Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
BM Assignment 1A
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

BM Assignment 1A

709

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
709
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. P a g e | 1 Types of Concrete and Its Applications Building Materials (BLD62003) Assignment 1 Cecilia Tie Sing Lu (0314050) Lee Qian Ying (0313749) Sharon Chow Ci Yung (0313387) Lee Pui Sun (0314584) Table of Content BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 2. P a g e | 2 No. Title Pg. No. 1 Cover Page 1 2 Table of Content 2~3 3 Introduction to Concrete 4 4 Introduction to Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (ACC) 5 History of ACC 6 Composition of ACC 7 Manufacturing Process of ACC 8~9 Applications of ACC 10 Maintenance of ACC 11 Physical Properties of ACC 11 Advantages and Disadvantages of ACC 12 5 Introduction to Asphalt Concrete 13 History of Asphalt Concrete 14 Composition of Asphalt Concrete 14 Manufacturing Process of Asphalt Concrete 15 Applications of Asphalt Concrete 16 Maintenance of Asphalt Concrete 17 Physical Properties of Asphalt Concrete 17 Advantages and Disadvantages of Asphalt Concrete 18 Table of Content (cont’ d) No. Title Pg. No. 6 Introduction to Decorative Concrete 19~22 BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 3. P a g e | 3 History of Decorative Concrete 23 Manufacturing Process of Decorative Concrete 24 Applications of Decorative Concrete 25~27 Maintenance of Decorative Concrete 28~29 Physical Properties of Decorative Concrete 30 Advantages and Disadvantages of Decorative Concrete 31 7 Introduction to Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) 32 History of RCC 33 Composition of RCC 33 Manufacturing Process of RCC 34 Applications of RCC 35~36 Maintenance of RCC 37 Physical Properties of RCC 37 Advantages and Disadvantages of RCC 38 8 Introduction to Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) 39 History of SCC 40 Manufacturing Process of SCC 40 Applications of SCC 41 Maintenance of SCC 42 Physical Properties of SCC 42 Advantages and Disadvantages of SCC 43 9 References 44~50 Introduction to Concrete In the construction world, one of the materials that is used above all others is concrete. Concrete is absolutely essential in the present world’s interest with new roads, buildings and other constructions (Davies, n.d.).Concrete is a strong and handy BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 4. P a g e | 4 moldable construction material. Concrete is the mixture of Portland cement, water, aggregates and admixtures. The aggregates are hardened and bonded by the paste or gel formed by the cement and water. Concrete is very adaptable to a wide variety of agricultural and residential uses as it is strong, durable, handy and economical. Figure 1.0 Conventional Concrete Block Source: http://www.hscexperts.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/8-Block.gif Introduction to Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC), also known as autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC), autoclaved lightweight concrete (ALC), autoclaved concrete, cellular concrete, and porous concrete. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 5. P a g e | 5 Figure 1.1 Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Source: http://www.understanding-cement.com/images/aircreteblock.jpg History of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) In 1923, Dr Johan Axel Eriksson, a Swedish architect, tried his first attempt in producing AAC. At that time, he was looking for a building material that had the properties of wood-good thermal insulation, solid structure, easy to work but without the disadvantages of combustibility, decay and termite damage. After one year, the very first AAC production took place successfully in the year of 1924. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 6. P a g e | 6 Figure 1.2 Dr Johan Axel Eriksson Source: http://www.superbuild.co.nz/images/johan_axel_eriksson.gif Composition of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) is a unique building material, composed from quartzite silica sand, water, lime, cement and anhydrite, which are processed with a gas-forming aluminium paste, to create a highly porous, lightweight, insulating mineral product. AAC are processed with cement and a rising agent to provide a building material with large number of air pores – aerated concrete. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 7. P a g e | 7 Manufacturing process of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) is a precast product manufactured by combining silica (either in the form of sand, or recycled fly ash), cement, lime, water, and an expansion agent - aluminium powder, and pouring it into a mold. With respect to structurally reinforced AAC products like lintels or roof panels, steel rebar or mesh is also placed in the mold. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 8. P a g e | 8 Once added to the concrete, the aluminium powder reacts with the silica, resulting in the formation of millions of microscopic hydrogen bubbles. The hydrogen bubbles cause the concrete to expand to roughly five times its original volume. The hydrogen subsequently evaporates, leaving a highly closed-cell aerated concrete. The now aerated concrete is cut into blocks or panels which are then steam and pressure cured in an autoclave. Figure 1.3 Manufacturing Process of AAC Source: http://www.aacblockplant.