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Cuban revolution


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Cuban revolution

  1. 1. The Cuban Revolution1953-1959   By Ian Sherriff and DavidRan
  2. 2. Overview:● Overthrow of the Batista Regime by revolutionaries ● Seizure of US Businesses ● Communist-leaning reforms ● Latin American country in the "Soviet Camp"
  3. 3. Causes:● Legacy and ideas of Spanish-American War ● US Imperialism in Cuba ● Poverty and Disparity of Wealth ● Corruption Under US-backed Batista regime   
  4. 4. Political Cartoon 1898:
  5. 5. Spanish-American War● The Cuban War of Independence ● Cuba gains independence from Spain in 1898 ● 30,000 Cubans die fighting ● Cuba becomes an economic colony of the US, no independence 
  6. 6. The US in Cuba● Americans own most Cuban businesses ● American Mafia involved in illicit activities ○ gambling, prostitution, drug trafficking ○ 11,500 prostitutes in Havana ○ Havana becomes a "degenerate playground"  ● Cubans starve as their resources are taken by US businessmen
  7. 7. Gambling:
  8. 8. US Possessions in Cuba● In 1950s American investors own approx:  ○ 90% of mines ○ 40% of sugar industry ○ 50% of railways ○ 60% of arable land ○ all oil companies
  9. 9. Life in Cuba● Foreign investors and Cuban elites prosper ● Other Cubans in poverty ○ 43% illiterate ○ Mean annual income is $91.25 ● shrinking middle class ● US army guards American properties
  10. 10. Fulgencio Batista● Cuban dictator, military man ● Initially a popular reformer ● Leaves office, returnsthrough a coup detat ○ "lazier", more oppressive ● Clearly supported by the US government
  11. 11. Fidel Castro● Born into awealthy Cuban family ● Lawyer by profession ● Becomes radicalizedas a university student ● Leader of Cuban revolutionaries
  12. 12. Attack on the Moncada Barracks● July 26, 1953 ● Fidel Castro and 160 followers attack the Moncada Barracks in Santiago, Cuba ● Most are captured, tortured, executed ● Fidel Castro also captured
  13. 13. Moncada Barracks:
  14. 14. Aftermath of Moncada● Castro held on trial: ○ Acts as own lawyer ○ Gives a stirring defense in the speech History Will Absolve Me ○ Pardoned by Batista (overconfident) ● Castros movement gains recognition ● Attack is a military failure, but political success
  15. 15. The Granma● Castro exiled, meets Argentine revolutionary Che Guevara in Mexico ● Creates the 26th of July Movement ○ date of the Moncada attack● Invades Cuba with 82 men on the yacht the Granma 
  16. 16. Granma (Not Grandma):
  17. 17. Difficulty in Cuba● Castros army ambushed and nearly destroyed shortly after landing ● A dozen men escape to Sierra Maestra Mountains ● Guerrilla warfare is conducted ● Ranks later filled by peasants 
  18. 18. Falling Action● Batista is hated by the Cubans ● Batista attempts to stifle uprising with brutality ● Castro gains widespread peasant support ● US redacts support to Batista ○ Aid to the Cuban military is cut. 
  19. 19. Operacion Verano● Batista sends 12,000 troops to Sierra Maestra Mountains ○ Poorly trained and poorly led ○ Aims to defeat the few hundred rebels● Rebel army more motivated, better led ● Operación Verano fails ● Rebels pursue retreating army
  20. 20. Batista Flees● Rebels capture Santiago and Santa Clara● Batista flees to Portugal & Spain (F. Franco) ○ Esconds with vast sums of money● Rebels enter Havana on New Years Day 1959
  21. 21. Immediate Aftermath● New government composed of different anti-Batista parties ● Castro lacks power to independently rule Cuba ○ Yet holds most power in the government ○ Has support of the peasants● Castro moves towards complete domination of government
  22. 22. Castros Direction● Castro denies being a communist ● Plans to pursue neither capitalism nor communism ● US and Cuba hostile (US backed Batista) ● Cuba looks to the USSR
  23. 23. US Alarm● Cuba leads to communism and dictatorship under Castro ● Cuba has formal relations with USSR ● Castro nationalizes all US property in Cuba ○ US puts trade embargo on Cuba ○ USSR buys Cuban sugar● Many Cubans leave country
  24. 24. Cubans Flee:
  25. 25. Bay of Pigs Invasion● CIA trains Cuban emigres to invade Cuba and spark an uprising against Castro ● Most are captured; no uprising occurs ● Embarrassment for Kennedy Administration● Castro grows yet more popular ● US-Cuba relations further strained
  26. 26. Bay of Pigs:
  27. 27. Missile Crisis● Soviets place nuclear missiles in Cuba ● Kennedy demands that the Soviets remove the missiles ● Cuba acts as a pawn for US-Soviet hostility
  28. 28. Political Cartoon:
  29. 29. Life in Cuba● Literacy and health care improves ● Gambling and prostitution lessened ● Loss of democracy and rights ● Dependency on the USSR 
  30. 30. Photo Credits (in order):