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Processor2

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This Presentation about Processor Basic Information

This Presentation about Processor Basic Information

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  • 1. <ul><li>“The brain of the computer” that takes care of all the computations and processes. </li></ul>CPU (Central Processing Unit)
  • 2. <ul><li>The component of CPU include, </li></ul><ul><li>CU: Control Unit Directs and manages the activities of the processor. </li></ul><ul><li>ALU: Arithmetic and Logic Unit. Performs Arithmetic and Logical operations.(+, -, x, /, &gt;,&lt;, =) </li></ul><ul><li>FPU: Floating Point Unit. Performs division and large decimal operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Cache Memory : Predicts and anticipates the data that the processor needs. </li></ul><ul><li>I/O Unit: Input Output unit. The gateway for the processor. </li></ul><ul><li>Register : Which hold temporary data for a specific purpose of function. </li></ul>Architecture
  • 3. Basic Architecture Control Unit ALU Cache IO Unit Register FPU CPU Bus Internal Busses
  • 4. Processing <ul><li>In this chapter, we will focus on the central processing unit (CPU) in more detail. </li></ul>Input Processing Output Secondary Storage
  • 5. The CPU <ul><li>The CPU interacts(affects) closely with memory (primary storage). </li></ul>CPU Memory Memory, however, is not part of the CPU.
  • 6. Parts of the CPU <ul><li>The CPU consists of a variety of parts including:33 </li></ul><ul><li>Control unit </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) </li></ul><ul><li>Registers </li></ul>Control Unit ALU Registers
  • 7. The Control Unit… <ul><li>directs the other parts of the computer system to execute(perform) stored program instructions. </li></ul>The control unit communicates with the ALU and memory. Control Unit
  • 8. The Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)… <ul><li>performs mathematical operations as well as logical operations. </li></ul>ALU
  • 9. Mathematical Operations <ul><li>The ALU can perform four kinds of mathematical calculations: </li></ul><ul><li>addition </li></ul><ul><li>subtraction </li></ul><ul><li>multiplication </li></ul><ul><li>division </li></ul>
  • 10. Logical Operations <ul><li>The ALU can perform logical operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Logical operations can test for these conditions(position): </li></ul><ul><li>Equal-to (=) </li></ul><ul><li>Less-than (&lt;) </li></ul><ul><li>Greater-than (&gt;) </li></ul>
  • 11. Registers… <ul><li>are temporary storage areas for data or instructions. </li></ul>Data held temporarily in registers can be accessed at greater speeds than data stored in memory. Registers
  • 12. Memory (Primary Storage) <ul><li>Memory is the part of the computer that stores data and program instructions for processing. </li></ul>CPU Memory
  • 13. Memory… <ul><li>is also referred to as RAM (random-access memory). </li></ul>CPU Memory RAM is temporary , finite , and more expensive than secondary storage.
  • 14. Executing Program Instructions <ul><li>Before the CPU can execute a program, program instructions and data must be placed into memory from an input device or storage device. </li></ul>Input Processing Secondary Storage
  • 15. Executing Program Instructions <ul><li>Once the necessary data and instructions are in memory, the CPU performs the following steps for each instruction: </li></ul><ul><li>Fetching </li></ul><ul><li>Decoding </li></ul><ul><li>Executing </li></ul><ul><li>Storing </li></ul>CPU Memory
  • 16. Fetching Instructions <ul><li>The control unit fetches (gets) the instruction from memory. </li></ul>Memory Control Unit ALU Registers
  • 17. Decoding(solve) Instructions <ul><li>The control unit decodes the instruction and directs that the necessary data be moved from memory to the ALU. </li></ul>Memory Control Unit ALU Registers
  • 18. Executing Arithmetic/Logic Operations <ul><li>The ALU performs the arithmetic or logical operation on the data. </li></ul>Memory Control Unit ALU Registers
  • 19. Storing Results <ul><li>The ALU stores the result of its operation on the data in memory or in a register. </li></ul>Memory Control Unit ALU Registers
  • 20. Executing Program Instructions <ul><li>Eventually, the control unit sends the results in memory to an ou t put device or secondary storage. </li></ul>Output Secondary Storage Control Unit ALU Registers Memory
  • 21. Instruction Time <ul><li>The time it takes to fetch an instruction and decode it is called instruction time. </li></ul>+ Memory Control Unit Memory Control Unit ALU
  • 22. Execution Time <ul><li>The time it takes to execute an ALU operation and then store the result is called execution(perform) time. </li></ul>+ ALU Memory ALU Registers
  • 23. Memory Locations and Addresses <ul><li>The control unit can find data and instructions because each location in memory has an address . </li></ul>Control Unit Memory
  • 24. Storage Locations <ul><li>Each location in memory is identified by an address . </li></ul>Memory Each location has a unique address.
