• Climate change - 2012 global temperatures 10th highest on record; precipitation
varied greatly in 2012; major drought in important agricultural regions during
summer; flooding affected more than 5 m people; change in the ocean jet
streams; extreme weather events more frequent and severe; first reallocation of
entire nation; 400ppm – 4.5 m years
• International negotiations – enhanced implementation; Durban Platform to lead
to a new “protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal
force” by Dec. 2015, to come into effect from 2020; geo-political changes; Rio+20;
• National actions – because of CC; political and economic development priorities
(at least 32 Annex I and 40 non-Annex I countries that have produced LEDS to date, + NAMAs)
Transition to low-emission development:
Entering into new era of green global economic growth, through
significant mitigation of GHG emissions and generating funding for
mitigation and adaptation actions and thus creating new investment
Significant and cost-effective emission reductions
will require a mix of policy instruments, country specific:
• A carbon price applied as widely as possible, starting with removal of fossil fuel subsidies;
• Speeding up the emergence and deployment of low-carbon technologies (R&D);
• Avoiding deforestation and manage land use changes;
• Reducing demand for emissions-intensive goods
and services (behavior change); 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle);
• Increases in and reallocation of the financial resources;
• International cooperation.
Role of the governments much bigger in this revolution
The latest Globe Climate Legislation Study (Jan 2013)
“286 pieces of legislation directly relating to the climate in 33 major economies,
with directives on energy efficiency seen as a popular „win-win‟ strategy”
• 32 of 33 major economies have progressed or are progressing significant climate
and/or energy-related legislation.
• Much of the substantive progress on legislative activity on CC in 2012 took place
in emerging economies, incl. China, which will provide the motor of global
• This progress will deliver real benefits to national economies and, ultimately, give
world leaders the political space to go further and faster in the UN negotiations,
helping provide a foundation for a comprehensive, global deal by 2015.
The number of climate
laws passed by developed
countries, in red, and
developing , in blue.
Governments promoting energy savings initiatives
• adopting overall energy savings targets;
• establishing standards (for energy consumption in vehicles, buildings and appliances);
• providing consumer information (such as appliance labeling and smart meters);
• requiring energy suppliers to introduce measures to restrict consumption growth;
• giving fiscal incentives (such as lower taxes on small vehicles).
Examples of specific action include:
1. EU - EE Directive 2012, energy companies to reduce energy sales by 1.5% p/y, obligations
to renovate public buildings, and mandating national targets to be in place by April 2013.
2. Germany and UK - Germany is targeting an increase in EE of 2.1% p/y, average annual
increase of 1.7% achieved for the 1991-2010. The UK - new EE strategy in November 2012,
includes research on what drives energy demand and how to change future behaviour.
3. US - targets a 15% decline in per capita energy consumption 2011-2040. Performance
standards introduced under the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA),
implemented from 2012 aiming by 2014, lighting consumption to be 18% below its 2011 level.
4. Japan - has launched a concerted effort following the post-Fukushima nuclear shutdown,
mandatory demand restrictions; as a result, peak summer demand fell by 15%.
5. China – 2012 announced plans to spend 27 bill $ to promote energy conservation, emissions
reductions and RES, has introduced mandatory codes for new buildings. A plan to restructure
the economy, which is expected to reduce energy intensity significantly.
Half of humanity ( 3.5 billion people) – live in cities today
By 2030, ≈ 60% of the world’s population will live in urban areas
95 % of urban expansion in the next decades in developing world
The world’s cities occupy just 2% of the Earth’s land, but account for 60-80% of energy
consumption and 75% of carbon emissions
Rapid urbanization is exerting pressure on fresh water supplies, sewage, the living
environment, and public health
The high density of cities can bring efficiency gains and technological innovation while
reducing resource and energy consumption
Urban development will have to fundamentally change to facilitate the transition towards
a green economy
Unique opportunities exist for cities to lead the greening of the global economy +
economic, social, environmental benefits
Great leaders inspire actions
Global Participation and High Ambition in the Post2020 Climate Change Agreement
• Geo-political changes – no single indicator to capture
• UNFCCC principles (common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities)
• To be effective, participation
needs to be broad and meaningful
• Political barriers preventing
some countries from translating
domestic actions into international
goals under the UNFCCC
• Should bring economic benefits
• Incentives for action at
the sub-national and sectors levels
• Flexible – future proof
Non-Annex I currently accounts for 58% of world GHG
emissions, expected to continue to grow to 2020 and beyond.