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Integrating Gender In Agricultural Programs


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Presented at US AID Summer Seminar 2009

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Integrating Gender In Agricultural Programs

  1. 1. Integrating Gender into Agricultural Programs Ruth Meinzen-Dick and Agnes Quisumbing USAID Summer Seminar Series July 29, 2009 Wednesday, September 2, 2009
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation <ul><li>Why pay attention to gender in agriculture? </li></ul><ul><li>What constraints do women working in agriculture face? How can they be alleviated? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on assets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do we make agriculture more gender-equitable? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implications for the project cycle </li></ul></ul>Page
  3. 3. Why the concern about gender in agriculture? Simple answer: You cannot address poverty, especially in Africa and South Asia, without addressing gender issues Wednesday, September 2, 2009
  4. 4. Women, Agriculture & Poverty Reduction <ul><li>Women play key roles in agricultural production, processing & natural resource management </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s assets and incomes are used to improve the health & food security of their children </li></ul><ul><li>However, women face numerous constraints in accessing key assets </li></ul>Page
  5. 5. Women play a key role in agricultural production (FAO 1995) <ul><li>Benin : perform 60-80% of ag. work; 44% of work for HH subsistence </li></ul><ul><li>Congo: represent 73% of ag. labor force; produce > 80% of food crops </li></ul><ul><li>Namibia : constitute 59% of population engaged in skilled & subsistence agricultural work </li></ul><ul><li>Sudan : constitute 80% of farmers in the traditional sector; 49% in the irrigated sector </li></ul><ul><li>Morocco : 57% of  participate in agriculture; 68% in livestock; 46% in vegetable production </li></ul><ul><li>SE Asia : 90% of rice labor </li></ul>Page
  6. 6. Women Play Multiple Roles in Agriculture Focus on Africa <ul><li>80% of Africa’s food is grown by Africa’s 100 million rural women </li></ul><ul><li>90% of the work to process Africa’s food (threshing, drying, winnowing, peeling, grating, sieving, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Women do 60% of the work to market Africa’s food </li></ul><ul><li>Women do 80% of the work to provide proper transport and storage of Africa’s food </li></ul>Page Sources: WB and IFPRI, 1998; 1999
  7. 7. As caretakers, women provide food and nutrition security to their families Page <ul><li>Research findings show that: </li></ul><ul><li>Women, relative to men, spend more on food for the family </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s incomes are more strongly associated with child health and nutrition </li></ul>Source: IFPRI (1995) Country Effect on Ratio of Effect of Women's Income to that of Men's income Kenya Household Calorie Level … Guatemala Food Expenditures 2 Brazil Child weight for height 4.2 Brazil Child Survival 18.2
  8. 8. While women play important roles in agriculture, they face constraints in access to key assets <ul><ul><li>In Sub-Saharan Africa, women own only 1% of the land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 5 African countries,  received < 10% of the credit received by male smallholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenya: women contribute 80% labor for food production; receive 7% agricultural extension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15% of the agricultural extension workers globally are women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(FAO) </li></ul></ul>Page
  9. 9. … and to human capital <ul><ul><li>Lower education : 2/3 of illiterate people in the world are women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor nutrition : ½ African women are anemic:  physical productivity, reproductive performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor health : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal mortality in SSA highest in world (600-1,500/100,000 births) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDs </li></ul></ul></ul>Page
  10. 10. Research has shown that: <ul><li>Households do not act as one when making decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Improving women’s access to assets can  agricultural productivity, food security, and children’s nutrition, health, and education </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing gender in agricultural projects can  sustainability by 16% </li></ul>Page
  11. 11. Contributions of Women’s Status and Education to Child Malnutrition (1970-95) Page Source: Smith and Haddad 2000 Equalizing women status in SSA would  malnutrition in children by 3 % (1.7 million children) Equalizing women status in S Asia would  malnutrition in children by 13 % (13.4 million children)
  12. 12. The Constraints to Women’s Access to Assets for Agriculture and Strategies to Alleviate Constraints Wednesday, September 2, 2009
  13. 13. Land