  • 25. Data Representation <ul><li>The system in which all computer data is represented(colled) and manipulated(used) is called the binary system. </li></ul>
  • 26. Binary System The binary system has only two digits to represent all values. This corresponds to the two states of a computer’s electrical system —on and off.
  • 27. Off/On Switches <ul><li>The computer can represent data by constructing combinations of off or on switches. </li></ul>off on or
  • 28. Zero or One? <ul><li>The binary system can also be represented by the digits zero and one . </li></ul>0 1 or Zero (off) and one (on) make up the two digits in the binary system.
  • 29. The Bit <ul><li>Each 0 or 1 in the binary system is called a bit . </li></ul>one bit two bits three bits
  • 30. The Byte <ul><li>A group of 8 bits is called a byte . </li></ul>0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
  • 31. One Character of Data <ul><li>Each byte represents one character of data (a letter, digit, or special character). </li></ul>J = 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
  • 32. Storing Bytes <ul><li>Storage and memory capacity is expressed in the number of bytes they can hold: </li></ul>1 kilo byte = 2 10 or 1024 bytes 1 mega byte = 2 20 or 1,048,576 bytes 1 giga byte = 2 30 or 1,073,741,824 bytes
  • 33. Computer Word <ul><li>A computer word is defined as the number of bits that constitute a common unit of data. </li></ul>
  • 34. Computer Word Length <ul><li>Word length varies by computer. For example: </li></ul><ul><li>8 bits = 1 byte = one word length </li></ul><ul><li>64 bits = 8 bytes = one word length </li></ul>
  • 35. Coding the Computer <ul><li>A code for determining which group of bits represent which characters on a keyboard is called ASCII . ( American Standard Code for Information Interchange ) </li></ul>
  • 36. ASCII <ul><li>ASCII has been adopted, as the standard, by the U.S. government and is found in a variety of computers. </li></ul>J = ASCII-8 code Keyboard character 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
  • 37. Computer Speed and Power <ul><li>Speed and power are determined by: </li></ul><ul><li>Microprocessor speed </li></ul><ul><li>Bus lines </li></ul><ul><li>Cache </li></ul>
  • 38. Microprocessor Speeds <ul><li>Microprocessor speeds can be measured in a variety of ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Megahertz </li></ul><ul><li>MIPS </li></ul><ul><li>Megaflops </li></ul>
  • 39. Megahertz <ul><li>One measure of microprocessor speed is megahertz (MHz) which is one million machine cycles per second. gigahertz (billions of cycles per second). </li></ul>
  • 40. MIPS <ul><li>Another measure of microprocessor speed is MIPS which is one million instructions per second. </li></ul>
  • 41. Megaflops <ul><li>Megaflops, or one million floating-point operations per second, is still another measure of microprocessor speed. </li></ul>
  • 42. Bus Lines <ul><li>A bus line is a set of parallel electrical paths. A bus is like a mode of transportation for data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus width (Wide) = the number of wires in the bus over which data can travel +-- </li></ul></ul>
  • 43. Bus Width(wide) <ul><li>The amount of data that can be carried at one time is bus width (wider = more data). </li></ul>
  • 44. <ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><li>Socket type </li></ul><ul><li>Slot type. </li></ul><ul><li>Pin arrangement in the Socket type processor is known as Pin Grid Array (PGA). </li></ul><ul><li>Slot type processor is also known as Single Edged Contact Cartridge (SECC). </li></ul>Processor Types
  • 45. Types of Processors SECC PGA
  • 46. <ul><li>8085-8bit </li></ul><ul><li>8086-16bit </li></ul><ul><li>80186-32bit </li></ul><ul><li>80286-32bit </li></ul><ul><li>80386(SX/DX)-32 bit </li></ul><ul><li>80486(SX/DX)-32bit </li></ul>Intel Scalar Processors