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/aac-production- process-flow-chart.jpg BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 9. P a g e | 9 Applications of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) can be fully integrated into the building into the building system. AAC are used in the construction of wall, floor and roof. Besides that, AAC is also used in either as a load-bearing capacity or as a non-load bearing component such as cladding and infill. Wall AAC blocks are used to construct infill and load-bearing walls. Due to its high level of compressive strength and its load-bearing strength is up to 3-storey high. Thus, AAC is an ideal type of concrete to construct load-bearing structures. On the other hand, AAC wall panels are used commonly in constructing steel and concrete framed structures. These panels are ideal when there is a certain level of difficulty in accessing the site as the panels are lighter than conventional concrete, thus easy to transport. Floor AAC panels are also used in constructing floors. AAC panels are lighter than conventional concrete and therefore easy to handle as well as reduce lifting requirements. This reduces the time and cost in installing the floor panels. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 10. P a g e | 10 Roof AAC roof panels are used as it is ideal in easy and fast roof installation. AAC has excellent thermal insulation properties resulting in lower energy consumption for cooling and heating which makes AAC an excellent choice of material in constructing the roofs. Maintenance of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) AAC last for a long period of time and does not require any maintenance. Physical Properties of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) Appearance Light coloured and contain small voids Structural Capability Half the load-bearing strength of conventional concrete but can hold up to three-storey high Sound Insulation Good sound insulation Fire Insulation Incombustible and does not explode BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 11. P a g e | 11 Advantages and Disadvantages of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) comes with more than a handful of advantages and minimal disadvantages. The advantages and disadvantages of AAC are shown in the table below:- Advantages Disadvantages Air pockets provides good sound insulation Materials must travel a long distance from the manufacturer, as a result, cost per unit higher than ordinary concrete Good compressive strength (load bearing strength up to 3-storey-high) Isn’t as strong as conventional concrete More environmental friendly compared to conventional concrete as AAC is produced from recycled materials - Provides significant level of protection against fire, therefore eliminates cost for applying fireproofing - Final product contains no toxic substances and no odour - Prone to impact damage - Not affected by harsh climate condition - Will not degrade under normal atmospheric condition - Excellent thermal insulation properties resulting in lower energy consumption for cooling and heating. - Low greenhouse gas emissions during manufacturing and lifecycle - BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 12. P a g e | 12 Introduction to Asphalt Concrete Asphalt concrete is also simply known as asphalt, blacktop, or pavement. In the late 1800s, it is being used for road and street construction, and then it grew rapidly with the emerging automobile industry. Figure 1.4 Asphalt Concrete Source: http://www.hscexperts.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/8-Block.gif BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 13. P a g e | 13 History of Asphalt Concrete In the year 1870, Professor Edward de Smedt had created modern road asphalt in Columbia University after his emigration from Belgium. The road asphalt was then known as French asphalt pavement. The word “asphalt” comes from Greek “asphaltos”, which means “secure”. Figure 1.5 Prof. Edward de Smedt Source: http://www.biographi.ca/bioimages/original.2254.jpg Composition of Asphalt Concrete The elemental ingredients of asphalt are carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen, and trace amounts of iron, nickel, and vanadium. Asphalt binder and mineral aggregate are also included in asphalt and then mixed together as well as laid down in layer and compacted. There are different types of asphalt pavement used in construction, such as Mix Type Selection, Perpetual Pavement, Porous Asphalt, Quiet Pavement, and Warm-Mix Asphalt. