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Lecture 7: Urban Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

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Lecture 7: Urban Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation
Dr. Riyanti Djalante (UNU-IAS)
2018 ProSPER.Net Young Researchers' School
6 March 2018

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Lecture 7: Urban Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

  1. 1. ProSPER.Net Young Researchers School – Urban Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Dr. Riyanti Djalante United Nations University, Institute for the Advanced Studies for Sustainability (UNU-IAS) djalante@unu.edu March 6th, 2018 1
  2. 2. • Currrent: Academic Research Officer, UNU-IAS, Global Change and Resilience • Research • Conceptualizations of hazards, risks, disasters, vulnerability, resilience and transformations • Governance and social implications of DRR/CCA • Practice • IPCC Lead Author on Impacts of 1.5 degree change • UN Environment on Global Environmental Outlook 6, on climate change • IRDR Science Committee • Indonesian government (Development Planning, Disaster Management) • Consultancies on DRR/CCA projects in Indonesia: USAID, World Bank, ADB, JIRCAS • UNISDR: SFDRR Indicators and Words into Action, Report of the open-ended intergovernmental expert working group on indicators and terminology relating to DRR • Education • Bachelor: University of New South Wales, Australia • Master: Queensland University, Australia. • PhD: Macquarie University, Australia. • UNU-EHS, Alexander von Humboldt Fellowships for experienced researcher, Germany ResumeProfile
  3. 3. Outline 1. Overview, the science of and impacts of climate change 2. International framework for climate change 3. Cities and climate change 4. Conclusion 3
  4. 4. Overview 4Stephen et al (2015) The Anthropocene
  5. 5. Overview 5Stephen et al (2015) The great acceleration
  6. 6. Planetary Boundaries and Tipping Points 6
  7. 7. The Carbon Cycle Source: UNEP Section 2: Anthropogenic Drivers of Climate Change 7
  8. 8. Climate Change and Global Warming Global Warming Refers to the overall warming of the planet, based on average temperature over the entire surface of the Earth Climate Change Refers to changes in climate characteristics, including temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind, and severe weather events over long term periods Section 1: Introduction to Climate Change Science 8 Further information: WMO Website
  9. 9. Observed Surface Temperature Anomaly (1850-2012) Source: IPCC 2013, p4 Section 3: Observed Trends and Impacts of Climate Change 9 Globally averaged land and ocean surface temperature Each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the Earth’s surface than any preceding decade since 1850.
  10. 10. Observed Change in Annual Precipitation Over Land Source: IPCC 2013, p6 Section 3: Observed Trends and Impacts of Climate Change 10
  11. 11. Observed Ocean Warming (1950-2010) Section 3: Observed Trends and Impacts of Climate Change Source: IPCC 2013, p8 11 More than 60% of the net energy increase in the climate system is stored in the upper ocean (period 1971-2010).
  12. 12. Observed Ocean Acidification Section 3: Observed Trends and Impacts of Climate Change Source: IPCC 2013, p10 12
  13. 13. Observed Sea Level Rise (1900 to 2010) Section 3: Observed Trends and Impacts of Climate Change Source: IPCC 2013, p8 13 Over the period 1901 to 2010, global mean sea level rose by 0.19m.
  14. 14. Observed Decrease in Arctic Sea Ice Extent (1900-2010) Section 3: Observed Trends and Impacts of Climate Change Source: IPCC 2013, p8 14
  15. 15. Projected Sea Level Rise Source: IPCC 2013, p24 Section 4: Projected Trends and Impacts of Climate Change 15 Global mean sea level will continue to rise during the 21st century.
  16. 16. Global surface temperature change for the end of the 21st century is likely to reach 4°C if no action is taken. Projected Change in Average Surface Temperature Source:IPCC2013,p19 Section 4: Projected Trends and Impacts of Climate Change 16
  17. 17. Overview 17Stephen et al (2015) Extreme weather events
  18. 18. Climate Change Has an Impact on: • Biodiversity, carbon storage, habitats, …Ecosystems • Agriculture, fresh water, health, …Human systems • Transport, buildings, lifestyle, …Urban systems • Energy, manufacturing, natural capital industries, …Economic systems • Equity, migration, peace and conflict, …Social systems Section 1: Introduction to Climate Change Science 18
  19. 19. Observed Changes in Physical and Biological Systems Section 3: Observed Trends and Impacts of Climate Change 19 Source: UNEP 2009, p13
  20. 20. Overview 20WHO Impacts of climate change
  21. 21. 21Burke, Hsiang, Miguel (2015) Economic Costs
  22. 22. Overview 22Stephen et al (2015) Disasters
  23. 23. Displacements 23
  24. 24. Projected Impacts of Climate Change in Africa Source: UNEP 2009, p32 Section 4: Projected Trends and Impacts of Climate Change 24
  25. 25. Projected Impacts of Climate Change in Asia Section 4: Projected Trends and Impacts of Climate Change 25 Source: UNEP 2009, p34
  26. 26. Projected Impacts of Climate Change on Small Islands • Sea level rise exacerbating inundation, storm surge, erosion and other coastal hazards • Reduced freshwater resources • Invasion by non-native species • Effects on food and income security Section 4: Projected Trends and Impacts of Climate Change Source: UNEP 2006, p185 26
  27. 27. Overview 27 To deal with climate change, we need Urgent, Systemic, and Transformative Actions
  28. 28. Global “Carbon Budget” to Avoid Warming Beyond 2°C 28 Total budget of anthropogenic CO2 emissions to limit warming to 2°C appr. 1,000 GtC Total anthropogenic CO2 emissions 1870-2011 appr. 500 GtC Remaining “carbon budget” appr. 500 GtC If no action is taken, carbon budget will be exhausted in 30 years Source: Based on IPCC 2013 Section 1: Introduction to Climate Change Mitigation and Low Carbon Development Urgent and extreme Mitigation
