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Microprocessor Systems

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Microprocessor Systems

  1. 1. Microprocessor SystemMicroprocessor System Engr. Shafiullah SoomroEngr. Shafiullah Soomro
  2. 2. 22 Marks DistributionMarks Distribution TOTAL = 150 MARKSTOTAL = 150 MARKS THEORY = 100 MarksTHEORY = 100 Marks 75 Final Exam75 Final Exam 25 Sessionals (10 = Attendance, 15 = Class Performance / Test / Assignments)25 Sessionals (10 = Attendance, 15 = Class Performance / Test / Assignments) PRACTICAL = 50 MARKSPRACTICAL = 50 MARKS 10 Final Exam Viva Objective10 Final Exam Viva Objective 20 Viva Voice20 Viva Voice 05 Practical Attendance05 Practical Attendance 15 Practical / Practical Workbook15 Practical / Practical Workbook
  3. 3. 33 Recommended BooksRecommended Books  Microprocessor Fundamentals By:Microprocessor Fundamentals By: Roger TokhiemRoger Tokhiem  Microprocessor Principles &Microprocessor Principles & Applications By: Charles M. GilmoreApplications By: Charles M. Gilmore  Applications of Microprocessor By:Applications of Microprocessor By: A.P MathurA.P Mathur
  4. 4. SESSION NO.1SESSION NO.1 Basics of ComputersBasics of Computers
  5. 5. 55 IntroductionIntroduction  What isWhat is Computer?Computer? Computer is an Electronic device,Computer is an Electronic device, that takesthat takes inputinput from user,from user, processprocess it and providesit and provides outputoutput,, it is also capable of processingit is also capable of processing pre-defined instructionspre-defined instructions ((programsprograms), and have ability to), and have ability to storestore data, it can performdata, it can perform different task efficiently anddifferent task efficiently and more quickly then human being.more quickly then human being.
  6. 6. 66 Introduction (Cont)Introduction (Cont) 1. Input Devices 2. Output Devices 3. Storage Devices 4. Processing Devices
  7. 7. 77 Introduction (cont)Introduction (cont) 1. Input Devices Keyboard Mouse (Track Ball, Light Pen, Joy Stick, Game Pad, Touch Pad, Touch Screen) Scanner Mic (voice synthesizer) Webcam Character Reader/ Bar Code Reader
  8. 8. 88 Introduction (cont)Introduction (cont) 2. Output Devices Monitor / Multimedia Projector Printer/ Plotter Speaker/ Headphones
  9. 9. 99 Introduction (cont)Introduction (cont) 3. Storage Devices
  10. 10. 1010 Introduction (cont)Introduction (cont) MEMORY A semiconductor storage device consisting of registers that store binary bits Two major categories: 1. Read/Write Memory (R/W) / RAM (Random Access Memory) 2. Read-only-Memory (ROM)
  11. 11. 1111 RANDOM ACCESS MEMORYRANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM)(RAM)
  12. 12. 1212 RAM ONRAM ON MOTHERBOARDMOTHERBOARD
  13. 13. 1313 READ ONLY MEMORYREAD ONLY MEMORY (ROM)(ROM)
  14. 14. 1414 ROM ONROM ON MOTHERBOARDMOTHERBOARD
  15. 15. 1515 Introduction (cont)Introduction (cont) Smallest Unit for Computer Memory is BIT, that can store one binary digit either 1 0r 0 Processor or Virtual Storage Disk Storage · 1 Bit = Binary Digit · 8 Bits = 1 Byte · 1024 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte · 1024 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte · 1024 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte · 1024 Gigabytes = 1 Terabyte · 1024 Terabytes = 1 Petabyte · 1024 Petabytes = 1 Exabyte · 1024 Exabytes = 1 Zettabyte · 1024 Zettabytes = 1 Yottabyte · 1024 Yottabytes = 1 Brontobyte · 1024 Brontobytes = 1 Geopbyte · 1 Bit = Binary Digit · 8 Bits = 1 Byte · 1000 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte · 1000 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte · 1000 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte · 1000 Gigabytes = 1 Terabyte · 1000 Terabytes = 1 Petabyte · 1000 Petabytes = 1 Exabyte · 1000 Exabytes = 1 Zettabyte · 1000 Zettabytes = 1 Yottabyte · 1000 Yottabytes = 1 Brontobyte · 1000 Brontobytes = 1 Geopbyte Memory Units
  16. 16. 1616 Introduction (cont)Introduction (cont) 4. Processing Devices
  17. 17. 1717 MOTHERBOARDMOTHERBOARD
  18. 18. 1818 MICROPROCESSOR- TOPMICROPROCESSOR- TOP VIEWVIEW
  19. 19. 1919 MICROPROCESOSR-MICROPROCESOSR- BOTTOM VIEWBOTTOM VIEW
  20. 20. 2020 WHERE TO INSERTWHERE TO INSERT PROCESSOR ONPROCESSOR ON MOTHERBOARDMOTHERBOARD ZIF SOCKET PROCESSOR SLOT PROCESSOR
  21. 21. 2121 GENARATIONS OFGENARATIONS OF COMPUTERCOMPUTER
  22. 22. 2222 GENERATIONS OFGENERATIONS OF COMPUTERCOMPUTER  First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum TubesFirst Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes  Second Generation (1956-1963) TransistorsSecond Generation (1956-1963) Transistors  Third Generation (1964-1971) Integrated CircuitsThird Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits  Fourth Generation (1971-Present) MicroprocessorsFourth Generation (1971-Present) Microprocessors  Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) ArtificialFifth Generation (Present and Beyond) Artificial IntelligenceIntelligence
