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Introduction to the ecosystem approach as a framework for management of ecosystem use


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7th GEF Biennial International Waters Conference in Barbados Presentation on ecosystem approach as a framework for management of ecosystem use by Rhodes University

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Introduction to the ecosystem approach as a framework for management of ecosystem use

  1. 1. Introduction to the ecosystem approach as a framework for management of ecosystem use Kevern Cochrane and Warwick Sauer
  2. 2. Structure of the Talk  Part I 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The global context; What is EA – from a sectoral example to an integrated multi-sectoral approach; Intro to ecosystem services EA Management and Institutions – Responding at Different Scales; Understanding the benefits and objectives: a pre-requisite for proactive management – the ASCLME as an example; Conclusions.
  3. 3. Structure of the Talk  Part II  An example of a simple cost-benefit analysis for management decisions using EAF
  4. 4. 1) The global context
  5. 5. CBD Definition of an Ecosystem Approach  The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. …It is … focused on levels of biological organization which encompass the essential processes, functions and interactions among organisms and their environment. It recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of ecosystems.
  6. 6. FAO Definition of EAF An Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries strives to balance diverse societal objectives, by taking account of the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human components of ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries. (FAO, 2003)
  7. 7. FAO Code of Conduct States and users of living aquatic resources should conserve aquatic ecosystems . The right to fish carries with it the obligation to do so in a responsible manner so as to ensure effective conservation and management of the living aquatic resources.
  8. 8. 2) What is EA – from a sectoral example to an integrated multi-sectoral approach Photo: ASCLME website
  9. 9. A Sectoral Example - the Rationale for EAF The purpose of an ecosystem approach to fisheries is to plan, develop and manage fisheries in a manner that addresses the multiplicity of societal needs and desires, without jeopardising the options for future generations to benefit from marine ecosystems. Including the full range of
  10. 10. The underlying rationale of single-species approaches: the Schaefer Model 120 MSY Surplus production 100 80 60 40 20 B0 0 0 200 400 BMSY 600 Stock size 800 1000
  11. 11. The ecological reality:
  12. 12. 3. The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries: Ecosystem valuation JOHN JATOE
  13. 13. Ecosystem Valuation: an economist’s perspective The economic theory of valuation calls for the computation of total economic values made up of both use and non-use (market & non-market; extractive & non-extractive) values:        Direct use value; Indirect use value; Option value; Existence value; Bequest value; Starting point for valuation is people’s preferences 13
  14. 14. Ecosystem services   Provisioning: the products obtained from ecosystems, including food and fibre, fuel, genetic resources, biochemicals, natural medicines, pharmaceuticals, ornamental resources, and fresh water; Regulating: the regulation of ecosystem processes including those relating to air quality, water, climate, human diseases, erosion, biological controls, and storm protection; 14
  15. 15. Ecosystem services   Cultural: the nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems through, for example: spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, recreation, and aesthetic experiences, including cultural diversity, spiritual and religious values, knowledge systems, educational values, inspiration, aesthetic values, social relations, sense of place, cultural heritage values, and recreation and ecotourism; Supporting: the benefits “that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services. They differ from provisioning, regulating, and cultural services in that their impacts on people are either indirect or occur over a very long time.”