  • 47. <ul><li>2 ALU </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium –first super scalar processor </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium family uses super scalar technology </li></ul><ul><li>P4 also uses Hyper Threading(HT) </li></ul>Super Scalar Processors
  • 48. <ul><li>FPU-Floating Point Unit (carry out operations on floating point numbers. ) </li></ul><ul><li>BPU-Buffer Processing Unit ( A temporary storage area, usually in RAM ) </li></ul>
  • 49. Processor Manufacturers <ul><li>Intel ( Inte grated El ectronics) </li></ul><ul><li>AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) </li></ul><ul><li>VIA technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Cyrix </li></ul>
  • 50. Brands of Intel <ul><li>Pentium I </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium Pro </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium MMX </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium II </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium III </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium IV </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium D </li></ul><ul><li>Celeron </li></ul><ul><li>Centrino M </li></ul><ul><li>Core 2 Duo </li></ul><ul><li>Core 2 Extreme </li></ul><ul><li>Core 2 Quad </li></ul>
  • 51. Brands of AMD <ul><li>Athlon </li></ul><ul><li>Duron </li></ul><ul><li>Sempron </li></ul><ul><li>Turion </li></ul>
  • 52. <ul><li>273/296 pins </li></ul><ul><li>PGA arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Socket 4,5 or 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Speed:60 to 200 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>L1 cache-16 KB </li></ul><ul><li>L2-256 to 512 KB </li></ul><ul><li>Power supply- 3.3 to 5 v </li></ul><ul><li>Transistors:3.1 to 3.3 million </li></ul><ul><li>Features:1 st super scalar processor,64 bit registers </li></ul>Pentium (1993)
  • 53. <ul><li>242 contacts </li></ul><ul><li>SEC/SECC </li></ul><ul><li>Slot 1 </li></ul><ul><li>233-333 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>32 KB L1 </li></ul><ul><li>512KB L2 </li></ul><ul><li>3.3v power supply </li></ul><ul><li>7.5 million transistors </li></ul><ul><li>First SEC processor </li></ul>Pentium II (1997)
  • 54. <ul><li>242 contacts/370 pins </li></ul><ul><li>SEPP/SECC/PGA </li></ul><ul><li>PGA370/slot 1 </li></ul><ul><li>450 MHz to 1.13 GHz </li></ul><ul><li>32 KB L1 </li></ul><ul><li>256 KB to 512 KB L2 </li></ul><ul><li>2v power supply </li></ul><ul><li>9.1 to 9.3 million transistors </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming SIMDA </li></ul><ul><li>(single instr. multiple data access) </li></ul>Pentium III (1999)
  • 55. <ul><li>423/478 pins </li></ul><ul><li>SPGA( staggered pin grid array) </li></ul><ul><li>PGA 423/PGA 478(PGA2) </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 to 3.2 GHz </li></ul><ul><li>8 KB L1 </li></ul><ul><li>256 KB to 512 KB L2 </li></ul><ul><li>1.44 to 1.75v power supply </li></ul><ul><li>Billion transistors </li></ul><ul><li>Net burst architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Technology HT (Hyper Threading) (above 2.4 GHz) </li></ul>Pentium 4 (2000)
  • 56. <ul><li>A technology developed by Intel that enables multithreaded (current of data) software applications to execute threads in parallel on a single processor instead of processing threads in a linear fashion. Older systems took advantage of dual-processing threading in software by splitting (dividing) instructions into multiple streams so that more than one processor could act upon (on) them at once. </li></ul>Hyper threading
  • 57. Why multicore? <ul><li>New modern processors are launched </li></ul><ul><li>How to make a use of new technologies? </li></ul>Dual-core CPU Quad-core CPU
