>Ajaz and Souran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women work 8 hours a day in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>planting, weeding, hoeing, fertilising, harvesting, processing vegetables, seed storing and animal care. Older women also sell the produce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men mainly work as daily labourers in non-agricultural jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In agriculture men are in charge of: mechanised work, buying and selling produce, irrigation, loading weights </li></ul></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 23
  25. 25. Women and agronomic management (2) <ul><ul><li>Lahetha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older women are involved in agriculture with their husbands and perform the same activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widows manage the farm alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority of farmers have a non-agricultural part-time job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women only, look after vegetable gardens </li></ul></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 24
  26. 26. Access to resources <ul><li>None of the women owns any property </li></ul><ul><li>Water is managed by the men </li></ul><ul><li>In Ajaz and Souran seed and all agricultural inputs </li></ul><ul><li>are generally purchased by the men; produce is sold by women over 60 and men </li></ul><ul><li>In Lahetha both men and women buy and sell </li></ul><ul><li>agricultural products </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 25
  27. 27. Women Men Family Experience Experimentation over years Relatives Neighbours Women’s union Women’s meetings Extension office Agricultural Pharmacy Farmers’ union Markets Agricultural shops Seed exchange with villages and neighbours Farmers’ gatherings Sources of knowledge Gender and age influence perception of ‘who knows’
  28. 28. Perception of decision making in women’s daily activities Y=decision-making power Y X
  29. 29. Perception of ‘who is a farmer’ <ul><li>Men only, are usually called ‘farmers’ because of: </li></ul><ul><li>gender roles in society </li></ul><ul><li>decision making </li></ul><ul><li>land ownership </li></ul><ul><li>passion about agricultural work </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 28
  30. 30. Achievements of PPB in: <ul><li>Increasing the visibility of women farmers and of their knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing women’s access to improved seed, new information and new agricultural technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Producing and supplying crops that fit men’s and women’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>Providing an opportunity for women to decide what to grow thereby enhancing women food-sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Providing opportunities to participate in international events that have contributed to increasing farmers’ self-confidence and knowledge </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 29
  31. 31. Analysis and discussion (1) <ul><li>Impact of PPB varies between communities, households, individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Women I work with: </li></ul><ul><li>Do agricultural work as much as or more than the men </li></ul><ul><li>Perform gender-specific and mainly manual activities </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire knowledge and information from a small and mainly domestic network </li></ul><ul><li>Get more and more involved in agriculture when small-scale farming is not sufficient to sustain the household </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 30
  32. 32. Analysis and discussion (2) <ul><li>Also, the women I work with: </li></ul><ul><li>Are disadvantaged in terms of accessing agricultural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Have limited control over the marketing of the produce </li></ul><ul><li>Have reduced decision-making power over their daily activities </li></ul><ul><li>Are overlooked as farmers therefore excluded by development programmes </li></ul><ul><li>These findings reflect the situation of women worldwide </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 31
  33. 33. Potential achievements of gender-balanced OPB <ul><li>Technology development for food security and health </li></ul><ul><li>Better response to climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Fair development and increase in social and gender justice </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 32
  34. 34. Conclusions <ul><li>Climate change and the increasing un-sustainability of </li></ul><ul><li>small-scale farming: </li></ul><ul><li>focus on food security and agricultural development in </li></ul><ul><li>marginal environments and with marginal farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Gender-sensitive OPB is well placed to provide: </li></ul><ul><li>a perspective on how to deal with globalization and </li></ul><ul><li>an institutional mechanism and a process </li></ul><ul><li>for equal, efficient and effective </li></ul><ul><li>agricultural development </li></ul>The future role of women in organic plant breeding - A. Galiè - IFOAM 2009 33
  35. 35. Thank you
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