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07 politeness and interaction for students


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07 politeness and interaction for students

  2. 2. • George Yule (1996): the traditional linguists have no real social lives but the modern linguists tend to consider that linguistic interaction has a tight relation to social interaction. • An interaction will make sense because of factors relate to o relative status of the participants o social values: age and power • o o • • : For example: “Excuse me, Mr. Buckingham, but can I talk to You for a minute?” “Hey, Bucky, got a minute?” “Mr”+ Last name  one’s nickname or first name 
  3. 3. • Politeness: • Politeness is the awareness of another person’s face. “ ”: the public self-image of a person. • Face : the expectations dealing with one’s face or public image. • Face : a threat to another selfimage. • Face : an act of saving one’s self image.
  4. 4. Example: One day a young neighbor was At the same moment there was a couple of older people who were playing music so loudly in the trying to sleep. middle of the night. • Grandpa: “I’m going to tell him to stop that awful noise right now” • Grandma: “Perhaps you could just ask him if he’s going to stop soon because it’s getting a bit late and people need to get to sleep.” • Grandpa’s saying: • Grandma’s saying:
  5. 5.  : the need to be independent, to have freedom of action, and not to be imposed on by others.  : the need to be accepted, even liked, by others. In short, a need to be connected.
  6. 6. • : you • Other: • You want to lend a pen Self: (looks in bag) Other: (offers pen) Here, use this •  statement, but not directly addressed to the other o“Uh, I forgot my pen” o“Hmm, I wonder where I put my pen” •  statement, that directly addressed to the other as a means of expressing your needs. o“Give me a pen” o“Lend me your pen”
  7. 7. • : leads the requester to appeal to a common goal, and even friendship, via expressions E.g: o How a bout letting me use your pen? o Hey, buddy, I’d appreciate it if you’d let me use your pen. • strategy: a face saving act. The most typical form used is a question containing a modal verb e.g: o Could you lend me a pen? o I’m sorry to bother you, but I ask you for a pen or something?
  8. 8. • : the tendency to use positive politeness forms, emphasizing closeness between speaker and hearer • Deference strategy: forms, emphasizing the hearer’s right to freedom • The basic assumption: • One way of avoiding risk is to provide an opportunity for the other to halt the potentially risky action.
  9. 9. Example 1: A: Are you busy? (pre-request) B: not really (go ahead) A: Check over this memo. (request) B: Okay (accept) Example 2: C: Are you busy? (pre-request) D: Oh, sorry (stop).