  • 58. Intel Core 2 models <ul><ul><li>Desktop CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced on July 27, 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Transistors 291 Million on 4 MB Models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Transistors 167 Million on 2 MB Models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core 2 Duo E6700 - 2.67 GHz (4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core 2 Duo E6600 - 2.40 GHz (4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core 2 Duo E6400 - 2.13 GHz (2 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core 2 Duo E6300 - 1.86 GHz (2 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core 2 Duo E4200 - 1.60 GHz (2 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB) </li></ul></ul></ul>6 / 37
  • 59. What is L1 and L2? <ul><li>Level-1 and Level-2 caches </li></ul><ul><li>The cache memories in a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Much faster than RAM </li></ul><ul><li>L1 is built on the microprocessor chip itself. </li></ul><ul><li>L2 is a seperate chip </li></ul><ul><li>L2 cache is much larger than L1 cache </li></ul>19 / 37
  • 60. Core processor <ul><li>Dual core </li></ul><ul><li>Core 2 duo </li></ul><ul><li>Quad core </li></ul>
  • 61. Dual core processor <ul><li>Desktop processor Released in 2006. for laptop 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>two cores (e.g. AMD Phenom II X2,) </li></ul><ul><li>Cache </li></ul><ul><li>No of pins 478/956/988 </li></ul><ul><li>No of transistor=233 million transistors </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage rate= </li></ul>
  • 62. Core 2 duo <ul><li>The Core 2 brand was introduced on July 27, 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>2 core </li></ul><ul><li>2-4 MB /2 MB/ Core 2 Solo U2xxx 1 MB </li></ul><ul><li>it can better multi-task, play games and multimedia espn videos. </li></ul><ul><li>Use less power ( 0.85–1.5 V ) </li></ul><ul><li>Clock speed min=1.8 GHz max=3.2 GHz </li></ul>
  • 63. Intel’s Core i3,i5,i7
  • 64. i3 <ul><li>Core i3Sep 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>4 threads </li></ul><ul><li>3-4 MB cache </li></ul><ul><li>medium clock speed=3.06 GHz </li></ul><ul><li>transistor=177/382 million million </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage range=0.6500V-1.4000V </li></ul><ul><li>DDR3-1066/1333 </li></ul><ul><li>No of pins: LGA 1156/PGA 989 </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperthyroid technology( adv) </li></ul><ul><li>No turbo boost technology(Intel Turbo Boost Technology 2.0 has multiple algorithms operating in parallel to manage current, power, and temperature to maximize performance and energy efficiency ) disadvantage </li></ul>
  • 65. i5 <ul><li>Core i5 Aug 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>2-4 threads </li></ul><ul><li>3-8 MB cache </li></ul><ul><li>higher clock speed than i3=3.6 GHz </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage range (0.6500V-1.4000V ) </li></ul><ul><li>Transistors 177 million/382 million </li></ul><ul><li>No of Pins: LGA 1156(desktop) /BGA 1288 / µPGA-989(for laptop) </li></ul><ul><li>DDR3-1066/1333 </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage=Hyper thread technology </li></ul><ul><li>disadvantage=thermal monitoring technology( Temperature monitoring) </li></ul>
  • 66. i7 <ul><li>Core i7 Nov 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>8 threads </li></ul><ul><li>4-8 MB cache </li></ul><ul><li>Hyper thread technology </li></ul><ul><li>4 cores </li></ul><ul><li>No of Transistors :382 million </li></ul><ul><li>No of Pins:1366 pins ) </li></ul><ul><li>Produce less heat </li></ul><ul><li>DDR3-800 </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage: Hyper threading technology, thermal monitoring technologies, turbo boost technology </li></ul>
  • 67. <ul><li>BGA-Ball Grid Array </li></ul><ul><li>PGA-Pin Grid Array </li></ul><ul><li>LGA-Land Grid Array </li></ul>
  • 68. Land Grid Array PGA Ball Grid Array
  • 69. Tank for your time and patience

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