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 14. P a g e | 14 Manufacturing Process of Asphalt Concrete Oil wells supply petroleum to oil refineries, which separated into various factions – one of it is from the heaviest part of petroleum, asphalt. It adapted in many ways, include “cutting back”, which means adding cutting agent, to make it soft enough to use. Then the asphalt cement may be emulsified so that liquid can be produced and it will be an easy job to pump it through pipes, mixed with aggregate, or sprayed through nozzles. After that, pulverizing asphalt will be done to produce powdered asphalt. The asphalt will be mashed and passed through fine mesh sieves for uniform size of granules. Finally, asphalt will be oxidized or air blown for other purpose except paving. In this process, a material that softens at high temperature than paving asphalt will be produced. Applications of Asphalt Concrete BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 15. P a g e | 15 Asphalt is being used for road construction such as all kind of roads, parking areas, as well as playing and sporting areas. However, it can also be used for various purposes. For example, transportation, recreation, agriculture, industrial, and building construction (floorings). Figure 1.6: Example of road asphalt Source: http://philipciccarello.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/Asphalt_Road.jpeg Maintenance of Asphalt Concrete Resealing every 3 to 5 years. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 16. P a g e | 16 Physical Properties of Asphalt Concrete Colours Primarily Black Durability Less durable compared to conventional concrete Finishes None Weather issues Softens in high heat Advantages and Disadvantages of Asphalt Concrete Advantages Disadvantages Noise reduction and helps to prevent accidents. Cracks occur with problems like uneven pavement surfaces, BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 17. P a g e | 17 inadequate mixing and laying pavement over previous cracks Rapid surface water dispersal Cost time and money to reseal cracks every 3-5 years. Good skid resistance Environmental issues occur due to release of hydrocarbons which leads to pollution. Easy maintenance reduces traffic disruption Requires heavy equipment to install. Clearer lane marking with coloured asphalts - Totally recyclable - Versatile and flexible - Introduction to Decorative Concrete Decorative also called as architectural concrete. Decorative concrete not only use in construction, It also provides an artistic finish and structural capability. Decorative concrete can encompass many different looks and technique. It can include simple coloring technique such as integral color, acid stains and others. Besides that, there are varieties of treatment such as stamping, scoring and polishing that can change the texture of the surface. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 18. P a g e | 18 Figure 1.7: Decorative Concrete Source: http://www.stampedconcretegr.com/assets/stamped-concrete_75.JPG (1) Stamped Concrete BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 19. P a g e | 19 Figure 1.8: Stamped Concrete Source: http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/stamped-concrete-1.jpg Stamped concrete is a common technique of decorative concrete. Stamped concrete involves pouring slab concrete then impressing both patterns and textures onto the concrete before it is fully dry. There can be many patterns, texture and color used in stamped concrete. Moreover, almost any natural stones can be duplicated through stamped concrete. Stamped concrete is very durable and has long service life. (2) Scored Concrete BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 20. P a g e | 20 Figure 1.9 Scored Concrete Source: http://a1concretors.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/grey-scored-concrete- art_384.jpg Scored concrete can also called as cut concrete. It is a great way to give pours and existing pour a different look. Scoring concrete is basically cutting a shallow into the concrete. These cuts can be used to create a logo or pattern into the concrete. Scored concrete is a great choice for renovation because it can be done on dry cement and cutting lines in concrete. (3) Polished Concrete BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 21. P a g e | 21 Figure 2.0: Polished Concrete Source: http://www.polishedconcreteconcepts.com.au/assets/pcc1.jpg Polished concrete is a concrete slab that is polished down until a shiny finish is achieved. The process polished concrete is similar in theory to sanding wood. It can be stained for some color. Polished concrete is one of the most innovative, economical and environmentally friendly concrete available today. Besides that, polished concrete are low-maintenance because it are more long lasting and easy to clean than other concrete. Due to its wide range of benefit, polished concrete is fast becoming the top choice for residential concrete. History of Decorative Concrete BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 22. P a g e | 22 Figure2.1 Lynn Scofield Source: http://www.concreteconstruction.net/Images/decorative%20concrete %202_tcm45-576836.JPG?width=592&404=404.png Between 1890 and 1920 many companies, especially precast companies who produced members for building facades, used colors and stains to make their work more interesting. Some companies mixed pigment into fresh concrete for a casting; others flooded their castings in solutions similar to chemical stains. Lynn Scofield was the first to manufacturer color hardeners and integral color for concrete. His purpose is to making a dependable range of colors available to everyone. In 1915, Lynn Mason Scofield started a business on Dearborn Street in Chicago that was later renamed the L.M. Scofield Company. It was the first company to manufacture color for concrete. His first products included color hardeners (cement, color, and aggregate broadcast on the surface of fresh concrete to color and harden the surface), colorwax integral color, sealers, and chemical stains. Manufacturing Process of Decorative Concrete Decorative concrete takes the mechanical properties of standard concrete and transforms it into an aesthetically innovative medium that can be customized to meet any décor, pattern, color, style or any unique construction project. