English grammar por Adriana Alcocer y Diego Yuquilema
SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES DIEGO YUQUILEMA FOURTH SEMESTER
SIMPLE PRESENTUse the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated orusual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event orsomething that often happens. It can also be something a person oftenforgets or usually does not do.• Examples:STRUCTURESubject + Main Verb + Complement ( + )I play tennis.He drives a taxi.Subject + Auxiliary Verb (don’t / doesn’t) + Main Verb + Complement ( - )We do not / don’t work at night.She does not / doesn’t like coffee.Auxiliary Verb + Subject + Main Verb + Complement ( ? )Do you play football? Yes, I do.Does he play tennis? No, he does not.
PRESENT CONTINUOUSUse the Present Continuous with Normal Verbs to express the idea thatsomething is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used toshow that something is not happening now.EXAMPLES:STRUCTURESubject + Be (am, is, are) + Verb -ing + Complement ( + )I am working right now.You are watching TV.She is swimming now.We are watching the game at my apartment.
Subject + Be (am, is, are not) + Verb -ing + Complement ( - )I am not cooking with my mother right now.You are not cleaning your room at the moment.We are not / aren’t playing soccer at this moment.Be + Subject + Verb -ing + Complement ( ? )Are you sleeping with your friend?Yes I am sleeping with my friend.No, I am not sleeping with my friend.Yes, I am. No, I am not.Is she watching TV right now?Yes, She is. No, She is not.Some phrases that indicate present progressive are: at the moment, now,right now.
PRESENT PERFECTWe use to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. Theexact time is not important. You can not use the Present Perfect with specifictime expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was achild, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We can usethe Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once,many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.• Examples:STRUCTURESubject + have/has + past participle (main verb) + complement (+)We have lived in Canada since 1986.She has cleaned her room very fast.
Subject + have/has not + past participle + complement ( - )You have not seen that movie many times.James has not finished his homework yet.They have not worked very hard in their company.I have studied English since I was five years old.Have/has + Subject + past participle + complement ( ? )Have you seen that movie many times?Yes, I have seen that movie many times.No, I have not seen that movie many times.Yes, I have. (Short answer)No I have not. (Short answer)Has she bought some new clothes?Have we won the lottery?
ALREADY AND YET• Already and yet indicate that an action has happened at an unspecified time in the past. Already - affirmative statements. Yet - negative statements and questions.• Already suggest that something has occurred sooner than expected. It is generally used with an affirmative verb, and goes between the auxiliary and main verb.• Yet shows that the speaker is waiting for the action to occur. It is usually with a negative verb and goes at the end of the statement. I have already finished my report. Andrea has already read the entire story. The president hasn’t done anything yet. He hasn’t bought any presents for Christmas yet.
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUSDuration from the Past Until NowWe use to show that something started in the past and has continued up untilnow. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are alldurations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous.EXAMPLES:STRUCTURESubject + have/has + been + verb -ing + complement ( + )I have been reading for 2 hours. . (I am still reading now.)We have been studying since 9 oclock. (Were still studying now.)He has been playing football for a long time.( he is still playing now )
Subject + have/has not + been + verb -ing + complement ( - )They have not/haven’t been visiting us since March.he hasnt/has not been feeling well for 2 weeks.Lisa has not/ hasn’t been practicing her English.have/has + Subject + been + verb -ing + complement ( ? )Have you been exercising lately?Has she been waiting here for two hours?What have you been doing?
SIMPLE PASTUse the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished ata specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mentionthe specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.EXAMPLES:STRUCTURESubject + past + complement ( + )I saw a movie yesterday.He lived in Brazil for two years.She washed her car.They sat at the beach all day.
Subject + did not/didn’t + verb + complement ( - )I didnt see a play yesterday.They did not stay at the party the entire time.He didnt play the piano.Auxiliary Verb + subject + verb + complement ( ? )Did you have dinner last night?Yes, I had dinner last night.No, I did not have last night.Yes, I did.No, I didn’t.Did she play a musical instrument when she was a kid?Did they live in Guayaquil when they were children?Notice:You can use in simple past these expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, lastweek, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, oneday, etc.
