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Women and livestock: a research initiative

Presentation by Jemimah Njuki to the Intra-household and Agricultural productivity Convening, Washington DC, 25 September 2009

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Women and livestock: a research initiative

  1. 1. Women and Livestock: A Research Initiative Jemimah Njuki Presentation to USAID Washington DC, September 2009
  2. 2. The context: Livestock and Poverty <ul><li>600 million of the poor in rural areas keep livestock----they have too few livestock and resources to sustain production </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock as an asset, as a form of saving, a source of income providing 6-63% of household income depending on system, as social capital, important source of household nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Women are responsible for most of livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Role of livestock in reducing vulnerability due to HIV/AIDS </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why a Women and Livestock Research Initiative? <ul><li>Why women? </li></ul><ul><li>Women play important roles as producers of food, managers of natural resources, income earners, and caretakers of household food and nutrition security </li></ul><ul><li>Women however face constraints different from men </li></ul><ul><li>The control of assets including livestock and income derived from these assets by women has positive consequences for their decision making within the household and for household well being (nutrition, education, food security) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why a Women and Livestock Research Initiative? <ul><li>Why livestock? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Livestock, especially small stock, form a critical rung on the asset ladder out of poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livestock are among the few assets women can own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livestock are “productive” assets; livestock and their products contribute to food and income security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A targeted approach to livestock development programmes will improve overall impacts in terms of gender equity and poverty reduction </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Existing knowledge, gaps and opportunities for a pro-poor, pro-women R&D agenda <ul><li>Women’s ownership of livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s role in livestock keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s participation in livestock markets </li></ul><ul><li>Links between women, livestock, nutrition and health </li></ul>
  6. 6. Women’s “ownership” of livestock <ul><li>Livestock are most important asset for women </li></ul><ul><li>Complexities / changes in livestock ownership </li></ul><ul><li>But most livestock are owned by men </li></ul><ul><li>How to close this gender-asset gap? </li></ul>Gender of owner, Mozambique, Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda (% households)   Cattle Poultry Goats Mozambique 11 13 Kenya 12 80 11 Rwanda 15 38 41 Uganda 14 36 64
  7. 7. How do women gain and maintain control over livestock? <ul><li>Women are less likely than men to acquire animals in the marketplace. </li></ul><ul><li>Threats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought and disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolution of the household </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercialization? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Women’s role in livestock keeping <ul><li>Women often control products even where they don’t control animals </li></ul><ul><li>For example, women often control some or all milk even if they can’t decide where the cow is grazed or whether it is sold. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Women provide a large share of the labor in livestock keeping, especially in mixed systems and poor households </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s priorities and constraints are often, but not always, different from men’s </li></ul><ul><li>Women have less access to inputs and services </li></ul>
  10. 10. Key messages <ul><li>Division of rights and responsibilities affects incentive and ability to adopt new technologies and practices to increase production and productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to understand this better to develop appropriate technologies and design more effective interventions. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Women’s participation in markets <ul><li>Sale of livestock and livestock products are often the most important source of income for women </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s control of the income from sales is often challenged in the household </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Women are more likely to sell in informal, local markets </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s marketing costs are often higher than men’s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information—women face higher costs, but groups can help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most often have to pay male intermediaries </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Women, Livestock, and Nutrition <ul><li>&quot;Even small additional amounts of meat and milk can provide the same level of nutrients, protein, and calories to the poor that a large and diverse amount of vegetables and cereals could provide” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Cow Turns Green,” Newsweek, September 7, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock ownership alone is not sufficient to ensure consumption of animal source foods (ASF) </li></ul><ul><li>Women play a key role in household choices about food consumption, dietary quality, and intra-household allocation. </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s status is key to making good choices here </li></ul>
  14. 14. Women, Livestock and Health <ul><li>Many important diseases are zoonotic, and food safety can be a major issue with animal source foods </li></ul><ul><li>A gendered risk assessment found: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s higher exposure to high-risk activities such as feeding, milking, and cleaning of livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women and men exposed to different diseases, by species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women much more exposed to food-borne diseases because of role in food and by-product processing, food preparation, and selling ready to eat </li></ul></ul>.
  15. 15. Women and Livestock Challenge Dialogue: A participatory process for co-developing and R&D agenda <ul><li>A global challenge dialogue initiated in 2008, with over 200 people invited to participate </li></ul><ul><li>Some outputs of the dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>An informal partnership with R&D organizations working on livestock and </li></ul><ul><li>Some initial areas of focus for a investments in women and livestock </li></ul><ul><li>A video-clip to highlight the role of women in livestock development and potential impacts of investing on women and livestock Women and Livestock </li></ul>
  16. 16. Initial Areas of Focus for ILRI <ul><li>Mechanisms for securing women’s access and control of livestock and other assets </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting women’s participation in formal and informal livestock and livestock product markets </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing intra-household dynamics, asset ownership, and nutritional and health outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Women, livestock and natural resource management </li></ul>
  17. 17. Mechanisms for securing women’s access <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Co-develop and pilot test with development partners different mechanisms for increasing and securing women’s livestock assets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Index Based Livestock Insurance (IBLI) for women and women-owned livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Women and Livestock Fund (e.g Bangladesh micro-credit and poultry development) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What institutional arrangements would be required to make these work? </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance and micro-finance </li></ul><ul><li>organizations, NGOs-PROLINOVA </li></ul>
  18. 18. 2. Promoting women’s participation in formal and informal livestock and livestock product markets <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>What are the pro-poor, pro-women livestock value chains? </li></ul><ul><li>What segments of the value chains have greatest benefits for women and their households? </li></ul><ul><li>Role of collective action for increasing market participation (e.g co-operative dairy development scheme in India) </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Heifer International (dairy cows), Farm Africa (dairy goats), **** (pigs, poultry, other small ruminants) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Comparing income share to women across traditional and non-traditional cash crops <ul><li>Women have higher income share from some crops and types of markets compared to others </li></ul>
  20. 20. 3. Intra-household dynamics, asset ownership and nutrition and health outcomes <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative, quantitative and nutritional analysis of the implications of livestock ownership, intra household dynamics and health and nutrition outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Action research to test strategies that can improve health and nutrition outcomes of livestock keepers (e.g integrating nutrition education with dairy interventions) </li></ul><ul><li>Partners </li></ul><ul><li>Emory University (development and public health departments), NGO partners working on livestock, nutrition </li></ul>
  21. 21. 4. Women, Livestock and NRM <ul><li>Key Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Managing NR to increase access by women to feed and fodder resources (private and common property lands) </li></ul><ul><li>Gendered impacts of climate change and the role of women in adaptation mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing livestock productivity and competitiveness, as well as food security though dual purpose feed and feed resources </li></ul><ul><li>Action oriented research to test different interventions and resources (including information) for men and women for dealing with climate variability/change </li></ul><ul><li>Partners </li></ul><ul><li>IDRC, Regional Universities (Sokoine), ICRAF? </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Compiling empirical evidence of gender issues in livestock: </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of a gender implications of a decade of ILRI research on issues such as markets, food safety and health, NRM, poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating gender and poverty indicators into the research process, monitoring and evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Broadly: </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstreaming gender into the project design and planning process, and gender analysis as an integral part of the research process </li></ul>Other gender work in ILRI
  23. 23. Key methods and approaches <ul><li>Action research and pilot testing of innovative approaches, technologies, services </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of existing secondary data, especially gender-disaggregated data </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of livestock R4D projects </li></ul><ul><li>New research to better understand women and livestock issues </li></ul>
  24. 24. Thank You