Better Is the Only Way Forward


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Better Is the Only Way Forward

  1. 1. Better Is The Only Way Forward Alan Stevens
  2. 2. Contact Me Slides: Email/IM: Website: Twitter: @alanstevens
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Part I What is known about expertise?
  5. 5. Qualities of Expertise • Performance consistently superior to peers • Produces concrete results • Can be replicated
  6. 6. Everybody works, but not everybody improves. WHY?WHY?
  7. 7. The Dreyfus Model of Skills Acquisition Source: Pragmatic Thinking and Learning
  8. 8. The vast majority of all users remain advanced beginners… never acquiring a more broad- based, conceptual understanding of the task environment Hackos & Stevens, 1997, p. 36
  9. 9. Where are the masters?
  10. 10. I’ve met a few.
  11. 11. Douglas Crockford
  12. 12. Charles Petzold
  13. 13. Ward Cunningham
  14. 14. Who else?
  15. 15. Ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge Charles Darwin
  16. 16. The Dunning-Kruger Effect Illusory superiority vs. Illusory inferiority
  17. 17. David Dunning and Justin Kruger the miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others
  18. 18. Incompetent People • Tend to overestimate their own level of skill • Fail to recognize genuine skill in others • Fail to recognize the extremity of their inadequacy • Recognize and acknowledge their own previous lack of skill, if they can be trained to substantially improve.
  19. 19. David Dunning and Justin Kruger Actual competence may weaken self-confidence competent individuals may falsely assume that others have an equivalent understanding. 
  20. 20. The Knowledge Effect A tendency of individuals to assume that their own knowledge is shared by others. “Understanding and Reducing the Knowledge Effect: Implications for Writers” -- John R. Hayes and Diana Bajzek
  21. 21. Part II What does it take to become an expert?
  22. 22. Recipe For Greatness 1. Intensive practice 2.Devoted teachers 3.Enthusiastic support
  23. 23. 10,000 hours to mastery 4-5-10 4 hours/day 5 days/week For 10 years!
  24. 24. Deliberate Practice is the hardest kind of work: 1. Isolate what you don’t know 2. Identify your weaknesses 3. Work just on that
  25. 25. Deliberate practice must include immediate and constant feedback.
  26. 26. Experts study themselves failing. Joshua Foer
  27. 27. Joshua Foer You’ve got to push yourself past where you’re comfortable. You have to watch yourself fail and learn from your mistakes. That’s the way to get better at anything.
  28. 28. Karl Rohnke’s CSP Model Comfort Zone Stretch Zone Panic Zone
  29. 29. “If you practice with your fingers, no amount is enough. If you practice with your head, two hours is plenty.” Violin Professor Leopold Auer
  30. 30. What if I’m talented?
  31. 31. Carol S. Dweck, Ph.D in Mindset The view you adopt for yourself profoundly affects the way you lead your life. Believing that your qualities are carved in stone, the fixed mindset, creates an urgency to prove yourself over and over.
  32. 32. Part III If talent doesn’t insure success, what does?
  33. 33.
  34. 34. The more decisions you make the more loss you experience. When you choose one possibility you lose another possibility by natural consequence. James Shelley
  35. 35. The ability to delay gratification was a far better predictor of academic performance than I.Q. Angela Lee Duckworth
  36. 36. The Plateau
  37. 37. The Mastery Curve
  38. 38. The Dabbler
  39. 39. The Obsessive
  40. 40. The “Hacker”
  41. 41. “If you can deal with hot emotions, then you can study for the S.A.T. instead of watching television, and you can save more money for retirement. It’s not just about marshmallows.” Walter Mischel, Stanford professor of psychology in charge of the marshmallow experiment
  42. 42. Grit A passion for a single mission with an unswerving dedication to achieve that mission, whatever the obstacles and however long it might take. Angela Lee Duckworth
  43. 43. Part IV What are we to do with this information?
  44. 44.
  45. 45.
  46. 46.
  47. 47. “These are powerful instincts...The only way to defeat them is to avoid them, and that means paying attention to something else. We call that will power, but it’s got nothing to do with the will.” John Jonides, a psychologist and neuroscientist at the University of Michigan
  48. 48. Thomas M. Sterner in The Practicing Mind When we are totally focused in the present moment, and in the process of what we are doing, we are completely absorbed in the activity. As soon as we become aware of how well we are concentrating on something, we are no longer concentrating on it.
  49. 49. Flow requires challenge or boredom results.
  50. 50. Challenge vs. Skill Source:
  51. 51. Conditions Necessary to Achieve the Flow State • One must be involved in an activity with a clear set of goals. • One must have a good balance between the perceived challenges of the task at hand and his or her own perceived skills. • The task at hand must have clear and immediate feedback.
  52. 52. Chip and Dan Heath in Switch: How to Change Things When Change Is Hard Self-control Is An Exhaustible Resource It's like doing bench presses at the gym. The first one is easy when your muscles are fresh, but with each additional repetition, your muscles get more exhausted.
  53. 53. • Will and discipline are far more limited and precious resources than most of us realize • They must be called upon very selectively • Even small acts of self-control use up this limited reservoir • We have the capacity for very few conscious acts of self-control in a day. Jim Loehr and Tony Schwartz
  54. 54. Positive Energy Rituals
  55. 55. Conclusion
  56. 56. Greatness is not a function of circumstances. Greatness, as it turns out, is largely a matter of conscious choice. Jim Collins in Good to Great
  57. 57. Resources
  58. 58. Links to Additional Resources Expertise and Skilled Performance The Making of an Expert What It Takes to be Great Unskilled And Unaware of It (pdf) Developing Expertise: Herding Racehorses, Racing Sheep (video) Don't!: The Secret of Self Control What If the Secret to Success is Failure? Personal Best The Making of a Corporate Athlete (pdf) Tony Schwartz: The Myths of the Overworked Creative (video) Better
  59. 59. Anders Sorman-Nilsson It is perhaps attitude not aptitude that gives us altitude
  60. 60. Thanks For Listening! Slides: Email/IM: Website: Twitter: @alanstevens