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 23. P a g e | 23 The transformation of concrete into decorative concrete is achieved through the use of a variety of materials that may be applied during the pouring process or after the concrete is cured. Installing decorative concrete is a matter of mixing, pouring and stamping. Stamped Concrete is the process of adding texture, color and patterns to concrete to make it look like stone, brick, slate, cobblestone and many other products. Applications of Decorative Concrete Nowadays, the designers and homeowner always use decorative concrete in their designs and plans. Decorative concrete has become the logical choice for many construction projects because it delivers great value. Decorative concrete offers real benefits in terms of performance, cost savings, and aesthetics. Common application of decorative concrete includes: BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 24. P a g e | 24 Driveway Decorative concrete is one of the most reasonable ways to beautify up the entrance to your home. For many homeowners, decorative concrete has become tough to pick the best choice. With varieties choices of styles, texture and colors for a decorative driveway, decorative concrete might be puzzled regarding what is the best for their home. Decorative concrete provides the best ways for homeowners to create a unique driveway. Figure 2.2: Decorative Concrete Driveway Source: http://www.hellerconcreteinc.com/images/100_0670.jpg Retaining wall A decorative concrete retaining wall is built using several forms depending on the design, the length and the height of the desired wall. Decorative concrete retaining wall has the stability and dependability of solid concrete that will has long service life and low maintenance fees. Decorative concrete can be customized to designer and homeowner’s liking and design right on site. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 25. P a g e | 25 Figure 2.3: Decorative Concrete Retaining Wall Source: http://static.concretenetwork.com/photo-gallery/images/400x400Max/vertical- stamping_12/stamped-retaining-wall-california-decorative-concrete_1772.jpg Interior Floor Decorative concrete floors have become the new flooring material choice for the designer and homeowners. It was because decorative concrete floors allow the widest range of creative and unique design over other type of flooring. Decorative concrete provides unlimited colors, textures and patterns. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 26. P a g e | 26 Moreover, decorative concrete not only attractive but also very cost effective. Decorative concrete is the popular choice for interior floor because it create an attractive, good light reflectivity and easy to maintain long-lasting surface. Figure 2.4 Decorative Concrete Interior Floor Source: http://www.designercustomconcrete.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Interior- commercial-decorative-concrete-flooring-stone-thin-stamped-concrete-flooring- 1024x819.jpg Maintenance of Decorative Concrete Cleaning and sealing stamped and colored concrete should be done on a regular basis just like any other home maintenance. The frequently of the maintenance will depend on the amount of traffic, foot traffic, water, whether and any chemicals the concrete is exposed to. Here are some general guidelines for cleaning and maintaining the decorative (stamped) concrete: BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 27. P a g e | 27 Clean dirt/ filth off stamped concrete surface with a garden hose or pressure water. Scrub the surface with liquid dish soap. Clean well with pressure washer or garden hose until there is no sign of soapsuds. