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Fungsi nutrient dalam baja kimia cap pokok sawit
 

Fungsi nutrient dalam baja kimia cap pokok sawit

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    Fungsi nutrient dalam baja kimia cap pokok sawit Fungsi nutrient dalam baja kimia cap pokok sawit Presentation Transcript

    • BAJA KIMIA TAAVEEKUNBAJA KIMIA TAAVEEKUN
    • KESAN PENGAMBILAN HUMIC ACID • Humic Acid menggalak penyerapan nutrient oleh akar, tahan kemarau dan membantu percambahan biji benih. Ia menambah aktiviti mikrob didalam tanah, sambil menjadi ajen pembiakan akar. • Humic Acid menambahbaik sifat nutrient yang sedia ada didalam tanah sambil secara semulajadinya mengudara dan menyegarkan nutrient supaya lebih mudah diserap oleh akar. • Humic Acid membantu merendahkan pH tanah dan membantu menyisihkan kandungan garam yang tinggi di zon akar.
    • MANFAAT HUMIC ACID • Humic Acid adalah pengalak biologikal (bio- stimulant) dan sangat sesuai digunakan pada biji benih, rumput, pokok semaian, pokok renek, pokok saka, taman, pasu dan tanaman dalam rumah. • Apa sahaja yang tumbuh dan membesar akan mendapat manfaat dari Humic Acid.
    • ZEOLITEZEOLITE • Komponen terpenting, Zeolite dari kumpulan “Clinoptilolite”, adalah bahan organik lumpur gunung berapi yang telah diiktiraf kualitinya oleh MARDI (Malaysian Agricultural Research Department Institute) di Malaysia. • Fungsi Zeolite • Membantu memperbaiki zon fizikal akar dan ciri kimia tanah.
    • ZEOLITEZEOLITE • Kebaikan Zeolite • Meningkatkan kebolehan memegang air oleh tanah. • Membekalkan nutrien bila diperlukan. • Memperbaiki keberkesanan penggunaan baja. • Membaiki kesuburan tanah.
    • ZEOLITEZEOLITE
    • Nutrient Asas NITROGEN (N) •Menggalak pertumbuhan daun dan batang dengan dinamik sambil menambah baik kualiti keseluruhan tanah. •Komponen penting kepada molekul klorofil yang memberikan warna hijau pekat pada daun, pelepah dan batang. •Membantu pengambilan elemen nutrient utama yang lain secara teratur.
    • Nutrients Asas PHOSPHOROUS (P) • Digunakan dalam pembentukan, pemindahan dan pertukaran tenaga didalam tumbuhan • Mempengaruhi percambahan akar diperingkat awal dan tumbesaran pokok • Menggalak kestabilan pokok, iaitu pertumbuhan yang seimbang secara semulajadi.  Nisbah pertumbuhan akar : batang : daun.  Nisbah kedalaman akar : ketinggian pokok.
    • • Diperlukan oleh pokok dalam kuantiti yang banyak, kedua selepas nitrogen • Komponen utama dalam pembinaan karbohidrat, makanan untuk pokok • Menggalakan pertumbuhan akar dan keupayaan menahan kegersangan • Menambah toleransi pokok kepada kemarau dan kedinginan • Komponen utama dalam memperkukuhkan kekuatan dinding sel pokok dan ketahanan kepada penyakit POTASSIUM / kalium (K) Nutrient Asas
    • Nutrient Sekunder • Mempengaruhi pH tanah yang sesuai untuk pokok • Penting untuk pembentukan struktur dinding sel dan pembahagi sel pokok • Membantu pengukuhan struktur tanah, penyimpanan dan penyerapan air Calcium (Ca)
    • Nutrient Sekunder • Memainkan peranan penting dalam proses fotosintesis dan penghasilan klorofil • Komponen mustahak dalam semua bentuk enzim didalam pokok • Penting dalam membantu pemindahan fosforus (phosphorous) dalam pokok Magnesuim (Mg)
    • Nutrient Sekunder • Bekerjasama dengan nitrogen bagi menghasilkan protin untuk pertumbuhan pokok. • Memainkan peranan penting dalam pembentukan oksigen oleh pokok. • Mempengaruhi kadar aktiviti mikroorganisma dalam tanah. Sulfur (S)