PAST CONTINUOUS Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a action started in the past and it was interrupted by another action. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.STRUCTURESubject + be (was, were) + verb –ing + complement (+)You were studying when she calledShe was waiting for us when we got off the plane.While I was writing the email, the computer suddenly went off.
Subject + be (was not/were not) + verb –ing + complement (-)I was not sitting at my desk at workHe wasnt paying attention while He was writing the letter, so He made several mistakes.They were not working, and I wasnt working either.Was/were + Subject + verb –ing + complement (?)Were you listening to music while he was talking about sport?Yes, I was listening to music while he was talking about sport.No, I was not listening to music while he was talking about sport.Yes, I was. (Short answer)No, I was not. (Short answer)What were you doing when you broke your leg?Were you coming late for dinner!?
PAST PERFECT• The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.STRUCTURESubject + had + participle (main verb) + complement (+)I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Salinas.You had studied English before you entered to the University.He had visited Atacames several times, when she was five years old.
Subject + had not + participle + complement ( - )We had not had that car for ten years before it broke down.You had not studied English before you traveled to USA.She had visited her Ecuadorian relatives once in 2005 before she moved in with them in 2008.Had + Subject + participle + Complement ( ? )Had you studied French before you moved to France.Yes, I had studied French before I moved to France.No, I had not studied French before I moved to France.Yes, had.No, had not.Had you ever been in the U.S. before your trip in 2006?Yes, I had been in the U.S.No , I had not been to the U.S.
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUSWe use to show that something started in the past and continued up untilanother time in the past. Using the Past Perfect Continuous before anotheraction in the past is a good way to show cause and effect.STRUCTURESubject + had + been + verb -ing + complement (+)They had been talking for over an hour before Jenny arrived.She had been working at that company for three years when it went out ofbusiness.Diego had been teaching at the university for more than a year before hetraveled to Guayaquil.
Subject + had not + been + verb -ing + complement ( - )I had not been working in my office when my mother called me.You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finallyarrived.she had not been waiting for two hours.“Had + Subject + been + verb -ing + complement ( ? )Had you been waiting there for more than two hours when she finallyarrived?Yes, I had been waiting there for more than two hours when she finallyarrived.No, I had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finallyarrived.Yes, I had been. (Short answer)No, I had not been. (Short answer)
SIMPLE FUTURESimple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to."Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they oftenexpress two very different meanings. These different meanings might seemtoo abstract at first, but with time and practice, the differences will becomeclear. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future.1. WILL- Show a degree of uncertainty.- Used to predict the future: to say what we think, guess, or calculate willhappen.- Will + not = won’t- Used to express willingness to do something.- Commonly used with expressions such as: Maybe, perhaps, and probably.
STRUCTURESubject + will + main verb + complement (+)Be careful ! You will burn yourself. (prediction)Maybe I will call you later if I have the time. (uncertainty)Ask the teacher. She will help you. (willingness)Subject + won’t + main verb + complement ( - )He won’t finish his homework this weekend. (prediction)I wont tell anyone your secret.Will + Subject + main verb + complement ( ? )Will you help him later?Yes, I will help him later.No, I won’t help him later.Yes, I will. (short answer)No, I won’t. (short answer)Will you help me move this heavy table?
2. Be Going To- May express a prediction.- Predicts the future by using present evidence, (when we can see that afuture event is one the way or beginning to occur).- Indicates a prior plan or firm intention in the future.- Used to demonstrate certainty in the future.STRUCTURESubject + be (am, is, are) + going to + verb (base form) + complement (+) Be careful ! You are going to burn yourself. (prediction)I bought the wallpaper because I am going to decorate the house. (certainty)Subject + be (am , is, are not) + going to + verb (base form) +complement (-)You are not going to meet Jenny tonight.She is not going to spend her vacation in Atacames.
be (am , is, are) + Subject + going to + verb (base form) + complement (?)Are you going to travel to Guayaquil this month?Yes, I am going to travel to Guayaquil this month.No, I am not going to travel to Guayaquil this month.Yes, I am. (short answer)No, I am not. (short answer)Is she going to work in her office, tomorrow?Yes, she is going to work in her office, tomorrow.No, she is not going to work in her office, tomorrow.Yes, she is. (short answer)No she isn’t. (short answer)
FUTURE CONTINUOUSThe future continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in thefuture. The action will start before that moment but it will not have finishedat that moment. And commonly used for planned or expected future events.STRUCTURESubject + will be + verb – ing + complement (+)I will be playing tennis at 10am tomorrow.You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonightThey will be watching TV when she arrives tonight.