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 28. P a g e | 28 Do not apply sealer to a wet surface. Sealer can only be applied once the concrete surface is completely dry. Physical Properties of Decorative Concrete Resin Type Acrylic Pigment Type Varies with color, Mica Solvents Glycol ethers, water Shelf life 2 years Flash point <200°F (93°C) BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 29. P a g e | 29 Advantages and Disadvantages of Decorative Concrete Advantages Disadvantages Beautiful decorative elements Lack of durability compared to other finished surface There are variety of choices when it comes to picking a decorative concrete The initial cost of the project is higher than some conventional floor coverings There is wide assortment of custom design available Bulging and premature cracking is a common problem with decorative concrete Ease of installation. It is far less labor-intensive to install a stamped concrete surface than one made of pavers, for which each paver needs Cost more time. There may be considered prepare work and clean up necessary BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 30. P a g e | 30 to be hauled and set. Reduced maintenance and longer service life - Improve light reflectively and reduce the urban heat island effect - Green and sustainable product, due to its durability - Introduction to Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) is becoming the value engineered pavement of choice for many applications. Its name is taken from the method of construction used to build it. It is positioned with conventional or high-density asphalt paving apparatus, then compacted with rollers. Like conventional concrete, RCC has the same basic ingredients such as cement, water, and aggregates. But it's a drier mix stiff enough to be compacted by vibratory rollers. These characteristics make RCC simple, fast, and economical. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 31. P a g e | 31 Figure 2.5: Roller Compacted Concrete Source: http://www.rapidintl.com/descriptions/rcc1.jpg History of Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) Between year 1961 and 1964, roller-compacted concrete started its early development with the construction of the Alpa Gera Dam near Sondrio in North Italy. During the 1970s, RCC had been touted as a revolutionary material suitable for dam construction. In the early stage, RCC was used for backfill, sub-base and concrete pavement construction, but increasingly it has been used to build concrete gravity dams. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 32. P a g e | 32 Composition of Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) Roller-compacted concrete is a mixture of cement or fly ash, water, sand, aggregates and a few common additives, but contains much less water. Types of mixing equipment for Roller-compacted concrete include continuous flow mixers, tilt-drum mixers, transit mixers and twin-shaft mixer insert. Manufacturing Process of Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) Preparation of subgrade or sub-base Test section Mixing process Transportation Placing BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 33. P a g e | 33 Consider Weather Conditions (At least 4°C) Compaction Joints Finishing Curing Traffic (Protected from vehicular traffic during curing process) Maintenance Applications of Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) Logging Facilities, Composting Areas, and Storage Yards Pavement strength and durability are needed for this application to sustain the heavy loads. Surface appearance, texture, and smoothness are not significant. Coarser aggregates can be used. Roller Compacted Concrete is placed by the road graders and dozers in the most basic applications. Ports, Intermodal Facilities, and Heavy Industrial Facilities These facilities are ideal candidates for Roller-compacted concrete as their huge and open areas with some obstructions that may delay the process of construction. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 34. P a g e | 34 Light Industrial Areas Light industrial areas provide huge uninterrupted areas that are excellent for Roller-compacted concrete. Arterial Streets Traffic is always a major concern when paving arterial streets. The agencies have decided to use a single lift of Roller-compacted concrete pavement for arterial streets. RCC pavements can speed up the process of construction, reducing both project and user costs. Local Streets After construction, to accommodate the nearby businesses, light traffic has been placed on the Roller-compacted concrete pavement within 1 day. Furthermore, for new residential developments, RCC provides a tough working platform. Multi-Layer Pavement Systems for High-Speed Uses Roller-compacted concrete is used primarily for roadways that need to carry traffic at highway speeds. RCC provides a good platform for construction and allows to reduce the thickness of the final surface of the pavement. In results, multi-layer systems can be used cost-effectively in highway, airport, and heavy industrial applications and should provide long-term performance. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 35. P a g e | 35 Maintenance of Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) RCC doesn’t require any maintenance. Physical Properties of Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) Flexural Strength High flexural strength (500 to 1000 psi) (3.5 MPa to 6.9 MPa) Structural Capacity High compressive strength (4,000 to 10,000 psi) (28 MPa to 69 MPa) Density High density Water Content Low water content, BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 36. P a g e | 36 Presence of steel reinforcing No steel reinforcing Types of finishing No finishing Appearance Hard, durable, light-colored surface Advantages and Disadvantages of Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) Advantages Disadvantages Can be delivered in a dump truck instead of a mixing truck, the