ICTCoreCh11

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ICTCoreCh11

  1. 1. 11.1 The Components of a Computer <ul><li>System Unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage Devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motherboard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripherals </li></ul>
  2. 2. 11.1 The Components of a Computer <ul><li>System Unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A case contains circuit boards, a power supply and storage devices </li></ul></ul>Main memory Motherboard CPU Display card DVD-ROM drive Floppy disk drive Power supply Hard disk drive A system unit
  3. 3. 11.1 The Components of a Computer <ul><li>Motherboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The main circuit board in the system unit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide sockets for CPU, memory chips and expansion slots. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain circuitry that connects the components together. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 11.1 The Components of a Computer <ul><li>Peripherals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware devices connected to the system unit. </li></ul></ul>Broadband modem Digital video camera Printer Microphone USB flash drive Scanner Peripherals Monitor Speaker Mouse Keyboard
  5. 5. 11.1 The Components of a Computer <ul><li>Peripherals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware devices connected to the system unit. </li></ul></ul>Broadband modem Digital video camera Printer Microphone USB flash drive Scanner Peripherals Monitor Speaker Mouse Keyboard
  6. 6. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>What is a CPU? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Brain’ of a computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executes the instructions of a computer program. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes data to do a specific tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The processing power of the CPU usually determines the overall performance of a computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most devices communicate with the CPU to carry out certain tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU communicates with other devices through bus lines. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>What is a CPU? </li></ul>The role of a CPU
  8. 8. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>Major Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control unit (CU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Registers </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform arithmetic and logical operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use registers to hold data during calculations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results are usually stored in a register called an accumulator </li></ul></ul>Arithmetic Operations Logical Operations + ÷ X - NOT OR AND
  10. 10. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>Control Unit (CU) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep track of the sequence of instructions being processed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors and coordinates all I/O operations and system units </li></ul></ul>How the ALU and the CU execute an addition instruction
  11. 11. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>Registers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory units inside a CPU. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide storage space for ALU and CU. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small number of registers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fastest way for a CPU to access data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three types of register: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General purpose registers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control registers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Status registers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>General Purpose registers (GPRs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly used by instructions of assembly and machine code programs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of general purpose registers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulator(AX) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Base register (BX) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counter (CX) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data register (DX) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>General Purpose registers (GPRs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions of GPRs and the corresponding examples </li></ul></ul>Explanation Instruction Store the data in register AX to the main memory address variable ANS. STORE ANS, AX Store data from a register into main memory. Add the value stored in CX to that in BX, and store the sum in BX. ADD BX, CX Store data temporarily in arithmetic operations. Store 8 in register AX. LOAD AX, 8 Load data from main memory into a register. Example of assembly instructions Function
  14. 14. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>Control Registers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide temporary memory for CU to control the operation of instructions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major control registers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction Register (IR) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Program Counter (PC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory Address Register (MAR) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory Data Register (MDR) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>Control Registers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction Register (IR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains the instructions to be executed by the CPUs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Program Counter (PC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains the memory address of the next instruction to be executed. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>Control Registers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory Address Register (MAR) and Memory Data Register (MDR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate the communication of the CPU with the main memory through the system bus. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MAR holds the address of the memory location. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MDR contains the data to be written into or read from the location specified in MAR. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>Control Registers </li></ul><ul><li>Control unit issues a command to load the next instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Control unit sends a READ control signal to the main memory via the control bus </li></ul><ul><li>PC copies the address of the required instruction to MAR. </li></ul><ul><li>MAR passes the address to the main memory via the address bus. </li></ul><ul><li>The main memory returns the addressed data to MDR via the data bus. </li></ul><ul><li>The instruction in MDR is then loaded into IR for execution. </li></ul>Execution process of program instructions