    • Mikronutrient • Diperlukan dalam pembentukan klorofil • Kekurangan Iron banyak terdapat dalam tanah yang basah, sejuk dan pH tanah yang tinggi • Membantu pengaktifan proses bio-kimia didalam pokok Iron / ferum (Fe) / (besi)
    • • Penting dalam penbentukan klorofil dan keaktifan pertumbuhan sel diawal tumbesaran pokok. • Selalunya terkandung dengan kuantiti yang cukup didalam tanah. Manganese (Mn) Mikronutrient
    • Zinc (Zn) •Diperlukan dalam penghasilan klorofil oleh pokok Mikronutrient
    • Copper (Cu) •Penting dalam proses sintesis pertumbuhan pokok bersama nutrient tertentu termasuk pokok sawit •Bertindak sebagai pemangkin untuk beberapa enzim penting •Diperlukan dalam kuantiti yang sedikit; kuantiti berlebihan boleh menjadi keracunan kepada pokok renek dan rumput. •Kekurangan Cu biasanya terdapat pada tanah alkali (pH tinggi), tanah organik atau tanah yang berair Mikronutrient
    • KEBAIKAN MENGGUNAKAN DOLOMITE DOLOMITE SEBAGAI PENSTABIL TANAH (SOIL CONDITIONER) Dolomite boleh digunakan didalam pertanian untuk mengawal pH tanah pada tahap yang sesuai dan membekalkan Magnesium sebagai penganti kieserite. Menstabil pH tanah yang sesuai adalah penting untuk mendapatkan hasil pokok yang maksima, sama seperti pembajaan, saliran dan pengawalan perosak pokok. Dolomite yang bersifat asid sitrik akan menlepaskan MgO secara perlahan dan akan memberi manfaat kepada pokok dalam jangka panjang.
    • KEBAIKAN MENGGUNAKAN DOLOMITE • Semua tananam secara amnya mengnyahkan Calcium (CaO) and Magnesium (MgO) pada kadar yang berbeza dari tanah melalui pemindahan hasil. • Keasidan tanah terus terbina secara perlahan apabila kelembapan menyerap kedalam tanah sambil membawa uraian nutrient dibawah paras zon akar atau secara melarut dalam air berlebihan. • Kehilangan Calcium and Magnesium ini akan diganti oleh Hydrogen and Aluminium yang menyebabkan petambahan keasidan tanah. • Penggunaan baja yang membentuk asid juga menyebabkan keasidan tanah meningkat. • Dolomite membantu penstabilan pH & struktur tanah
    • KESAN MENGGUNAKAN DOLOMITE • Membetulkan keasidan tanah. • Membekal kalsium and magnesium. Memanjangkan tempoh kehadiran sesetengah nutrient untuk pokok. • Menggalak aktiviti biologikal yang diperlukan. • Membaiki sesetengah struktur tanah.
    • Kesan tanah berasidKesan tanah berasid • Tanah yang berasid akan meruntun pertumbuhan akar dan pokok, mengurangkan penyerapan nutrient pokok, mengurangkan aktiviti biologikal yang diperlukan dan menambah elemen bertoksik didalam tanah. • Jika tahap keasidan tanah tidak diurus dengan baik, kesan baik dari aktiviti mahal yang lain seperti penanaman, pembajaan, masa dan aktiviti amalan pengurusan tanaman tidak akan menerbitkan hasil yang diharapkan.
    • FUNGSI NUTRIENTFUNGSI NUTRIENT DALAM BAJADALAM BAJA MENGAPA PERLU KEPADA BAJAMENGAPA PERLU KEPADA BAJA •Tanah memerlukan senggaraan kesuburan.Tanah memerlukan senggaraan kesuburan. •Tanah adalah unsur semulajadi yang terdiri dari batuTanah adalah unsur semulajadi yang terdiri dari batu batan, galian dan bahan organik.batan, galian dan bahan organik. •Pasir, mendapan, tanah dan bahan organik membantuPasir, mendapan, tanah dan bahan organik membantu membentuk curam, pengudaraan dan kadar penyerapanmembentuk curam, pengudaraan dan kadar penyerapan air, tetapi ianya jarang menyimpan makanan secukupnyaair, tetapi ianya jarang menyimpan makanan secukupnya untuk tumbuhan terus membesar dengan subur.untuk tumbuhan terus membesar dengan subur. •Baja berfungsi menambah kandungan nutrient dalamBaja berfungsi menambah kandungan nutrient dalam tanah untuk pertumbuhan dan pembesaran pokok yangtanah untuk pertumbuhan dan pembesaran pokok yang lebih sempurna.lebih sempurna.