  16. 16. Total Value of a Fishery Ecosystem 16
  17. 17. Introducing the importance of ecosystem services to human wellbeing constituents of well-being ecosystem services Security • Personal safety • Secure resource access • Security from disasters Provisioning • Food • Fresh water • Wood and fibre • Fuel • etc. … Supporting • Nutrient cycling • Soil formation • Primary production • etc. … Regulating • Climate regulation • Flood regulation • Disease prevention • Water purification • etc. … Cultural • Aesthetic • Spiritual • Educational • Recreational • etc. … value for Basic material for good life • Adequate livelihoods • Sufficient nutritious food • Shelter • Access to goods Health • Strength • Feeling well • Access to clean air & water Freedom of choice and action Opportunity to be able to achieve what an individual values being and doing Good social relations • Social cohesion • Mutual respect • Ability to help others Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005 17
  18. 18. water for food water purification flow regulation water storage fisheries provision water supply water storage water supply water conveyance cultural services water for energy
  19. 19. Healthy vs. Degraded approach 19
  20. 20.        Some examples of “EAF Issues” example 1: Benguela Current countries Bycatch of species that are important target species for other fisheries. Mortality to threatened sharks, seabirds and other species of conservation concern Limited knowledge of true biodoiversity and impacts of fishery on biodiversity Conflicts between industrial and small-scale fisheries Impacts of trawls on the benthic fauna and flora Increasing impacts on fisheries of offshore mining and oil exploration and extraction Environmental impacts (e.g. Benguela Niño and deoxygenation events)
  21. 21. Recognising and Acknowledging the Impacts and Interactions Sector or Subsector Ecological wellbeing Health Human Wellbeing Ability to achieve (Social, economic, cultural) Commercially important species or habitat Local/Community Governance in Same Sector Species of conservation concern Sector/Subsector Governance in Other Sectors General Ecosystem Other Sectors National Impact of the environment
  22. 22. Ecosystem approaches to sectors in the broader EA framework Authority for Management of Marine zone Coastal zone development Offshore oil, gas and mining Agencies for land-based impacts Management agency for EAF Conservation & environmental interests Small-scale sector Large-scale sector
  23. 23. 4. EA Management and Institutions – Responding at Different Scales
  24. 24. What is management?   “The process of dealing with or controlling things or people” Risk management in business: “the forecasting and evaluation of financial risks together with the identification of procedures to avoid or minimize their impact” (Oxford Dictionary)
  25. 25. 4.1.2 Scoping [Fishery & area, Stakeholders, Broad issues] 4.1.3 Background information & analysis 4.1.4 Setting objectives [Broad objectives, Operational objectives, Indicators & performance measures] 4.1.5 Formulating rules Implementation & enforcement 4.1.6 Monitoring 4.1.6 Short-term review C Consultation with stakeholders Management Processes i) Developing a management plan 4.1.6 Long-term review
  26. 26. Multi-scale Requirements of EBM Governance Structure Fanning et al. 2007. A large marine ecosystem governance framework
  27. 27. 5. Challenges to Application of EA: Institutional Needs in the BCLME* Management structures      Stakeholder participation Access rights Management plans Inter-agency cooperation International (outside BCLME) Information and research     Data Research staff Science and decision-making Information dissemination Legal Monitoring, control and surveillance   Enforcement Observer coverage *From the BCLME/FAO Project on EAF Implementation 2004-2006
  28. 28. Priority Issues for Implementation of EAF the BCLME        Lack of capacity is a major constraint in the attempt to implement EAF. All countries need a resource management structure that:  is suitable for EAF;  includes the main stakeholders; and  encompasses direct involvement of stakeholders in the decisionmaking process. In Angola and Namibia communications with the oil industry and marine diamond mining respectively must be improved. Improved capacity for long-term ecosystem monitoring, placement of scientific observers and improved data management are required. Angola requires:  improved surveillance and compliance;  a suitable system of access rights for the artisanal fisheries Inadequate capacity should not preclude the implementation of EAF measures. Single species approaches are an essential component of the fisheries management but need to be broadened for EAF.
  29. 29. ASCLME Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems Project Understanding the benefits and objectives: a pre-requisite for proactive management – the ASCLME as an example
  30. 30. ASCLME Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems Project Biodiversity & Tourism Again complicated interactions – The Case of the Mozambique Channel Subsistence & fisheries The beneficial uses of natural goods and services of the Mozambique Channel are dependent on the ecosystem
  31. 31. Jacquet, J. L. and Zeller, D. 2007 ASCLME Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems Project Mozambique catch reconstructions for the small-scale fisheries sector, industrial sector and estimates of total industrial catch including discards, 1950-2004.
