The four main causes of the Cuban Revolution, sugar, anti-American feelings, political corruption and socioeconomic inequalities, are interconnected.
The sugar plantations were owned by the elite which connects to socioeconomic inequality, because they owned the farms and kept most of the money it made. Meanwhile, the majority of the people were farm workers, desperate for a job at the sugar plantation. The fact that the plantations were backed by American capital connects to anti-US feelings. The US had control over this major facet if the Cuban economy, which went against their natural desire for autonomy. The major offense having to do with the sugar was the trade deficit.After the Great Depression, Cuba made an agreement with the US which gave Cuba the ability to sell a certain quota of their sugar in American markets. But this quota could be changed to the whims of Congress, and they took advantage of it. In exchange for this small quota, the US made Cuba buy mostly American goods. So, Cuban sugar export went down, but their imports were forced to go up, with the US having a monopoly. C ausedunsatifaction amongst Cubans.
The Cuban rich were extremely rich. In fact, at that time, Cuba owned the most Crysillers per capita than any other country. The majority of the people were impoverished,the Mestizos. What happened in Cuba was the typical suppression of the lower classes by the “bourgeoisie” of Cuba. The oppressed wanted rebellion. Any unions for better working conditions or land were ignored. Human rights were abused. The rich got preferential treatment and lived in luxury while most of Cuba suffered.
In both the Spanish-American War and the Cuban Independence war , the American army had taken positions which were seen as the “enemy’s side” to the majority of the Cuban people.Control over economy. US backed Batista regime for their personal interests because Batista complied with their economic wished. Another reason for Cubans to hate the US government.
Fulgencio Batista was originally a lower class citizen. He had risen from jobs such as working on the estate of Fidel Castro’s father. He joined the army and rose amonsg the ranks, becoming popular. He soon entering politics.Fulgencio Batista had all ready been president once, and he had a wonderful term, and actually fixed many of the problems with the Cuban government. When his term ended, he peacefully left Cuba. If he had stayed in retirement, he could have been know as the man who brought democracy and order back to Cuba. His choice was nly to come back soon afterwards and take over with a military coup. He cancelled the elections.Corruption was rampant. He established casinos for revenue. Through those, he associated the government with criminals such as the American mafia.
Castro was the illegitimate son of a Creole sugar plantation owner. Which essentially means his father was rich. At the beginning of his entering the revolution he was a lawyer, he had just married Mirta Diaz-Balart. Her father, who was actually Batista’s personal lawyer, had arranged for them to go to New York for their honeymoon, which is the first taste he got of America. He was upset when he didn’t get to run for congress the time that Batista cancelled the elections.As part of the Orthodoxo party, he wanted the Cuban government to return to the constitution.Used his photographic memory, which helped him give his speeches. His words had charisma which brought him many followers. Castro eventually becomes president, after leading the successful revolution
The plan was to storm the Monacada Army Barracks near Santiago. The revolutionaries would then seize the armory and distribute the weapons amongst themselves. Simultaneously, some of the people stayed in Havana and caused further damage through small-scale destruction such as bombings in public places. The resistance was easily outnumbered and Batista’s spies had found out they were coming. Everyone was killed or captured. A majority of the captured were either executed or tortured. Castro and his brother Raul were too prominent to harm, so they were imprisoned. Castro and the revolutionaries cause became prominent after this attack. Castro enjoyed his time in jail, actually. He read lots of books about Karl Marx and Lenin. After his release, he left for Mexico.
CheGeuvara, also know as le Che, was a medic. He had travelled through Latin American and helped people with diseases such as Leprosy. He had also played some roles in revolution type things in other Latin American countries. He met Castro in Mexico and joined the 26th of July Movement. He was one of the people on the Granma. He became close friends with Castro and rose up among the resistance. After success, he was appointed as President of the National Bank of Cuba. 3 years later, he became the Minister of Industry.
The first picture is Castro’s guerilla forces.The second one is Castro entering Havana after victory.
This movement was named after the date of the failed Moncada attack. It was the second resurgence of the resistance, which eventually became successful. At first, things weren’t going so well. Castro was supposed to time his reentry into Cuba with revolts that happened on the countryside, aiming to overwhelm the Batista government. Unfortunately, their boat, the Granma, took longer to Cuba than anticipated. By the time the 82 men arrived, the resistance had been quelled. There was an ambush once they arrived, leaving only 12 men left. This forced Castro and his Fidelistas, or his followers, to hide in the mountains. They stayed in the Sierra Maestra mountain range, recuperating and expanding.