Subject + will not be/ won´t be + verb – ing +complement (-)She will not be sleeping when you telephone her.They wont be watching TV at 9pm tonight. Will + Subject + be + verb – ing + complement (?)Will you be cooking at 10pm tonight?Yes, I will be cooking at 10pm tonight.No, I won’t be cooking at 10pm tonight.Yes, will. (short answer)No, won´t. (short answer)Will she be cleaning her room when I arrive?Yes, I will.No, I won´t.
FUTURE PERFECTThe Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur beforeanother action in the future. It can also show that something will happenbefore a specific time in the future.STRUCTURESubject + will + have + past participle + complement (+)By next November, I will have received my promotion.She will have answered his letter by the time he finally returns.You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
Subject + will not/ won´t + have + past participle + complement (-)I won´t have finished this test by 3 oclock.You will not have perfected your English by the time you come back from theUSA.Subject + will not/ won´t + have + past participle + complement (?)Will you have learnt a lot of money by the time you come back from the Spain?Yes, I will have learnt a lot of money by the time I come back from the Spain.No, I won´t have learnt a lot of money by the time I come back from the Spain.Yes, I will have. (short answer)No, I won´t have. (short answer)Will she have learned enough English to communicate before she moves toCanada?Yes, she will have. (short answer)No, she won´t have. (short answer)
FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUSThe future perfect continuous emphasizes the duration of an event, or howlong the future event will be in progress before another event in the futuretakes place.STRUCTURESubject + will have been + verb –ing + complement (+)You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finallyarrives.She will have been working at that company for three years when it finallycloses.They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Diego arrives.
Subject + will not have been + verb –ing + complement ( - )By next year, I will not have working 12 months.You will not have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.Will + Subject + have been + verb –ing + complement ( ? )- Will you have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finallyarrives?Yes, I will have been waiting for more than two hours when her planes arrives.No, I will not have been waiting for more than two hours when her planesfinally arrives.- Will Diego have been teaching at the university for more than a year by thetime he leaves to Quito.Yes, he will have been teaching at the University for more than a year by thetime he leaves to Quito.No, he will not been teaching at the University for more than a year by thetime he leaves to Quito.
ARTICLES: A, AN• Used with singular countable nouns:- a teacher - a university - a pen - an elephant• Can’t precede an uncountable noun.• Used with general, nonspecific, nouns.• Used to say what job a person has, what something is used as, or what kind of thing something or somebody is:- Anita is a medical assistant.- He is a good dancer.• Used when a subject is being introduced to the listener for the first time.• A is used before a consonant sound. An is used before a vowel sound.- an eraser – a white eraser- a man - an ugly man
THE• Used when it is clear which item we are referring to, or when something is common Knowledge.The movie that I saw last night was funny. Would you turn on the light? The bathroom is down the hall.• For uncountable nouns, the is used when we are speaking in specific terms, but not general. Can you please pass the salt? Salt can be added to any recipe if you like.• Used when there is only one of something. The tallest building in the world is being designed as we speak. The only game show I like is no longer on the air.
• can refer to something in general when it is followed by a singular countable noun. Don’t use in this case with plurals.The daisy is my favorite flower. Or Daises are my favorite flowers.The cheetah is very fast animal. Or Cheetahs are very fast.• Not use when a plural countable noun refers to everything within a specific class. Computers have become a necessity of life. (All computers) In my opinion, people that don’t pay their taxes are stealing from the goverment. (All people)• Some words are usually referred to by the determiner the, even when not referring to a specific place/thing.- The doctor - the bank - the hospital - the radioWhen I went to the doctor I asked him to do some special tests.She had already gone to the bank when you called.I was listening to the radio when I heard about the plane crash.