Understanding Adoption and Discontinuance for Greater Impact


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Presentation given by Olivier Joffre at the Conference on Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and Food, Montpellier 28 June-1 July 2010.

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Understanding Adoption and Discontinuance for Greater Impact

  1. 1. Understanding Adoption and Discontinuance for Greater Impact Community Based Fish Culture in Seasonal Floodplain O. Joffre, N. Sheriff and N. Weeratunge ISDA 2010, Montpellier Hot topic 4
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Floodplains </li></ul><ul><li>Community Based Fish culture </li></ul><ul><li>Project and experimental trials </li></ul><ul><li>Approach to understand adoption of the model </li></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing success </li></ul><ul><li>What model for better adoption? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Floodplains <ul><li>Floodplains are seasonally inundated & unavailable for crop production </li></ul><ul><li>It represents : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.2-1.9 Million ha – Mekong Delta (Vietnam) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Million ha - Cambodia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.5 Millions ha – Bangladesh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>50-100 million inhabitants live in deep flooded areas in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>When the land is not flooded it can be owned by individuals as private property but when it is flooded it is open access for subsistence fishing in most of cases </li></ul>
  4. 4. Floodplains <ul><li>Unique ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flood pulse concept : bring nutrient rich sediment to farmland, trigger reproductive activities of fish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Importance of the rice-field fisheries (flooded rice fields) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50-150 kg/ha in Cambodia – 100,000 to 300,000 tons in Cambodia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floodplain fisheries represent 30% of the wild fish catch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(> 700,000 tons) in Bangladesh </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than 70% of HH engaged in fishing in flooded area of the Mekong Delta </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Seasonality of the Floodplain
  6. 6. Concept of Community Based Fish Culture in Seasonal Floodplains <ul><li>Opportunity to raise fish through alternating rice and fish farming in enclosed area </li></ul><ul><li>Increase land and water productivity of flooded area, with a socially and environmentally acceptable system </li></ul><ul><li>Why Community Based approach? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce operational cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of individual landownership in flooded land </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Study Sites- Ganges Delta and Mekong Delta (2005-2010)
  8. 8. Different Approaches <ul><li>Membership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landowners (Vietnam) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open (Cambodia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landowners & previous users: local fishers (Bangladesh) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No fishing allowed (Vietnam, Cambodia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited access with specific fishing tools (Bangladesh) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small groups (<35) Cambodia & Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large groups (>100) in Bangladesh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Size of flooded areas used for fish culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small enclosure (<3 ha) in Cambodia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large water bodies (20->100 ha) in Vietnam & Bangladesh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More intensive culture in Cambodia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nursing fingerlings practiced in some cases in Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large size fingerlings available in Bangladesh </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Uneven results and adoption of the technology <ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide range of productivity and economic outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity between <50 kg/ha to 636 kg/ha </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gross return between <20 USD/ha to 506 USD/ha </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project discontinue in most sites in Vietnam (3/5) and all in Cambodia (4/4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What factors influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the technology adoption? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Approach to understand the adoption of technique <ul><li>Comparative analysis between and within countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bangladesh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cambodia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semi structured interview and Focus Group Discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beneficiaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non beneficiaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project partners & local authorities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analytical framework to evaluate enabling and constraining factors at: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community and household levels </li></ul></ul>Technical & Environmental Market & Economy Governance & Social
  11. 11. Governance factors Seasonal Open access system Community Based Management Which governance factors are important to allow this change ? <ul><li>- Exclusion? </li></ul><ul><li>Access rules? </li></ul><ul><li>CBO development and regulation ? </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  12. 12. Governance factors <ul><li>Changes in access regime, leading to conflict and tension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poaching from both project beneficiaries and outsiders; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vandalism due to exclusion of some previous users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be prevented through involvement of previous users of the area with less drastic restriction rules, like in Bangladesh sites </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Governance factors <ul><li>In several cases in Vietnam, Cambodia and Bangladesh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of transparency or accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of shared power for decision making – typically unilateral by the group leader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lesson learned from successful examples in Bangladesh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oversight of the FMC operation by local authorities and local partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transparency and shared decision making authority </li></ul></ul></ul>Water Body Flood Plain Management Committee (FMC) Project Implementation Committee (FMC members, local authorities and project partners NGOs Report Supervise, Control, Advice, Support
  14. 14. Social Factors <ul><li>Past Experience in Collective action </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity to work in group – a constraint in Vietnam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Too many people, too many ideas” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producing “public fish” less attractive compared to rice production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Co-operation with other producers needed for integrating fish culture into rice based farming systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water management and cooperation with rice farmers </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Economic & Market Factors <ul><li>Local fish market & market linkage </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overlap between the harvest of farmed fish and the peak season of wild fish catch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of market linkage to sell large amount of fish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost-benefit efficiency of production system </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High input system with nursing fingerings (Vietnam) or higher stocking density (Cambodia) selected at the study sites is not economically viable compare to other more extensive systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Aquaculture sector infrastructure– availability of fingerlings </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Price differs by 4 times between Bangladesh and Cambodia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Economic & Market Factors <ul><li>Household level economic constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for space (fishing, duck raising, lotus culture) and labor allocation (e.g. off farm wage labor) in Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for daily income during the flood season </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of guaranteed fish production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal labor migration in Cambodia </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Environment and Technical Factors <ul><li>System depend on flood pattern and amplitude </li></ul><ul><li>Require robust infrastructure (dikes) to face flood damage and resist to vandalism </li></ul>
  18. 18. How to improve adoption rate? <ul><li>Community Based Fish Culture is a is difficult, complex, and sensitive (not easy, simple and robust) </li></ul><ul><li>The auto-diffusion as observed in Bangladesh shows that it “can work”, under specific conditions, which includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas with excess labor available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas with longer flood duration and infrastructure to demarcate fish culture area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No conflict over the use of land or water bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility in access rights and development of transparent mechanism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher economic return to overcome potential conflicts and improve organizational capacity of Community Based Organization </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Conclusion <ul><li>Integrated and systematic approach to evaluate project results helps to gain a better understanding of factors to take into account when selecting appropriate sites and areas for intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing so called “failure” helps to learn and to find solutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Bangladesh , CBO organization and access rights is a key aspects taken in account by local partners during auto-diffusion of the technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Cambodia , approach was modified to one specific technical approach - Community Fish Refuge Pond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Vietnam, local partners are now developing trial with smaller groups integrating both rice and fish culture in the same approach </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Thank you