  32. 32. ASCLME Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems Project The value of “Small Scale” vs. Large Scale/Industrialised Fisheries This graph compares small-scale with large-scale fisheries on a global basis. It probably underestimates the role of small-scale fisheries. Also, we would achieve most stated aims of fisheries management plans (particularly their social aims) by dedicated access arrangement for small scale fisheries. (But, of course, we must leave enough fish for the rest of the ecosystem to function and to meet to challenges of global warming). FISHERY BENEFITS Number of fishers employed Annual catch of marine fis h for human consumption Capital cost of each job on fishing vessels Annual catch of marine fish for industrial reduction to meal and oil, etc. Annual fuel oil consumption Fish caught per tonne of fuel consumed Fishers employed for each $1 million invested in fishing vessels LARGE SCALE SMALL SCALE about ½ million over 12 million about 29 million tonnes about 24 million tonnes $250 - $2,500 $30,000 - $300,000 Almost none about 22 million tonnes 14 – 19 million tonnes = 2 – 5 tonnes 5 - 30 Fish and invertebrates discarded at sea 1 – 3 million tonnes = 10 – 20 tonnes 500 – 4,000 L ittle 10-20 million tonnes
  33. 33. ASCLME Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems Project And understanding the value and Importance of Coral Reefs in the ASCLME Region ECOSYSTEM SERVICES Supporting Primary and Secondary production Nutrient cycling Foundation resources that sustain other goods and services Provisioning Food Materials Medicines Waterways Regulating Carbon sequestration Seawater buffering Climate regulation Coastal protection Disease/pest control Cultural Recreation Spiritual Aesthetic Educational In real terms - for coastal communities – reefs provide:  Food Security  Security of Livelihoods (Income)  Protection for the community (from storm surge, tsunami, etc)  Materials (coral sand for building)  Transportation (channels)  Recreational opportunities  Cultural sustainability Climate Change and other Pressures will require adaptive measures not only focusing on management of reefs but also with a focus on the associated coastal communities
  34. 34. ASCLME Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems Project Adaptive Management Requirements The WIO LME Perspective Understanding the Value of the Ecosystem  What are various ecosystem services worth?  What do these ecosystem services represent to the WIO countries in terms of jobs and salaries?  How can the region achieve the full economic potential of ecosystem goods and services whilst maintaining their sustainability?
  35. 35. ASCLME Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems Project VALUE OF MARINE AND COASTAL RESOURCES OF WIO The ASCLME/SWIOFP joint Cost Benefit Analysis has estimated that the coastal and marine resources of the ASCLME region contribute almost US$22.4 billion a year to the GDP of the countries of region. Coastal tourism contributed the largest to GDP at over US$11 billion a year, followed by fisheries, coastal agriculture and forestry The fisheries of the ASCLME are estimated to generate a resource rent of just about US$68 million per year currently, of which about US$59 million are generated by ASCLME countries and the remainder by
  36. 36. ASCLME Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems Project VALUE OF MARINE AND COASTAL RESOURCES OF WIO The fisheries of the ASCLME are estimated to support almost 6 million workers, generating wages of about US$366 million per year. On the other hand, owners of fishing capital earn normal profits of US$60 million per year Rebuilding and effectively managing fisheries of the ASCLME could result in annual gains in economic rent of US$ 221 million while wages and economic impact are likely to increase by US$10 million and $43 million per year, respectively
  37. 37. ASCLME Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems Project Outputs from the original Round-Table in Grahamstown June 2011  Limited numbers of scientists/social scientists/economists represents a long–term risk  Findings need to be packaged for the private sector (e.g. fishing industry) as well as governments  Political regime-change needs re-education (because of 5 year political cycles). Continuity lies in middle to senior management  Different levels of confidence are required for decisions at different scales (e.g. national or regional)
  38. 38. ASCLME Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems Project Round-Table Discussion – Bridging the Disconnect It was understood that often results are not entirely conclusive and there is a tendency to want to do more studies on the same topic to refine the conclusions (achieving reliable Confidence Limits) In terms of Marine Ecosystem management we need to embrace the Precautionary Approach, but we need to go further and develop a mechanism that can arrive at a ‘Weight of Evidence’ related to evolving ‘trends” in data and conclusions that is: A. Accepted by peers to be reliable enough to guide management decisions and.. B. Upon which decision-makers can act immediately while accepting that the information may need further ‘finetuning’ One very real challenge will be developing the skill-set that can define the reliable ‘Weight of Evidence’ and can translate existing science into ‘Confident’ advice for policy-makers and managers
  39. 39. ASCLME Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems Project The Adaptive Management approach A MORE DYNAMIC MANAGEMENT APPROACH One possible approach that was discussed at the Grahamstown Round-Table: A. Moving immediately from the Precautionary approach to identify appropriate Indicators that will provide an early ‘indication’ of trends B. Seek to establish a Weight-of-Evidence that scientists and their peers feel comfortable in agreeing defines a clear indication or trend - and which can give managers and policy-makers sufficient confidence upon which to act (even if not 95% certain) C. Use this WoE to initiate predictive modelling to support conclusions and upon which to compare continued monitoring of Indicators D. Fine-tune models and guidance to Managers and Policy-Makers as move toward acceptable confidence limits
  40. 40. ASCLME Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems Project The Advantages to the Policy-makers A. This approach will take decision-making beyond the ‘precautionary’ approach which is often seen as being based more on supposition than strong evidence and which therefore leaves policy-makers feeling vulnerable and indecisive B. It will also provide senior government leaders at the economic/finance level and management level with clearer guidance on where to prioritise activities and funding in terms of both immediate management needs and further research (this also extends to the funding agencies of course)
  41. 41. Conclusions     The recent awareness of importance of EA recognises interactions and impacts between different human sectors and ecosystem Implementation of EA builds on sectoral approaches but requires addition of wider knowledge and encompassing institutions Optimal use of natural resources requires that negative impacts and conflicts are addressed and resolved: this requires compromises and trade-offs Best-available information on ecological, social and economic costs and benefits of activities and decisions affecting activities important for wise decision-making. Economic valuations contribute to that information.