    • APAKAH BAJA?APAKAH BAJA? •Terdapat 17 elemen yang diketahui amatTerdapat 17 elemen yang diketahui amat diperlukan oleh pokok untuk pertumbuhandiperlukan oleh pokok untuk pertumbuhan dan pembesarannya.dan pembesarannya. •Baja, jua dikenali sebagai elemen makananBaja, jua dikenali sebagai elemen makanan pokok, adalah bahan yang membekalkanpokok, adalah bahan yang membekalkan elemen ini yang dalam bentuk sedia diambil /elemen ini yang dalam bentuk sedia diambil / diserap untuk digunakan oleh pokok.diserap untuk digunakan oleh pokok.
    • SUMBER ELEMEN:SUMBER ELEMEN: UDARA, AIR, TANAH DANUDARA, AIR, TANAH DAN BAJABAJA Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P) Potassium (K) Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Sulfur (S) Iron (Fe) Manganese (Mn) Zinc (Zn) Copper (Cu) Boron (B) Nickle (Ni) Chlorine (Cl) Molybdenum (Mo) Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) Oxygen (O)
    • • Tiga dari tujuh belas elemen penting ini, iaitu karbon, hidrogenTiga dari tujuh belas elemen penting ini, iaitu karbon, hidrogen dan oksigen diambil oleh pokok dari udara dan air.dan oksigen diambil oleh pokok dari udara dan air. • Oksigen dan hidrogen diambil oleh tumbuhan dari air. KarbonOksigen dan hidrogen diambil oleh tumbuhan dari air. Karbon dan hidrogen diserap dari udara oleh daun.dan hidrogen diserap dari udara oleh daun. • Empat belas elemen lain yang digunakan oleh pokok mestiEmpat belas elemen lain yang digunakan oleh pokok mesti diperolehi dari tanah atau bahan yang mengandungi bajadiperolehi dari tanah atau bahan yang mengandungi baja.. • Pemindahan elemen termasuk penyerapan, pengwapan danPemindahan elemen termasuk penyerapan, pengwapan dan hakisan menyebabkan kesuburan tanah terus berkurangan.hakisan menyebabkan kesuburan tanah terus berkurangan. Tumbuhan akan berwarna sakit (kuning-hijau kepada kuning),Tumbuhan akan berwarna sakit (kuning-hijau kepada kuning), ketumpatan pokok yang rendah menyebabkan pertumbuhanketumpatan pokok yang rendah menyebabkan pertumbuhan rumput dan berkurangnya kesuburan pokok akanrumput dan berkurangnya kesuburan pokok akan memudahkan serangan penyakit dan serangga perosak.memudahkan serangan penyakit dan serangga perosak. • Produktivit tanah boleh disenggara melalui pengurusan tanahProduktivit tanah boleh disenggara melalui pengurusan tanah yang baik dan pembajaan berjadual yang mempunyai berbagaiyang baik dan pembajaan berjadual yang mempunyai berbagai elemen baja.elemen baja.
    • WHY DOESN’T FERTILIZERWHY DOESN’T FERTILIZER HAVE 100% PLANT FOOD?HAVE 100% PLANT FOOD? A fertilizer 16-6-8 analysis adds up to 30%A fertilizer 16-6-8 analysis adds up to 30% plant food or thirty pounds per hundredplant food or thirty pounds per hundred pounds of material.pounds of material. What is the other 70%?What is the other 70%? It is not a filler; it is the way the plant food isIt is not a filler; it is the way the plant food is chemically compounded so plants can utilizechemically compounded so plants can utilize it.it.
    • Plants can’t use elemental nitrogen (N), they only takePlants can’t use elemental nitrogen (N), they only take up nitrogen when it is in the NO3 or NH4 form.up nitrogen when it is in the NO3 or NH4 form. This means that for each part of nitrogen you haveThis means that for each part of nitrogen you have three parts of oxygen with (NO3) or 4 parts ofthree parts of oxygen with (NO3) or 4 parts of hydrogen with (NH4).hydrogen with (NH4). When nitrogen is in a compound which is available toWhen nitrogen is in a compound which is available to plants, nitrogen is only part of the compound.plants, nitrogen is only part of the compound. The same is true with phosphorus and the otherThe same is true with phosphorus and the other elements.elements. Phosphorus is absorbed by plants as H2PO4–, HPO4Phosphorus is absorbed by plants as H2PO4–, HPO4 = or PO4 = depending upon soil pH.= or PO4 = depending upon soil pH.