  23. 23. 2323 First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum TubesFirst Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes  In electronics, a vacuum tube,In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube (in Northelectron tube (in North America), or thermionic valveAmerica), or thermionic valve (elsewhere, especially in(elsewhere, especially in Britain) is a device used toBritain) is a device used to amplify, switch, otherwiseamplify, switch, otherwise modify, or create an electricalmodify, or create an electrical signal by controlling thesignal by controlling the movement of electrons in amovement of electrons in a low-pressure space.low-pressure space.
  24. 24. 2424 Second Generation (1956-1963) TransistorsSecond Generation (1956-1963) Transistors  AA transistortransistor is ais a semiconductor device used tosemiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronicamplify and switch electronic signals. It is made of a solidsignals. It is made of a solid piece of semiconductorpiece of semiconductor material, with at least threematerial, with at least three terminals for connection to anterminals for connection to an external circuit.external circuit.
  25. 25. 2525 Third Generation (1964-1971) Integrated CircuitsThird Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits  An integrated circuit (IC),An integrated circuit (IC), sometimes called asometimes called a chipchip oror microchip, is a semiconductormicrochip, is a semiconductor wafer on which thousands orwafer on which thousands or millions of tiny resistors,millions of tiny resistors, capacitors, and transistors arecapacitors, and transistors are fabricated. An IC can functionfabricated. An IC can function as an amplifier, oscillator,as an amplifier, oscillator, timer, counter, computertimer, counter, computer memory, or microprocessor.memory, or microprocessor.
  26. 26. 2626 Scaling of ICsScaling of ICs  SSI (small-scale integration): Up to 100 electronic components per chip  MSI (medium-scale integration): From 100 to 3,000 electronic components per chip  LSI (large-scale integration): From 3,000 to 100,000 electronic components per chip  VLSI (very large-scale integration): From 100,000 to 1,000,000 electronic components per chip  ULSI (ultra large-scale integration): More than 1 million electronic components per chip
  27. 27. 2727 Fourth Generation (1971-Present)Fourth Generation (1971-Present) MicroprocessorsMicroprocessors  A group of electronic circuitsA group of electronic circuits fabricated on a semiconductorfabricated on a semiconductor chip that can read binarychip that can read binary instructions written ininstructions written in memory and process binarymemory and process binary data according to thosedata according to those instructionsinstructions  CPU and MPUCPU and MPU
  28. 28. 2828 Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) ArtificialFifth Generation (Present and Beyond) Artificial IntelligenceIntelligence Computers are now pocket size Speech Reorganization Software Expert Systems AI Robots
  29. 29. 2929 APPLICATIONS OFAPPLICATIONS OF MICROPROCESSORMICROPROCESSOR Signal Processing:Signal Processing:  Signal processing is anSignal processing is an area that demands higharea that demands high performance fromperformance from microprocessor to performmicroprocessor to perform complex mathematicalcomplex mathematical tasks.tasks.  An example of a signalAn example of a signal processing application isprocessing application is the decoding of digitalthe decoding of digital television and radiotelevision and radio signalssignals
  30. 30. 3030 APPLICATIONS. . .APPLICATIONS. . . Real Time Application:Real Time Application:  Some tasks need to beSome tasks need to be performed so quickly that evenperformed so quickly that even the slightest delay can bethe slightest delay can be harmful.harmful.  These applications are known asThese applications are known as "real time systems", and timing is"real time systems", and timing is of the up most importance.of the up most importance.  An example of a real-timeAn example of a real-time system is the anti-lock brakingsystem is the anti-lock braking system (ABS) controller insystem (ABS) controller in modern automobiles.modern automobiles.  Some real time applications are:Some real time applications are: video conferencing, onlinevideo conferencing, online gamming, e-commerce, chatting,gamming, e-commerce, chatting, etc.etc.