  14. 14. Land <ul><li>Constraint : Women’s weak property and contractual rights to land, both statutory and customary </li></ul><ul><li>Key strategies : Strengthen property and contractual rights of women and increase knowledge of these rights; rental as well as ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Promising examples : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing more about provisions of Uganda’s land for women’s rights increases the propensity to undertake soil conservation. Legal literacy campaigns can help increase agricultural productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land certification in Ethiopia carried out through a low-cost, rapid, and transparent process. Land administration committees at local level required to have at least one female member, and women’s photos on certificates. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Agricultural project effects on land <ul><li>Key Strategy : Identify key tenure patterns at the onset of projects so that women’s property rights are not inadvertently eroded. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples from The Gambia </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s rights to grow swamp rice on communal land disappeared when an irrigation project gave control of the land to male-headed hhs (Carney 1988). </li></ul><ul><li>Women lost valuable income from communal garden plots when men were encouraged to plant orchards where women were already irrigating (Schroeder 1993). </li></ul><ul><li>Project to reclaim individually-owned degraded land redistributed the land to those who had provided labor. Since the majority of workers were women, they were 90% of the land beneficiaries (IFAD). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Water Page
  17. 17. Water <ul><li>Constraints : </li></ul><ul><li>Women are the main users of water; but have restricted rights </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation typically targets male farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>Develop & disseminate small scale water management technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Look at integration between irrigation and domestic water use </li></ul><ul><li>Need to increase water rights of women </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies: Africa and India: small irrigation schemes successfully managed by women’s groups </li></ul>Page Source: van Koppen 2001
  18. 18. Livestock Page
  19. 19. Livestock <ul><li>Constraints : Demand for livestock products expected to double in developing countries in next 20 years </li></ul><ul><li>Promising Points: </li></ul><ul><li>Women often choose to invest in livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Animals under female control more likely to  family nutrition than those under male control </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies : Policies and programs should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect female ownership and user rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Favor small-scale operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote small animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide training in group development, production, processing & marketing of animals and animal products </li></ul></ul>Page Source: Miller 2001
  20. 20. Soil fertility
  21. 21. Soil fertility <ul><li>Constraint : Gender inequality in access to, or ability to adopt, methods of improving soil fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Key strategy : Improve poor women’s access to soil fertility improving inputs and technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer and improved seed vouchers </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer-for-work program </li></ul><ul><li>Microcredit for fertilizer, smaller bag sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce a cash crop into women’s cropping systems so they can pay for fertilizer use (Gladwin 2002, ed.) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and disseminate soil fertility replenishment techniques like biological nitrogen fixation, grain legumes, biomass transfer </li></ul>
  22. 22. New varieties and technologies
  23. 23. New varieties and technologies <ul><li>Constraint : Improved varieties and technologies do not take into account women’s needs, preferences, resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Key Strategy : Involve women at all levels in priority-setting and research </li></ul><ul><li>In Rwanda, bean varieties selected by women farmers had production increases of up to 38% over breeder–selected varieties and outperformed local mixtures 64-89% of the time (Sperling and Berkowitz 1994). </li></ul><ul><li>Requires interdisciplinary approaches, station researchers and farmers learn to think of women farmers as experts. </li></ul><ul><li>See ASTI data on women involvement in agricultural research </li></ul>
  24. 24. Extension
  25. 25. Gender composition of extension staff (% of sample) Gender and Governance Author Team, 2009
  26. 26. Access to agricultural extension and livestock services (% hholds with contract in past year) India Gender and Governance Author Team, 2009
  27. 27. Page Access to agricultural extension services in Ghana Gender and Governance Author Team, 2009
  28. 28. Men and women participants in Farmer Field Schools in East Africa Page
  29. 29. Extension <ul><li>Constraints : Lack of attention to gender in agricultural extension systems and lack of recognition of how women receive, process information </li></ul><ul><li>Key Strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase # female extension workers (and adapt practices so they can function) </li></ul><ul><li>Train male extension agents to work with women </li></ul><ul><li>Make extension messages easier to understand </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer field schools, experiential learning </li></ul><ul><li>ICTs extension directly to women </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how social networks spread information, link with church groups or other networks that women trust </li></ul>
  30. 30. Impact of participation in FFS on crop productivity across gender of household head   Page