The froces mainly used guerilla attacks on the countryside. Further inland, they organized large strikes in Havana and other cities. Castro used the radio and had an American journalist interview him for an article in the New York Times. This publicity gained support for his cause. In May, Batista sent his final offensive of troops to the mountains to kill the Castro’s guerilla forces. The were backed by American funding and carried American weapons. However, the many thousands of armed soldiers were unable to apprehend the guerillas that only numbered in hundreds. Support for Batista, both in and out of Cuba, faltered. After this victory, Castro moved inwards and started capturing cities. The fighting was easier than expected. Finally, on new years day in 1959, Batista fled to Portugal. In 1973, he died of a heart attack, the two days before Castro’s people could kill him.
Now, the revolution was over and Castro was successful. While leading the revolution, he had said that he id
One of Castro’s most famous reforms is the literacy movement. The percentage of illiterate Cubans dropped from 25% TO 3%. This was one of his moderate reforms. Others were building homes, hospitals, and schools and stepping up welfare. There were also radical reforms.This one party had complete control over housing, health care, education, and all areas of political and cultural life. HE banned election because he said Cuba was not yet ready for democracy.
Castro seized the opportunity presented by the struggle between the Soviet Union and the United States, knowing that each side was looking for allies. He made the country of Cuba valuable. He became close friends with Khrushchev, who supported him at things such as UN meetings. He made the Soviet Union Cuba main trading partner, instead of the Untied States. This clearly upset them. Khrushchev thought of Cuba as the beacon for Communism in Latin America. Soon after, Castro openly declared himself as the Marxist-Lenninst. This official declaration of communism was a plus for the Soviet Union, but it scared the US.
US had stopped backing the Batista government, but only in the end when their failure was evident. When Castro went for his first trip to the US, as the President of Cuba, Eisenhower refused to see him. Vice President Nixon saw him instead. Nixon afterwards wrote that the US had no choice but to try to "orient" the leftist leader in the "right direction". US breaks off diplomatic relations with Havana and imposes a trade embargo in response to Castro's reforms. This embargo continues to cripple the Cuban economy, even today. In retaliation, all US businesses in Cuba are nationalized without compensation. Which means that Cuba put all the American business in Cuba under Cuban control. They were further angered when Cuba began to trade extensively with the Soviet Union. The reason for Untied State’s dislike for Castro’s reforms is that they were extremely socialist in character. All ready threatened by the USSR, they didn’t want a communist country only 90 miles from their border.
CIA had sent some Cuban Americans opposed to Castro to storm Cuba and kill Castro. However, they under estimated the organization the Cuban forces, since they responded fast. They were also fiercely loyal to Castro, something the CIA were surprised by. After this embarrassing failure, the Kennedy administration tried to disassociate the United States as much a possible. So, even though they had promised air support to the Cuban-Americans, they didn’t stay true to their word. After operation failed, the CIA kept trying to kill Castro in a series of attempts called Operation Mongoose. This clear attack against their beloved leader alienated Cuba. Now, Cuba had a reason want harm against the US. This situation escalated, leading to the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Cuban RevolutionBy Aditi Patil and Nicole Pristin
Long-term Causes Sugar Socioeconomic inequalities Anti-U.S. feeling Political corruption
Sugar Production The major export of Cuba Owned by the elite Backed by American capital Only allowed to sell a certain quota of the sugar in American markets Led to trade deficit
Socioeconomic Inequalities Large gap between rich and poor Majority of the population was impoverished Superior life for the Cuban eliteMembers of the Cuban upper class
Anti-American Feelings War history Resentment towards U.S. control Imperialistic attitude
Political Corruption Fulgencio Batista’s regime Revocation of democracy Shady casinos Fulgencio Batista
Fidel Castro Revolutionary leader Against Batista’s politics Orthodoxo Party Built up resistance slowly With his convincing speeches Fidel Castro
Moncada Barracks Plan was to storm barracks and seize the armory Led by resistance forces Castro was a key member Failure Everyone was either killed or captured Brought Castro and the cause to fame
Ernest “Che” Guevara Doctor Met Castro in Mexico Joined in on 26th of July Movement Rose among the resistance Later appointed President of the National Bank
26th of July Movement Castro and 82 of his men returned to Cuba Not in time to coordinate with other attacks Ambushed Only 12 men left Forced Castro and Fidelistas into Sierra Maestra mountains
26th of July Movement Guerilla attacks Gained power through media Organized strikes May 1958 – Batista sent his final offensive, which failed Castro was embolden and pushed his own forces out Jan 1, 1959 – Batista fled
Castro In Power Had said he didn’t want a spot in the government Appointed himself as president Annulled some elections that had occurred before
Castro’s Reforms Literacy movement Made Cuba a one party government Banned elections Land reform Banned religion
Closer to USSR Became close friends with Khrushchev Made the Soviet Union Cuba main trading partner Khrushchev thought of Cuba as the beacon for Communism in Latin America
Estranged from US US backed Batista until the final moment President Eisenhower refuses to see Castro US imposes a trade embargo Castro retaliates by seizing American companies in Cuba US was nervous about having a country with such socialist reforms so close