concrete is ready for use and it is more convenient. More environmentally sensitive than Asphalt. It is waterproof and can be used throughout the whole year, this ensure that the construction project will not be delayed by the weather conditions. Lack of mix design standards that address varied environmental conditions. Able to withstand damage from freezing and unfreezing. Longer road closure is required. Able to withstand heavy or specialised loads. To ensure the finish quality, it needs learning best practices through training and experience. High temperatures, and hydraulic fluids or fuels will not cause roller compacted - BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 37. P a g e | 37 concrete to deteriorate. Very easy to use. - Good for a sub base like parking lot or lower speed street. - Less costly. - Requires minimum of maintenance - Introduction to Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC), also known as Self-Consolidating Concrete initially a concept originated from Prof. Okumara at the University of Tokyo. During the 1980’s, Japan is facing a major dilemma where the number of skilled construction workers is declining day by day and this caused a negative impact to the quality of the construction work. SCS can be the ultimate solution to this problem as it can be compacted into every single corner of a formwork without vibration by means of its own weight. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 38. P a g e | 38 Figure 2.6: Self Compacting Concrete Source: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/- v1aN_4xVQxk/TzCrjiKDbUI/AAAAAAAAElE/fpUWmdJ0LWo/s1600/self+compacting+co ncrete.JPG History of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) Self-compacting concrete (SCC) was a concept proposed by a Japanese professor, Prof. Okumara in the year 1986 but it first introduced into the French construction industry in the end of the 1990’s. In the 1980’s, Japan’s construction suffered a shortage in skilled workers. Sufficient compaction by skilled workers was required to produce conventional concrete with high durability. SCC, a concrete that can be compacted into every corners of the formwork purely by its own weight, was the solution to the skilled workers shortage issue. Manufacturing Process of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 39. P a g e | 39 Determine required performance of SCC Identify materials and equipment required to produce the correct SCC mix proportion Design and adjust the SCC mix proportion Verification and adjustments on the performance of SCC mix are carried out in a laboratory Final verification of SCC mix is verified in a concrete plant or on site. Applications of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) The area of application of Self-compacting concrete is very wide. It is divided into horizontal application which are structures like floors, raft foundation as well as paving, and vertical application which are structures like columns, wall panel and bridge piers. Horizontal Application Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is used in horizontal structures such as floors, raft foundation and paving due to SCC’s self-leveling characteristic. The leveling and finishing quality is crucial when SCC is at its fresh state. Therefore, thickening agents such as starches and Welan gum are added with super-plasticlizers in order to BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 40. P a g e | 40 achieve the ultimate stability of the concrete. The strength of SCC is 40MPa when it is in its hardened state. Vertical Application Vertical structures such as columns and wall panel are load bearing structures. Therefore, concrete with high level strength has to be used to produce these vertical load bearing structures. In order to reach the ideal strength target, the water/cement ratio and mass of SCC has to be optimized. In the process of optimizing the water/cement ratio and mass of SCC, reactive mineral additives and super- plasticlizers are added in order to reduce the water requirement. Maintenance of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) SCC does not require any maintenance. Physical Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) Filling Ability Flow into forms and reinforced concrete without any voids Passing Ability Able to pass through various obstacles and fill in open spaces in formwork. Stability Dynamic stability throughout transportation, BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 41. P a g e | 41 mixing and curing. Presence of Reinforced Steel Yes Advantages and Disadvantages of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) Advantages Disadvantages Decreases the required manpower which is an advantages for developed countries where the cost to hire skilled construction workers is relatively high compared to developing countries. Requires high level of technology to produce ready-mix concrete which is requires a high cost and unaffordable for developing countries. More durable compared to conventional concrete. Hard to control the quality of SCC as it is impossible to transfer entire volume of SCC mix to the laboratory to carry out quality-control tests. Reduces the cost for equipment