  31. 31. Labor
  32. 32. Labor <ul><li>Constraint : Low productivity of women’s labor in agriculture and home production, including food processing and preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Key Strategy : Introduce labor-saving technologies that reduce women’s time and energy burdens, but design should respect and enhance women’s roles </li></ul>
  33. 33. Markets
  34. 34. Markets <ul><li>Constraint : Lack of access to markets and infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>High transportation costs or culturally inappropriate transportation (e.g. bicycles); </li></ul><ul><li>High cost of permits to market goods; </li></ul><ul><li>Harassment of women by market/health officials; </li></ul><ul><li>Time burdens that constrain women from seeking best prices </li></ul><ul><li>Erratic prices leading to marital conflict if husband thinks wife is withholding money </li></ul><ul><li>Key Strategy : Invest in market-oriented interventions that facilitate women’s market access, strengthen their asset base and address gender norms </li></ul>
  35. 35. Services and support infrastructure
  36. 36. Services and Support Infrastructure <ul><li>Constraint : Exclusion of women from community-level service provision and resource distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Key Strategies : Organize women to increase their control of project benefits and their ability to contribute to their own well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Forming mixed-sex groups can lead to greater group effectiveness, but promote institutional mechanisms that foster women’s active participation in groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide technical and leadership training to women so that they can perform their roles effectively in groups </li></ul><ul><li>Time meetings to accommodate women’s workloads; </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that all women have opportunities to voice concerns in group meetings, solicit women in project M&E </li></ul>
  37. 37. How to Make Agriculture Research and Development More Gender-Equitable Implications for the Project Cycle Wednesday, September 2, 2009
  38. 38. Include Gender at all Stages of the Project Cycle Page Review and analyze information and key indicators, consult stakeholders, identify needs and priorities at national/local level Identify project elements, resources, targeting methods, personnel, budget, formulate implementation plan Identify process and outcome indicators of performance M&E feeds back into design and implementation Establish MIS in line with project activities
  39. 39. Integrating Gender in Needs Assessment <ul><li>Collect and analyze information about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The status of women and men (broader socio-economic context) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s and men’s roles in the project activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s and men’s participation in groups involved in the activity/decision-making about the activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify constraints and opportunities for both women and men, which can help in designing an intervention that can address the needs of both. </li></ul>Page
  40. 40. Address Gender in Project Design <ul><li>Gender considerations will affect choice of : </li></ul><ul><li>Main approaches/interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Complementary approaches to specifically address constraints faced by women </li></ul><ul><li>Targeting mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Gender balance of project staff </li></ul><ul><li>Training of staff </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement of different stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships, etc. </li></ul>Page
  41. 41. Integrating Gender in Implementation Phase <ul><li>Plan to build gender expertise necessary for the project </li></ul><ul><li>All staff should take ownership of the project’s gender equity goals (don’t leave it to the women) </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships with local organizations that have in-depth knowledge of gender issues in the intervention communities </li></ul><ul><li>Gain support of community gatekeepers (village elders, chiefs, etc.) for the project, including gendered components </li></ul><ul><li>Gender considerations in staffing can be critical for project acceptability (e.g. Progresa ) </li></ul><ul><li>Budget adequate resources for gender specific activities </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate mechanisms to monitor and address gender backlash/conflict in households and communities </li></ul>Page
  42. 42. Integrating Gender in Monitoring and Evaluation <ul><li>Develop a rigorous monitoring and evaluation framework that will record and track gender differences in project implementation and results </li></ul><ul><li>Include all actors—men and women—who can influence or be affected by project performance </li></ul>Page
  43. 43. Basic Questions for Gender Integration in Programs <ul><li>What different roles/stakes do women and men have in XXX? </li></ul><ul><li>How might the program affect them differently? </li></ul><ul><li>Will both men and women realistically be able to participate and to benefit? (look at time, assets) </li></ul><ul><li>How might differential participation of men, women affect program activities and impact? </li></ul><ul><li>How could the program contribute to gender equity? </li></ul>Page
  44. 44. Resources <ul><li>IFPRI Gender tool box: </li></ul><ul><li>Gender & Agriculture Sourcebook </li></ul><ul><li>FAO website </li></ul><ul><li>ADB website: </li></ul>Page