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  1. 1. Guozheng Li Department of Biology, School of Arts and Sciences University of Kentucky, US E-mail:
  2. 2. Energy Crisis around the world <ul><li>Imbalance distribution of fossil resources of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Large oil demand with rapid growth rate </li></ul>Demand Supply conflict
  3. 3. Current situation in China <ul><li>Lack of oil and gas, abundant in coal (Imbalance in sorts and distribution) </li></ul><ul><li>High output with rapid growth (Excessive use, running out sooner) </li></ul><ul><li>Net importer country of oil with foreign dependence as high as 40% (Energy security) </li></ul>Proven fossil resource and output in China (proportion in the world) % Oil Gas Coal Resource 2.7 0.9 15.0 Output 4.2 1.5 33.5
  4. 4. Strategy to the challenge <ul><li>Saving energy and sustainable development </li></ul><ul><li>education, government policy et al. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking alternative oil products and new energy </li></ul>Solar Energy Wind Energy Nuclear Energy Geothermal Energy
  5. 5. Three Gorges Project – A project of century Panoramic on Three Gorges Project Air view of Three Gorges Project <ul><li>Long term Project - a 17 years program </li></ul><ul><li>The largest hydro - junction among the world </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits - flood control, energy genesis, pollution control, shipping improvement </li></ul>
  6. 6. Change our view… Un-utilizable <ul><li>Saving (decreasing used amount) </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing utilization ratio </li></ul>Finding new energy Limited! Hard!! Change waste into wealth Feasible!!!
  7. 7. A special case – agriculture residues   Agriculture Residues 700 Million Tons/year in China Waste or a sort of energy (Biomass)?
  8. 8. Field burning This technique is used to clear the land of any existing crop residue as well as kill weeds and weed seeds. Field burning is less expensive than most other methods such as herbicides or tillage but because it does produce smoke and other fire related pollutants, its use is not popular in agricultural areas bounded by residential housing. In the United States, field burning is a legislative and regulatory issue at both the federal and state levels of government .
  9. 9. Problems caused by Field burning <ul><li>Environmental pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Dangers of Safety </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Forest fire, Traffic accidents et al. </li></ul><ul><li>Waste energy resource </li></ul>
  10. 10. Straw Refining and benefits <ul><li>University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) got new breakthroughs in technology on biomass refining on June 27 th , 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Refining straw, wood chips, corn stalk, cotton stalk into bio-oil, and oil production rate is more than 50%, including wood oil production rate more than 60%. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits on multiple aspects: </li></ul><ul><li>economical value </li></ul><ul><li>environment protection </li></ul><ul><li>energy utilization </li></ul>
  11. 11. Process of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Drying Char separation Comminution Fast pyrolysis Liquid recovery Flowchart of biomass fast pyrolysis system Feeding
  12. 12. Biomass Pyrolysis A pparatus <ul><li>(1) The optimal pyrolysis temperature for different biomass is different, but all work well at 450~550 ℃ . </li></ul><ul><li>(2) The yields of bio-oil for forest wastes and residues are 60~70 wt%, and for agriculture wastes and residues 50~60 wt%. </li></ul><ul><li>(3) The caloric values of bio-oil from all kinds of biomass are almost 16.0~18.0 MJ/kg. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Properties and Elemental Composition of the Liquid Fuels Properties From rice husk From sawdust From mixture H 2 O (wt%) 25.2 19.0 20.7 pH 2.8 2.1 2.6 Density (kg/m 3 ) 1190 1300 1255 Viscosity (mm 2 /s) 128 240 156 LHV (MJ/kg) 17.42 18.2 17.4 C (wt%) 41.7 53.5 46.5 H (wt%) 7.7 6.4 7.3 O (wt%) 50.3 40.2 49.8 N (wt%) 0.3 0.2 0.2 S (wt%) 0.2 0.1 0.1
  14. 14. Combustion of Bio-oil <ul><li>Boiler : 250x2500 </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-oil : 60kg/h </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature: ≥1500℃ </li></ul>
  15. 15. Demo Plant of Fast Pyrolysis <ul><li>A demo-plant with capacity of 3000 tons of bio-oil per year, located at Shushan Industry Park, Hefei, has been built on March, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of pyrolysis is auto-thermal. </li></ul><ul><li>The feedstock is rice husk. </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of bio-oil is less than ¥ 1000 per ton. </li></ul><ul><li>The bio-oil is mainly used as fuel oil in industry. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Synthesis of Gasoline Syngas Fe/Cu/Al/K 1.5 MPa, 300 ℃ Gasoline
  17. 17. Synthesized Gasoline Distributionof carbon number in the synthesized products
  18. 18. Strategy of Using Biomass Bio-oil Carbon + Gas Product Biomass Syngas Chemicals Methanol Gasoline Pyrolysis Reforming Isolating Synthesis Supply energy for pyrolysis By-products
  19. 19. Acknowledgement <ul><li>Dr. Qingxiang Guo ( Anhui Key Laboratory for Biomass Clean Energy, University of Science and Technology of China ) </li></ul><ul><li>Xixi Wei ( School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China ) </li></ul>Most of the pictures in this document are provided and reserved by Biomass Clean Energy Laboratory, USTC.
  20. 20. Greeting… One World One Dream Welcome to Beijing Olympics 2008!
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