Novice Rigid adherence to taught rules or plans Little situational perception No discretionary judgment
Advanced Beginner Guidelines for action based on attributes or aspects Situational perception is still limited All attributes and aspects are treated separately and given equal importance
Competent Sees action at least partially in terms of longer-term goals Conscious, deliberate planning Standardized and routinized procedures Plan guides performance as situation evolves
Proficient Sees situation holistically rather than in terms of aspects Sees what is most important in a situation Perceives deviations from the normal pattern Uses maxims, whose meanings vary according to the situation, for guidance Situational factors guide performance as situation evolves
Expert No longer relies on rules, guidelines, or maxims Intuitive grasp of situations based on deep tacit understanding Intuitive recognition of appropriate decision or action Analytic approaches used only in novel situations or when problems occur
Where We Stand Expert Proficient Competent Advanced Beginner Novice Source: Hackos & Stevens, 1997 via the Pragmatic Programmers
"The vast majority of all users remain advanced beginners, performing the tasks they need and learning new tasks as the need arises, but never acquiring a more broad-based, conceptual understanding of the task environment" Hackos & Stevens, 1997, p. 36
You can write COBOL in any language.
Everybody works, but not everybody improves. WHY?
The Mastery Curve
After moving up a level, things always get worse.
Zones of Comfort
Comfort Zone People stay here Minds often closed to learning Very little change
Learning Zone Lots of Uncertainty Feels uncomfortable and challenging Lots of learning opportunities
Panic Zone People close up They freeze They don’t learn Very little focus on change and improvement – it’s all about survival
The Fast Horse?
What is expertise? Performance consistently superior to peers Produces concrete results Can be replicated
Recipe For Greatness Intensive practice Devoted teachers Enthusiastic support
Deliberate Practice is Designed
Deliberate practice focuses on tasks beyond your current level of competence and comfort.
It is only by working at what you can’t do that you become an expert
Observe results and make adjustments
Assess mistakes and figure out how to correct them
Be honest about areas for improvement
Practice without attention to reflection and form will not yield the same results.
Deliberate practice is not “fun”, but it is rewarding.
Flow requires challenge or boredom results.
“If you practice with your fingers, no amount is enough. If you practice with your head, two hours is plenty.” Violin Professor Leopold Auer
10,000 hours to mastery 4-6-10 4 hours/day 6 days/week For 10 years!
How can we encourage greatness(or at least improvement)? Be supportive of efforts to improve Allow one another to suck (with gusto!) Be a mentor Catalog simulations and case studies
Provide a supportive environment
Be willing to be a mentor
Be willing to receive constructive, unsentimental feedback
Remember the Kobayashi Maru
Simulations and Case Studies Code Kata Code Dojo Bitslingers “Code Sparring”
Greatness is not a function of circumstances. Greatness, as it turns out, is largely a matter of conscious choice. Jim Collins in Good to Great
Papers & Articles Expertise and Skilled Performance The Making of an Expert What It Takes to be Great
In order to become an expert, you must become eccentric.
Those who know do not speak;Those who speak do not know. Tao Te Ching, Chapter 56
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