  18. 18. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>Status Registers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain a number of flag bits indicating the status after the execution of instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in instructions of conditional testing and program branching </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>Status Registers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential flags in the status register of CPU 8088 </li></ul></ul>15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Zero flag (Z): Set to 1 if the evaluated result is zero; set to 0 otherwise. Sign flag (S): Set to 1 if the evaluated result is negative; set to 0 otherwise. Parity flag (P): Set to 1 if the evaluated result is an odd parity. Carry flag (C): Set to 1 if the evaluated result contains a carry; set to 0 otherwise. Overflow flag (O): Set to 1 if the evaluated result has overflowed. (i.e. the resulting value is too large to be stored in the memory unit) C P Z S O
  20. 20. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>System Bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also know as bus line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical wiring that connects the various components of a computer system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit data between the CPU and other components </li></ul></ul>Functions of data bus, address bus and control bus Indicate the direction of the data transfer and coordinate the timing of the event during transfer. Control bus Transfer the source address or the destination address of data. Address bus Transfer data and instructions. Data bus Function Bus type
  21. 21. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>System Bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of a bus = bus width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus width determines the number of bits of data the computer can transmit at one time. </li></ul></ul>System Bus System Bus
  22. 22. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>System Bus </li></ul>Interconnection of computer units by system bus
  23. 23. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>System Bus </li></ul>Bus width among different CPUs 64-bit Intel Core 2 Duo 64-bit Pentium 32-bit Intel 80486 16-bit Intel 80286 8-bit Intel 8088 Bus width Model of CPU
  24. 24. 11.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>System Bus </li></ul>Bus width among different CPUs 64-bit Intel Core 2 Duo 64-bit Pentium 32-bit Intel 80486 16-bit Intel 80286 8-bit Intel 8088 Bus width Model of CPU
  25. 25. 11.3 Machine Cycle <ul><li>Machine Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of executing an instruction in a CPU </li></ul></ul>Sub-cycles of a machine cycle Interpret the operation code and perform the required operation. Execute Identify the operation code and operands in an instruction. Decode Read the next instruction from the main memory into instruction register (IR). Fetch Description Sub-cycle
  26. 26. 11.3 Machine Cycle <ul><li>Machine Cycle </li></ul>Process of a machine cycle
  27. 27. 11.3 Machine Cycle <ul><li>Machine Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrupt Sub-cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At the end of the execution of an instruction, the CPU detects whether an interrupt has occurred. </li></ul></ul></ul>If have interrupt Interrupt served CPU resumes the operation of the next instruction of the active process End of execution of an instruction <ul><li>CPU saves the current process status </li></ul><ul><li>Handles the interrupt immediately </li></ul>
  28. 28. 11.3 Machine Cycle <ul><li>Machine Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrupt Sub-cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At the end of the execution of an instruction, the CPU detects whether an interrupt has occurred. </li></ul></ul></ul>If have interrupt Interrupt served CPU resumes the operation of the next instruction of the active process End of execution of an instruction <ul><li>CPU saves the current process status </li></ul><ul><li>Handles the interrupt immediately </li></ul>
  29. 29. 11.4 Measurement of CPU Speed <ul><li>Clock Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure speed of CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement unit: megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 hertz = 1 clock cycle per second </li></ul></ul>Clock rates of popular CPUs for the past thirty years 333 ps – 943 ps 1.06 GHz – 3 GHz 2000 – now Intel Core 2 Duo 294 ps – 714 ps 1.4 GHz – 3.4 GHz 2000 – now Pentium IV 885 ps – 2 ns 500 MHz – 1.13 GHz 1999 – 2001 Pentium III 2.2 ns – 4.3 ns 233 MHz – 450 MHz 1997 – 1999 Pentium II 5 ns – 16.7 ns 60 MHz – 200 MHz 1993 – 1996 Pentium 10 ns – 33.4 ns 16 MHz – 100 MHz 1989 – 2007 Intel 80486 25 ns – 62.5 ns 16 MHz – 40 MHz 1986 – 2007 Intel 80386 40 ns – 166.7 ns 6 MHz – 25 MHz 1982 – 1986 Intel 80286 0.21 μ s (210 ns) 4.77 MHz 1979 – 1982 Intel 8088 Duration of one clock cycle Typical clock rate Years of production Model of CPU
  30. 30. 11.4 Measurement of CPU Speed <ul><li>Word Length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of bits of data and instructions the CPU can handle at one time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage of longer word length: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More data can be processed in one time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More instructions can be included in the instruction set. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More complicated instructions can be included in the instruction set. </li></ul></ul></ul>A 64-bit CPU