as a vibrator is not needed to compact SCC. Different types of super-placticlizers and raw materials are needed to produce SCC BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 42. P a g e | 42 which is fairly expensive for developing countries. Has high level of strength which improve the earthquake resistance. - References Albuquerque, M. F., Balbo, J. T., Sansone, E. C., & Pinto, P. C. (2011). Fracture Characterization of Roller Compacted Concrete Mixtures with Blast Furnace Slag and Industrial Sand. International Journal Of Pavement Research & Technology, 4(4), 244-251. Azamirad, H., Zadeh, B.H. (2005, August 23) A Criticism of Self Compacting Concrete. Introduction. Retrieved on 2014, 19th April, from http://www.cipremier.com/e107_files/downloads/Papers/100/30/100030023.pdf . Azamirad, H., Zadeh, B.H. (2005, August 23) A Criticism of Self Compacting Concrete. Practical Study of Durability of S.C.C (Laboratorial). Retrieved on 2014, 19th April, from http://www.cipremier.com/e107_files/downloads/Papers/100/30/100030023.pdf . BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 43. P a g e | 43 Azamirad, H., Zadeh, B.H. (2005, August 23) A Criticism of Self Compacting Concrete. Economic Problems. Retrieved on 2014, 19th April, from http://www.cipremier.com/e107_files/downloads/Papers/100/30/100030023.pdf . Davies, S. (n.d.) The Chemistry of Concrete: How cement reacts with water and the different types of admixture used in the construction industry. Retrieved on 2014, 20th April, from https://suite.io/simon-davies/6ty2bx. Downton, P. (2013) Autoclaved aerated concrete. Your Home. Retrieved on 2014, 24th April, from http://www.yourhome.gov.au/materials/autoclaved-aerated-concrete Grutzeck, M.W. (1998, August 27) Autoclaved Aerated Concrete. Penn State. Retrieved on 2014, 19th April, from http://www.personal.psu.edu/gur/. Jardine, K., Cameron, J. (2012) Autoclaved Aerated Concrete. Sungarden Houses. Retrieved on 2014, 24th April from http://www.sungardenhouses.com/tech- aac.html Krow, S. (2014). The Disadvantages of Asphalt. eHow. Retrieved on 2014, 13th April, from http://www.ehow.com/info_8514122_disadvantages-asphalt.html . Maier, C. (2014) Stamped Concrete: Advantages & Disadvantages. SFGate. Retrieved on 2014, 19th April, from http://homeguides.sfgate.com/stamped-concrete- advantages-disadvantages-83817.html . Nasvik, J. (2006, 16th June) History of Decorative Concrete: The people and companies who started the decorative concrete movement. Concrete Construction. Retrieved on 2014, 20th April, from http://www.concreteconstruction.net/concrete/history-of-decorative- concrete.aspx. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 44. P a g e | 44 Ouchi, M. et al., (2013, August 29) Applications of Self-Compacting Concrete in Japan, Europe and the United States. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved on 2014, 19th April, from http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/scc.cfm. Sulliven, C. (2014) Avoiding Problems with Decorative Concrete Starts Early: Seven Steps to Success Before You Start. ConcreteNetwork.com. Retrieved on 2014, 20th April from http://www.concretenetwork.com/chris_sullivan/seven_steps.htm . Unknown. (2004, June) Pavement: Guide Specification for Construction of Roller- Compacted Concrete Pavements. Portland Cement Association. Retrieved on 2014, 12th April, from http://www.secement.org/PDFs/IS009.PDF. Unknown. (2004) Products. Brickwall Construction Machinery Co. Ltd. Retrieved on 2014, 19th April, from http://www.brick-making-machine.com/news02-Raw- Material-Composition-of-AAC-Autoclaved-Aerated-Concrete-Block.html . Unknown. (2009). Benefits of asphalt roads. Eurobitume. Retrieved on 2014, 13th April, from http://www.eurobitume.eu/bitumen/applications/application-roads/benefits . Unknown. (2010). What is Asphalt. European Asphalt Pavement Association. Retrieved on 2014, 13th April, from http://www.eapa.org/asphalt.php?c=78 . Unknown. (2012) Eco-Friendly. Henner. Retrieved on 2014, 19th April from http://www.henner.com.my/eco_friendly.html . Unknown. (2013, March 7) 5 Benefits of Roller Compacted Concrete. Razorback Concrete Company. Retrieved on 2014, 12th April, from http://razorbackconcrete.com/news/5-benefits-of-roller-compact-concrete/. Unknown (2013, April 16) Self Compacting Concrete vs Conventional Concrete. Dezign The World. Retrieved on 2014, 19th April, from http://www.dezigntheworld.com/2013/04/Self-compacting-VS-Conventional- Concrete.html . BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 45. P a g e | 45 Unknown. (2013) Roller Compacted Concrete. National Ready Mixed Concrete Association. Retrieved on 2014, 12th April, from http://www.rollercompacted.org/benefits.html. Unknown. (2013) Lightweight Block. Leichbric Malaysia. Retrieved on 2014, 19th April, from http://www.leichtbric-malaysia.com/. Unknown. (2013) Ready Mixed Concrete: Decorative Concrete. Maryland Portable Concrete. Retrieved on 2014, 20th April, from http://www.marylandportableconcrete.com/decorative-concrete . Unknown. (2013) Stamped Concrete Maintenance. Stamped Concrete Contractor serving Lancaster & Chester Country. Retrieved on 2014, 20th April, from http://www.stampedconcreteinfo.com/stamped-concrete-maintenance/ . Unknown. (2013) Concrete Driveways. ConcreteNetwork.com. Retrieved on 2014, 20th April, from http://www.concretenetwork.com/concrete/concrete_driveways/ . Unknown. (2013) Interior Concrete Floor. Majestic Concrete Creations. Retrieved on 2014. 