    • If fertilizers were in the elemental form,If fertilizers were in the elemental form, they would be difficult to handle:they would be difficult to handle: ElementalElemental nitrogen (N)nitrogen (N) –a colorless–a colorless inert gas that could drift off into the air.inert gas that could drift off into the air. ElementalElemental phosphorus (P)phosphorus (P) –catches–catches fire spontaneously when exposed tofire spontaneously when exposed to the air. It is actually poisonous to plantsthe air. It is actually poisonous to plants in concentrated forms.in concentrated forms. ElementalElemental potassium (K)potassium (K) –placed in–placed in contact with water it will catch fire,contact with water it will catch fire, explode and decompose into a strongexplode and decompose into a strong caustic solution.caustic solution.
    • FUNCTIONS OF THE 14 ELEMENTS OBTAINEDFUNCTIONS OF THE 14 ELEMENTS OBTAINED FROM THE SOIL AND ADDED FERTILIZERFROM THE SOIL AND ADDED FERTILIZER A. Primary Plant Food ElementsA. Primary Plant Food Elements Nitrogen Plants rapidly utilize these elements and unfertilizedNitrogen Plants rapidly utilize these elements and unfertilized Phosphorus soils normally cannot provide them in quantitiesPhosphorus soils normally cannot provide them in quantities needed for Potassium (Potash) best plant growth.needed for Potassium (Potash) best plant growth. Nitrogen (N)Nitrogen (N) 1. Promotes rapid vegetative growth (leaf and stems)1. Promotes rapid vegetative growth (leaf and stems) hastening recovery after mowing and imparting vigor to thehastening recovery after mowing and imparting vigor to the turf.turf. 2. A vital element in the formation and function of2. A vital element in the formation and function of chlorophyll–the key ingredient imparting dark green color.chlorophyll–the key ingredient imparting dark green color. 3. Synthesizes amino acids which in turn form protein.3. Synthesizes amino acids which in turn form protein. 4. Regulates the uptake of other nutrients.4. Regulates the uptake of other nutrients. 5. Basic ingredient of vital compounds - Nucleic acid and5. Basic ingredient of vital compounds - Nucleic acid and enzymes.enzymes.
    • Phosphorus (P)Phosphorus (P) 1. Stimulates early root formation and growth–gets1. Stimulates early root formation and growth–gets plants off to a good start and forms a root filter systemplants off to a good start and forms a root filter system in the soil to efficiently pick up the other available plantin the soil to efficiently pick up the other available plant nutrients and water. Improves the strength and staminanutrients and water. Improves the strength and stamina of the plant.of the plant. 2. Hastens maturity (conversion of starch to sugar).2. Hastens maturity (conversion of starch to sugar). 3. Stimulates blooming and seed development.3. Stimulates blooming and seed development. 4. Causes energy transformation and conversion4. Causes energy transformation and conversion processes in which sugars are converted toprocesses in which sugars are converted to hormones, protein and energy to grow new leaveshormones, protein and energy to grow new leaves and fruit.and fruit. 5. Forms nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).5. Forms nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). 6. Vital for photosynthesis (greening for plants).6. Vital for photosynthesis (greening for plants). 7. Essential for cell division.7. Essential for cell division.
    • Potassium (K)Potassium (K) 1. Aids in the development of stems and leaves.1. Aids in the development of stems and leaves. 2. Increases disease resistance and hardiness which2. Increases disease resistance and hardiness which helps wear ability.helps wear ability. 3. Strengthens cell walls, causing grass to stand up3. Strengthens cell walls, causing grass to stand up and reduces lodging.and reduces lodging. 4. Affects water intake by plant cells–plants with4. Affects water intake by plant cells–plants with inadequate potassium may wilt in the presence ofinadequate potassium may wilt in the presence of ample moisture.ample moisture. 5. Acts as a catalyst in Iron uptake.5. Acts as a catalyst in Iron uptake. 6. Essential to the formation and translocation of6. Essential to the formation and translocation of protein, starches, sugar and oil–improving the size andprotein, starches, sugar and oil–improving the size and quality of fruit, grains and tubers.quality of fruit, grains and tubers.
