Bruner’s and gardner’s theories of childhood


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Bruner’s and gardner’s theories of childhood

  1. 1. By: Dedy Apriyadi and Evi Marfianti
  2. 2.  Jerome Bruner was born on October 1, 1915 in New York, to Heman and Rose Bruner, who immigrated from Poland. He received a bachelors degree in psychology, in 1937 from Duke University. Bruner went on to earn a masters degree in psychology in 1939 and then a doctorate in psychology in 1941 from Harvard University. Bruner is one of the pioneers of the cognitive psychology movement in the United States.
  3. 3. According to Bruner, the child’s cognitivestructures mature with age as a result ofwhich the child can think and organizematerial in increasingly complex ways.Children are also seen as naturallyinquisitive, thirsty for knowledge andunderstanding. The child naturally adapts toits environment and abstract thinkingdevelops through action.
  4. 4. The child has little in the way ofmental faculties so ‘thinking is aphysical action.’ Knowledge iswhat the child can manipulate ordo with movements, for exampletying knots, pointing etc. In laterlife the enactive mode will allowriding a bike, swimming, driving acar and so on.
  5. 5. For the first time the child hasmental images that allow it toretain pictures after the stimulushas gone. Drawing is nowpossible.These icons or images are builtup from past experience andbased on a number of exposuresto similar objects and events.
  6. 6. For Bruner, symbols include words(language), music, numbers and so on.Anything we use to symbolize somethingelse.The precise timing of this one depends onthe child, particularly its languageability. For the first time the child cancategorise, think logically and solveproblems.
  7. 7.  Howard Earl Gardner (born July 11, 1943) is an American developmental psychologist who is the John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education at Harvard University, Senior Director of Harvard Project Zero and author of over twenty books translated into thirty languages. Since 1995, he has been the co-director of the Good Work Project. He is best known for his theory of multiple intelligences, as outlined in his book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983). He received the Prince of Asturias Award 2011 in Social Sciences for the development of this theory.
  8. 8.  Gardners theory of multiple intelligences states not only do human beings have several different ways of learning and processing information, but these methods are relatively independent of one another: leading to multiple "intelligences" as opposed to a general intelligence factor among correlated abilities.
  9. 9. 1. Linguistic intelligence involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically; and language as a means to remember information. Writers, poets, lawyers and speakers are among those that Howard Gardner sees as having high linguistic intelligence.
  10. 10. 2. Logical-mathematical intelligence consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically. In Howard Gardners words, it entails the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking.
  11. 11. 3. Musical intelligence involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. According to Howard Gardner musical intelligence runs in an almost structural parallel to linguistic intelligence.
  12. 12. 4. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence entails the potential of using ones whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. Howard Gardner sees mental and physical activity as related.
  13. 13. 5. Spatial intelligence involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas.6. Interpersonal intelligence is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with others. Educators, salespeople, religious and political leaders and counsellors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence.
  14. 14. 7. Intrapersonal intelligence entails the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate ones feelings, fears and motivations. In Howard Gardners view it involves having an effective working model of ourselves, and to be able to use such information to regulate our lives.
  15. 15. 1. Naturalist intelligence enables human beings to recognize, categorize and draw upon certain features of the environment. It combines a description of the core ability with a characterization of the role that many cultures value.
  16. 16. 2. The case for inclusion of naturalist intelligence appears pretty straight forward, the position with regard to SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCE is far more complex. According to Howard Gardner there are problems, for example, around the content of spiritual intelligence, its privileged but unsubstantiated claims with regard to truth value, and the need for it to be partially identified through its effect on other people.
  17. 17. 3. Existential intelligence, a concern with ultimate issues, is, thus, the next possibility that Howard Gardner considers - and he argues that it scores reasonably well on the criteria. However, empirical evidence is sparse - and although a ninth intelligence might be attractive, Howard Gardner is not disposed to add it to the list.
  18. 18. 4. The final, and obvious, candidate for inclusion in Howard Gardners list is moral intelligence. In his exploration, he begins by asking whether it is possible to delineate the moral domain
  19. 19. Writer didn’t try to find which one the righttheories of them. But writer just compared twoof both famous theories and enrich knowledgeabout human psychology to help our designingcourse in English learning especially for theyoung learners. In short, this paper might help usto make the strategies and resolve problems oflearning and teaching English for the younglearners.
  20. 20. You can get our PAPER @ d7fcr1pjavhwgp