20th April, from http://www.majesticaz.com/acid-stain-concrete-floors- phoenix-arizona/ . Unknown. (2014). Roller-Compacted Concrete. America's Cement Manufacturers. Retrieved on 2014, 11th April, from http://www.cement.org/think-harder- concrete-/paving/roller-compacted-concrete . Unknown. (2014). Roller Compacted Concrete Process. Rabine Group. Retrieved on 2014, 11th April, from http://www.rabine.com/services/paving/roller-compacted- concrete/ . Unknown. (2014). What is Asphalt? Asphalt Kingdom. Retrieved on 2014, 12th April, from http://www.asphaltkingdom.com/what-is-asphalt.html. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 46. P a g e | 46 Unknown. (2014). Types of Asphalt Pavement. National Asphalt Pavement Association. Retrieved on 2014, 12th April, from https://www.asphaltpavement.org/index.php? option=com_content&view=article&id=27&Itemid=47. Unknown. (2014). How asphalt cement is made. Retrieved on 2014, 13th April, from http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Asphalt-Cement.html Unknown. (2014) Concrete: Decorative Concrete: Set Your Imagination Free. Lafarge. Retrieved on 2014, 19th April, from http://www.lafarge- na.com/wps/portal/na/en/3_A_3_B_2-Decorative_Concrete . Unknown. (2014) Advantages and Disadvantages of Decorative Concrete. Retrieved on 2014, 20th April, from http://www.decorativeconcretesurface.com/articles/160577/Advantages-And- Disadvantages-Of-Decorative-Concrete-Surface . Unknown. (2014) Autoclaved Aerated Concrete. America’s Cement Manufacturers. Retrieved on 2014, 19th April from http://www.cement.org/think-harder- concrete-/homes/building-systems/autoclaved-aerated-concrete . Unknown. (n.d.). Asphalt history. Simi Valley’s Asphalt Company. Retrieved on 2014, 11th April, from http://www.simivalleyasphalt.com/id15.html. Unknown. (n.d.) Roller-Compacted Construction. McGraw Hill Construction. Retrieved on 2014, 11th April, from http://southeast.construction.com/features/archive/0505_feature1.asp. Unknown. (n.d.) Introduction to Concrete. Northstone Materials. Retrieved on 2014, 20th April, from http://www.northstonematerials.com/about- us/education/introduction-to-concrete/. BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 47. P a g e | 47 Unknown. (n.d.) All About Decorative Concrete. Monster Constructor. Retrieved on 2014,20th April from http://www.monsterconstructors.com/about-decorative- concrete.htm . Unknown. (n.d.) Decorative Concrete Coating. Rust-Oleum Brands. Retrieved on 2014, 20th April, from http://www.rustoleum.com/~/media/DigitalEncyclopedia/Documents/RustoleumU SA/TDS/English/CBG/Decorative%20Concrete/CS1846_1212_ROC_ROC- 07%20Rust-Oleum%20Decorative%20Concrete%20Coating%20TDS.ashx . Unknown. (n.d.) Decorative Concrete Pavers in Manatee County: Why Use Decorative Concrete Pavers? Decorative Concrete Finder. Retrieved on 2014, 20th April, from http://www.decorativeconcretefinder.com/decorative-concrete-finder- sarasota/decorative-concrete-finder-manatee-county/decorative-concete-pavers- manatee-county/ . Unknown. (n.d.) Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC): Our Products. Xella: Better Building Solutions. Retrieved on 2014, 19th April, from http://www.xellabuildingsolutions.com/en/content/autoclaved-aerated- concrete.php. Unknown (n.d.) Self-Compacting Concrete Mix Design Requirements. The Constructor Civil Engineering Home. Retrieved on 2014, 19th April, from http://theconstructor.org/concrete/self-compacting-concrete-mix-design- procedure/6026/ . Unknown (n.d.) Product Range. Henner. Retrieved on 2014, 19th April, from http://www.henner.com.my/products.html . BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun
  • 48. P a g e | 48 Unknown (2014).What is stamped concrete. Ken’s concrete. Retrieved on 2014, 24 April, from http://kensconcrete.com/info/what-is-stamped-concrete Unknown. (n.d).Introduction to Polished Concrete Flooring. Skim Coat Engineering Concrete Flooring. Retrieved on 2014, 24 April, from http://www.skimcoat.co.uk/polished-concrete Unknown (n.d.) Physical Properties. Rust-Oleum. Retrieved on 2014, 24th April, from http://www.rustoleum.com/~/media/DigitalEncyclopedia/Documents/RustoleumU SA/TDS/English/CBG/Decorative%20Concrete/CS1846_1212_ROC_ROC- 07%20Rust-Oleum%20Decorative%20Concrete%20Coating%20TDS.ashx Unknown. (2012) A Different Kind of Concrete. Concrete Even Smarter Than You Think. Retrieved on 2014, 24th April, from http://www.cement.ca/en/Highways/RCC- Pavement-Roller-compacted-concrete.html Unknown. (2005) An Introduction to Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC). Grace Construction Products. Retrieved on 2014, 24th April, from http://www.na.graceconstruction.com/custom/concrete/downloads/tb_1500b.pdf Unknown. (2013) Asphalt vs. Concrete Driveways. Great Day. Retrieved on 2014, 24th April, from http://www.greatdayimprovements.com/asphalt-vs-concrete-driveways.aspx BQS MAR 2014 – BLD62003 Names of group members: Cecilia Tie, Lee Qian Ying, Sharon Chow, Lee Pui Sun

×