  31. 31. 11.4 Measurement of CPU Speed <ul><li>Word Length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of bits of data and instructions the CPU can handle at one time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage of longer word length: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More data can be processed in one time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More instructions can be included in the instruction set. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More complicated instructions can be included in the instruction set. </li></ul></ul></ul>A 64-bit CPU
  32. 32. 11.5 Main Memory <ul><li>Main Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessible to the CPU of a computer without using other I/O channels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The memory chips are installed on the motherboard. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to store data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to store instructions that CPU will execute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 major types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Random access memory (RAM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read-only memory (ROM) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. 11.5 Main Memory <ul><li>Random Access Memory (RAM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporarily hold the data and instructions of application software and the operation system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile = all data stored in RAM disappears instantly after the computer is turned off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access time is just a hundredth of hard disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement units: bytes (B), kilobytes (KB), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), terabytes (TB) </li></ul></ul>A RAM module
  34. 34. 11.5 Main Memory <ul><li>Random Access Memory (RAM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two main streams: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic random access memory (DRAM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Static random access memory (SRAM) </li></ul></ul></ul>Characteristics of DRAM and SRAM CPU cache, hard disk buffer, printer buffer, PDA Computer main memory, game console Application Smaller Larger Storage capacity Lower than DRAM Higher than SRMA Power consumption Higher Lower Cost Higher Lower Speed (clock rate) SRAM DRAM
  35. 35. 11.5 Main Memory <ul><li>Read-only Memory (ROM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store the permanent information supplied by the manufacturer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain the bootstrap program which loads and initializes the operation system of the computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store basic input/output system (BIOS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-volatile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variants of ROM: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erasable programmable ROM (EPROM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrically erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM) </li></ul></ul></ul>A ROM chip installed on a motherboard
  36. 36. 11.5 Main Memory <ul><li>Cache Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-speed memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store data and instructions that have been recently used by the CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated into a CPU or resided close to a CPU </li></ul></ul>CPU requests an instruction or data Searches cache memory first in a very short time Acquires the data and proceeds to the next task Look up in the main memory Found Not found
  37. 37. 11.5 Main Memory <ul><li>Cache Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-speed memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store data and instructions that have been recently used by the CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated into a CPU or resided close to a CPU </li></ul></ul>CPU requests an instruction or data Searches cache memory first in a very short time Acquires the data and proceeds to the next task Look up in the main memory Found Not found
  38. 38. 11.6 Latest Development of CPU and Main Memory <ul><li>Latest Technology of CPU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The future development of the CPU in the future has focused on the integration of more cores into the CPU. </li></ul></ul>Processors on an Intel 45nm wafer photographed with a pencil. Each dual core chip consists of 410 million transistors.
  39. 39. 11.6 Latest Development of CPU and Main Memory <ul><li>Latest Technology of CPU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller chip die </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel processing of multiple cores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better pipelining technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take full advantage of the newly developed high speed Double-Data-Rate 3 (DDR3) SDRAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortened the speed gap between the CPU and main memory </li></ul></ul>AMD Phenom Quad-Core Processor Die Intel 45nm quad-core processor and its chip die
  40. 40. 11.6 Latest Development of CPU and Main Memory <ul><li>Latest Technology of Main Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The new standard of main memory module is known as Double-Data-Rate 3 (DDR3) SDRAM. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DDR3 operates at a lower voltage level but higher frequency than its predecessor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular in high-end computer market and notebook computers </li></ul></ul>DDR3 memory modules
  41. 41. 11.6 Latest Development of CPU and Main Memory <ul><li>Latest Technology of Main Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The new standard of main memory module is known as Double-Data-Rate 3 (DDR3) SDRAM. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DDR3 operates at a lower voltage level but higher frequency than its predecessor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular in high-end computer market and notebook computers </li></ul></ul>DDR3 memory modules

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