    • B. Secondary Plant Food ElementsB. Secondary Plant Food Elements Calcium They are used in somewhat less quantities than the primaryCalcium They are used in somewhat less quantities than the primary Magnesium elements, but they are just as essential for plant growth andMagnesium elements, but they are just as essential for plant growth and Sulfur quality.Sulfur quality. Calcium (Ca)Calcium (Ca) 1. Calcium is an essential part of cell wall structure and must be present for1. Calcium is an essential part of cell wall structure and must be present for the formation of new cells.the formation of new cells. 2. Deficiency of calcium causes weakened stemsand premature shedding2. Deficiency of calcium causes weakened stemsand premature shedding of blossoms and buds.of blossoms and buds. Magnesium (Mg)Magnesium (Mg) 1. Essential for photosynthesis (greening of plant).1. Essential for photosynthesis (greening of plant). 2. Activator for many plant enzymes required in growth process.2. Activator for many plant enzymes required in growth process. Sulfur (S)Sulfur (S) 1. A constituent of three amino acids and is therefore essential in the1. A constituent of three amino acids and is therefore essential in the formation of protein.formation of protein. 2. Helps maintain green color in plants.2. Helps maintain green color in plants. 3. Improves alkaline soils.3. Improves alkaline soils. 4. Helps compacted soils–making them loose and allowing better water4. Helps compacted soils–making them loose and allowing better water penetration.penetration. Sulfur Note–There are commonly two types of sulfur applied to plants andSulfur Note–There are commonly two types of sulfur applied to plants and soils:soils: Sulfate Sulfur - (SO4); Elemental Sulfur (S)Sulfate Sulfur - (SO4); Elemental Sulfur (S)
    • Sulfate Sulfur (SO4)Sulfate Sulfur (SO4) Sulfate Sulfur (SO4) is the form taken up for plant food.Sulfate Sulfur (SO4) is the form taken up for plant food. Many plants require as much sulfur as phosphate inMany plants require as much sulfur as phosphate in their growth processes.their growth processes. Sulfate Sulfur (SO4) is contained in gypsum (CaSO4)Sulfate Sulfur (SO4) is contained in gypsum (CaSO4) and other sulfate fertilizers–Ammonium Sulfate,and other sulfate fertilizers–Ammonium Sulfate, Ammonium Phosphate Sulfate and many turf fertilizers.Ammonium Phosphate Sulfate and many turf fertilizers. Gypsum (CaSO4) will help reclaim alkali soils and makeGypsum (CaSO4) will help reclaim alkali soils and make them loose and friable. Alkali soils contain sodium whichthem loose and friable. Alkali soils contain sodium which causes soil to disperse, puddle and seal up. The freecauses soil to disperse, puddle and seal up. The free calcium from gypsum will replace the sodium on thecalcium from gypsum will replace the sodium on the clay particle and allow the sodium to be leached out ofclay particle and allow the sodium to be leached out of the soil.the soil. It also causes the small soil particles to flocculate (joinIt also causes the small soil particles to flocculate (join together in small crumbs), leaving space between themtogether in small crumbs), leaving space between them for air and water movement.for air and water movement.
    • Chlorophyll in the plant cell (causes turf to maintain aChlorophyll in the plant cell (causes turf to maintain a healthy green color). It serves as a catalyst forhealthy green color). It serves as a catalyst for biological processes such as respiration, symbioticbiological processes such as respiration, symbiotic fixation of nitrogen and photosynthesis.fixation of nitrogen and photosynthesis. Applications of iron can correct iron deficiency, but itApplications of iron can correct iron deficiency, but it may be temporary in high pH soils, due to tie up withmay be temporary in high pH soils, due to tie up with calcium.calcium. This may require acidification of the soil withThis may require acidification of the soil with elemental sulfur or the use of ammonium forms ofelemental sulfur or the use of ammonium forms of nitrogen or some other acidification agents.nitrogen or some other acidification agents. As ammonium converts to nitrate in the soil, it has anAs ammonium converts to nitrate in the soil, it has an acidifying effect. This acidifying effect makes ironacidifying effect. This acidifying effect makes iron and many other elements more available in high pHand many other elements more available in high pH soils.soils.
    • Zinc (Zn)Zinc (Zn) Zinc is an essential component of several plantZinc is an essential component of several plant enzymes. It is a part of auxins and controls the synthesisenzymes. It is a part of auxins and controls the synthesis of indoleacetic acid which regulates growth compounds.of indoleacetic acid which regulates growth compounds. Zinc also affects the intake and efficient use of water byZinc also affects the intake and efficient use of water by plants.plants. Manganese (Mn)Manganese (Mn) Manganese serves as an activator for enzymes inManganese serves as an activator for enzymes in plants. Without Manganese, the plants cannot use theplants. Without Manganese, the plants cannot use the iron which they have absorbed. It assists the iron iniron which they have absorbed. It assists the iron in chlorophyll formation which causes yellowish turf tochlorophyll formation which causes yellowish turf to green up.green up.