  31. 31. 3131 APPLICATIONS. . .APPLICATIONS. . . Routing:Routing:  Throughput and routing is theThroughput and routing is the use of a processor where data isuse of a processor where data is moved from one place to anothermoved from one place to another place.place.  An example is an Internet router,An example is an Internet router, that reads in data packets andthat reads in data packets and sends them out on a differentsends them out on a different port.port.
  32. 32. 3232 APPLICATIONS. . .APPLICATIONS. . . Sensor Monitoring:Sensor Monitoring:  AA sensorsensor is a device thatis a device that measures a physical quantity andmeasures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which canconverts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by anbe read by an observer or by an instrument.instrument.  Many processors are used toMany processors are used to monitor sensors.monitor sensors.  The microprocessor will eitherThe microprocessor will either digitize and filter the sensordigitize and filter the sensor signals, or it will read the signalssignals, or it will read the signals and produce status outputs.and produce status outputs.  An example of a sensorAn example of a sensor monitoring processor is themonitoring processor is the processor inside an antilockprocessor inside an antilock brake system: This processorbrake system: This processor reads the brake sensor toreads the brake sensor to determine when the brakes havedetermine when the brakes have locked up, and then outputs alocked up, and then outputs a control signal to activate the restcontrol signal to activate the rest of the system.of the system.
  33. 33. 3333 APPLICATION . . .APPLICATION . . . General Computing:General Computing:  A general purposeA general purpose processor is like the kind ofprocessor is like the kind of processor that is typicallyprocessor that is typically found inside a desktop PC.found inside a desktop PC.  Names such as Intel andNames such as Intel and AMD are typicallyAMD are typically associated with this type ofassociated with this type of processor, and this is alsoprocessor, and this is also the kind of processor thatthe kind of processor that the public is most familiarthe public is most familiar with.with.
  34. 34. 3434 APPLICATIONS . . .APPLICATIONS . . . Graphics:Graphics:  Processing of digital graphicsProcessing of digital graphics is an area where specializedis an area where specialized processor units are frequentlyprocessor units are frequently employed. With the advent ofemployed. With the advent of digital television, graphicsdigital television, graphics processors are becomingprocessors are becoming more common.more common.  Graphics processors need toGraphics processors need to be able to perform multiplebe able to perform multiple simultaneous operations.simultaneous operations.  In digital video, for instance, aIn digital video, for instance, a million pixels or more will needmillion pixels or more will need to be processed for everyto be processed for every single frame, and a particularsingle frame, and a particular signal may have 60 frames persignal may have 60 frames per second.second.
  35. 35. 3535 APPLICATIONS . . .APPLICATIONS . . . Process Control:Process Control:  One of the application areas ofOne of the application areas of MP is process control. In aMP is process control. In a typical process controltypical process control application, the MP continuouslyapplication, the MP continuously monitors one or more processmonitors one or more process variables and generates outputsvariables and generates outputs to electro-mechanical elements.to electro-mechanical elements.  For example in temperatureFor example in temperature monitoring systems, one of themonitoring systems, one of the process variable is “temperature”process variable is “temperature” which will be monitored andwhich will be monitored and displayed continuously.displayed continuously.  The systems has facility to inputThe systems has facility to input lower and upper limits oflower and upper limits of temperature being monitored. Iftemperature being monitored. If at any moment these limits areat any moment these limits are violated, alarms must be set.violated, alarms must be set.
  36. 36. 3636 APPLICATIONS . . . (ProcessAPPLICATIONS . . . (Process control)control)
  37. 37. End of Session No.1End of Session No.1 Objective TestObjective Test

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