  42. 42. Part II. An example of a simple cost-benefit analysis for management decisions using EAF
  43. 43. Distribution of Benefits and Costs  Distributional aspects: …To whom do the various benefits and costs accrue?  A major consideration in EAF implementation is the question of who receives the benefits and who incurs the costs of that implementation  Inter-temporal aspects: …When do the various benefits and costs occur?   e.g., benefits realized in long term, but costs arising in the short term. immediate realities (e.g., annual food supply, electoral time frame) that affect or constrain the reality of EAF implementation. 43
  44. 44. The challenge  The goal must be to:     evaluate the costs and benefits of different management choices to achieve specific objectives; select the measure or measures that give the greatest benefits for the lowest costs (taking distribution into account); and integrate across the full set of management measures being applied to ensure consistency and complementarity; Implement, monitor and adapt as necessary
  45. 45. Selecting New or Modifying Management Measures Agree on Broad Objectives for Fishery Implement Select Optimal Measures Consider Costs & Benefits of Management Options for all Objectives Identify Issues For Action Prioritise Issues Consider Management Measures to Address Priority Issues
  46. 46. A Simple Scoring Approach as an Example
  47. 47. The Angolan Artisanal Fishery – Broad Objectives         Maintain biomass of important at productive levels. Minimize impact on juvenile or undersized fish. Minimize impacts on threatened, protected species. Minimize impacts on coastal communities and ecosystems. Maintain or increase the supply of good-quality fish to the population. Contribute to poverty alleviation through the increase of opportunities for employment Increase equity in the distribution of employment and income Maximize the contribution of the fishery to the national economy, especially coastal provinces
  48. 48. Cost-Benefit of By-catch limits in Angola Trawl Fishery Objective Comments / rationale on the Effects of the Proposed Management Response Short term Long term Will contribute via reduction of mortality Minimize impacts of bottom trawl fishery on threatened, protected or vulnerable species (sea turtles, sharks, marine mammals, other); Reduction of by-catch will reduce impact To contribute to poverty alleviation through the increase of opportunities of employment in the fisheries extractive sector and in the fish processing industry in the coastal provinces; Indirect effect, via recovered stocks To promote reliable supply of fish products to the population, at accessible prices; Indirect effect, via recovered stocks To promote equity in the distribution of employment and income among the regions of the country and in the coastal provinces; Indirect effect, via recovered stocks 0 3 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 2 1 3 1 5 1 17 No effect Maximize long-term economic benefits from the fishery; 1 Indirect effect, via recovered stocks To promote the development of the industrial productive fisheries sector; 0 No effect Minimize impacts of bottom trawling on bottom substrate; Benefit 0 Maintain demersal community structure in terms of size structure and species composition; Cost 0 Will contribute via reduction of mortality Benefit 0 Restore biomass of commercially important demersal species to optimal levels of productivity; Cost Total Cost - Benefit
  49. 49. Some Potential Management Actions for the Angolan Artisanal Fishery Management and MCS Bycatch and Gear Social and Economic Issues
  50. 50. Benefit Cost Estimators for EAF Management Actions – Angolan Artisanal Fishery
  51. 51. Conclusions     Governance and management need to be adaptive: monitoring performance in the system and adapting management measures to maximise chances of achieving objectives. Every management decision is likely to have costs and benefits which may differ for different stakeholders Careful consideration must be given to costs and benefits to ensure optimal decisions Economic valuation is an important tool in this regard
  52. 52. Thank You