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  1. 1. Computer Fundamental Microprocessor
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>Microprocessor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro  Kecil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processor  Pemroses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mikroprosesor  peralatan pengolah yang berukuran kecil </li></ul><ul><li>Secara harfiah: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Komponen elektronik berukuran kecil yang berfungsi sebagai peralatan pemroses data digital” </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Rangkaian elektronik terintegrasi ( Integrated Circuit / IC) yang berukuran kecil dan kompleks sehingga berkemampuan sebagai pengolah informasi digital </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Piranti semikonduktor yang terdiri dari rangkaian logika elektronik yang dibuat dengan menggunakan teknologi Mikroelektronik </li></ul>
  5. 5. Teknologi Mikroelektronik <ul><li>SSI (Small Scale Integration) </li></ul><ul><li>MSI (Medium Scale Integration) </li></ul><ul><li>LSI (Large Scale Integration) </li></ul><ul><li>VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) </li></ul><ul><li>SLSI (Super Large Scale Integration) </li></ul>
  6. 6. History of Pre-PC Processors <ul><li>Difference between processor and microprocessor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microprocessor is integrated onto one chip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Previously, processors were constructed from several discrete chips </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Control Unit Central Processing Unit (CPU) Input Output Memori
  8. 8. Blok diagram Mikrokomputer Register Array ALU Control Microprocessor Mikroprosesor ROM RAM INPUT OUTPUT Address Bus Data Bus Control Bus
  9. 9. The Processor <ul><li>T he work -horse of the computer system </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Processor <ul><li>T he processor can only perform a limited range of operations </li></ul><ul><li>It can do arithmetic, compare numbers and perform input/output (read information and display or store it). </li></ul><ul><li>All computer programs are constructed from sequences of instructions based on such primitive operations. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Processor <ul><li>The processor itself is made up of a number of components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Unit (CU) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ALU carries out arithmetic operations (e.g. addition and subtraction) and logical operations </li></ul><ul><li>T he CU controls the execution of instructions </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Processor <ul><li>Processors also have a small number of storage locations (< 100) called registers. </li></ul><ul><li>These store information that the ALU and CU need. </li></ul><ul><li>A register may typically store 8, 16, 32 or 64 bits. </li></ul><ul><li>A processor with registers that store n-bits are called n-bit processors. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Classifying Processors <ul><li>Processors are classified on register size as shown previously. </li></ul><ul><li>They can also be classified by bus size. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the number of bits the Data bus can transfer at one go. </li></ul><ul><li>We will use the register size to classify processors. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Three basic Characteristic <ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Clock speed </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction set </li></ul>
  15. 15. Bandwidth <ul><li>The number of bits processed in a single instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Contoh: </li></ul><ul><li>MOV AX,BX  89AB </li></ul>
  16. 16. Instruction Set <ul><li>The set of instructions that the microprocessor can execute </li></ul><ul><li>Contoh: </li></ul><ul><li>MOV </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>INR </li></ul><ul><li>DEC </li></ul>
  17. 17. Clock speed <ul><li>Determines how many instructions per second the processor can execute </li></ul>
  18. 18. CPU Clock <ul><li>A very important component in a processor </li></ul><ul><li>controls the rate at which activities are carried out by the CPU </li></ul><ul><li>Generates a sequence of cycles and an operation can only be performed on a cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>This is measured in Hertz (Hz) with MHz and GHz being the standard. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Another classifying <ul><li>Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) </li></ul><ul><li>Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) </li></ul>
  20. 20. A microprocessor <ul><li>Current  p more advanced than 8-bit; but architecture remains </li></ul><ul><li>Performs arithmetic and logic operations </li></ul><ul><li>Receives digital input  process according to stored program  (variable) digital output (cf. ICs) </li></ul><ul><li>Two main parts: arithmetic unit ( AU ) + control unit ( CU ) </li></ul>
  21. 21. A microprocessor (cont’d.) <ul><li>Arithmetic unit made up of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmetic Logic Unit ( ALU ) – arithmetic calculations + logic operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulators ( ACC ) – where arithmetic calculations are made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition Code Register ( CCR ) – set based on results of ALU; 4 common bits: Zero, Negative, Overflow, Carry </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. A microprocessor (cont’d.) <ul><li>Control unit made up of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory Address Register ( MAR ) – holds current address where  p is accessing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory Data Register ( MDR ) – holds instruction temporarily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction Register ( IR ) – holds fetched instruction  decoder circuitry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Program Counter ( PC ) – holds next instruction address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Logic ( CL ) – synchronisation </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Arithmetic Unit Control Unit CCR ACC ALU CL IR MDR MAR PC Main memory Input/Output Microprocessor
  24. 24. Produsen Mikroprosesor <ul><li>Intel </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Micro Device (AMD) </li></ul><ul><li>Motorola </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Instrument (TI) </li></ul><ul><li>Cyrix </li></ul><ul><li>ARM </li></ul><ul><li>Atmel </li></ul><ul><li>DEC Alpha </li></ul><ul><li>Transmeta </li></ul><ul><li>Zilog </li></ul>
  25. 25. Moore’s Law <ul><li>A rule of thumb proposed by Gordon Moore (cofounder of Intel) </li></ul><ul><li>Originally stated the most cost effective number of transistors per integrated chip </li></ul>
  26. 27. Transistors per Chip
  27. 28. T A M A T Memory