  29. 29. Mitigating Greenhouse Gases: A Shared Global Responsibility • Global emissions need to be reduced by at least 50% by 2050 • The emission pledges made, if fully met, place the world on a trajectory for a global warming of well over 3°C • Without emission reduction in developing countries it will not possible to stay within the maximum temperature increase of 2ºC Global average surface temperature increase compared to pre- industrial levels (source: World Bank 2012) YEAR Source: Reproduced from IPCC 2007 and World Bank 2012 29 Section 1: Introduction to Climate Change Mitigation and Low Carbon Development
  30. 30. 30 Urgent and extreme Mitigation
  31. 31. Urgent and extreme Mitigation
  32. 32. 32 Systemic Climate Change Adaptation
  33. 33. Renewable Energy is economically attractive 33
  34. 34. Transformative and Global Approach Climate change is a global problem and a “common concern to mankind” GHG emissions contribute to climate change irrespective of their origin All countries will be affected if no action is taken A global agreement is needed to regulate emissions and help countries to adapt Section 1: The International Climate Change Policy Framework 34
  35. 35. Outline 1. Overview, the science of and impacts of climate change 2. International framework for climate change 3. Cities and climate change 4. Conclusion 35
  36. 36. What is the UNFCCC ? A framework convention setting out basic obligations of all ‘Parties’ to combat climate change Currently has 197 Parties, including 196 states and 1regional organization Signed in 1992 in Rio and entered into force in 1994 Article 3.1 stresses the principle of equity and ‘common but differentiated responsibilities’ United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Section 1: The International Climate Change Policy Framework 36 List of members: UNFCCC Website
  37. 37. Why is the UNFCCC important ? Section 1: The International Climate Change Policy Framework Source: Flickr/Kris kKug Source: www.cop18.qa Source: UN CC:LEARN Source: Jan Golinski/UNFCCC 37
  38. 38. Ultimate Objective of the Convention (Article 2) “…..To achieve……..stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system…..” “….within a time frame sufficient to: • Allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, • Ensure that food production is not threatened, and • Enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.” Section 2: Key Provisions of the UNFCCC 38
  39. 39. One UN Training Service Platform on Climate Change: UN CC:Learn Two Broad Responses Adopted by the Convention Actions taken to cut net emissions of greenhouse gases to reduce climate change and to preserve and enhance GHG sinks and reservoirs Actions taken to help cope with changing climate conditions and impacts Mitigation Adaptation Source: UNITARSource: UNEP Section 2: Key Provisions of the UNFCCC 39
  40. 40. 40 COP 21: THE PARIS AGREEMENT “ …Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels..” – Article 2 “…formulate and communicate long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies, mindful of Article 2 taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities…. ” – Article 4 “…Nationally determined contributions communicated by Parties shall be recorded in a public registry maintained by the secretariat…” – the global stocktake
  41. 41. 41 • Mitigation • Adaptation • Loss and damage • Finance • Technology development and transfer • Capacity – building • Transparency of action and support • Global stocktake COP 21: THE PARIS AGREEMENT
  42. 42. What is Climate Change Mitigation? Source: UNFCCC 2009. Further info: UNEP Website Section 1: Introduction to Climate Change Mitigation and Low Carbon Development Mitigation refers to efforts to reduce/prevent emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) or to enhance their removal from the atmosphere by sinks. 43
  43. 43. Key Concepts Related to Climate Change Mitigation • A technology, practice, or policy that reduces or limits emissions of GHGs or increases their sequestration Mitigation Option • Low carbon development refers to economic development with minimal output of GHG emissions Low Carbon/Emission Development • An economy that results in “improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities” (UNEP 2010) Green Economy 44Section 1: Introduction to Climate Change Mitigation and Low Carbon Development Further info: UN Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform
  44. 44. Mitigation Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) Reporting on National Implementation and Monitoring Reporting and Verification (MRV) Section 4: Main Issues and Negotiation Streams 45
  45. 45. Co-Benefits Resulting from Mitigation and Low Carbon Development • Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems • Improved water and air quality • Restoration of degraded land • … Environmental • Employment creation • Energy security • New economic opportunities • Potential cost savings • … Economic • Access to better services • Health benefits • Lifestyle benefits • … Social 46Section 1: Introduction to Climate Change Mitigation and Low Carbon Development
  46. 46. Policy Instruments to Foster Low Carbon Development • Emission trading schemes • Payment for ecosystem services Market based instruments • Subsidies • Access to capital Financial incentives • Taxes and tariffs • Sector-specific fiscal stimulus package Fiscal instruments • Research, development and demonstration activities • Environmental and social standards • Skills development and awareness-raising Other 47Section 2: Strategic Frameworks and Policy Approaches for Mitigation and Low Carbon Development
  47. 47. Sectors with High Mitigation Potential Section 3: Sectors with High Mitigation Potential 48 Source: IPCC (2014). Fifth Assessment Report
  48. 48. Selected Mitigation Options: Transport  More fuel efficient vehicles  Use of alternative energy sources (biofuels, cleaner diesel, etc.)  Better land-use and transport planning  Shift from individual transport to public transport systems  More efficient driving practices  Non-motorized transport (cycling, walking)  … 49Section 3: Sectors with High Mitigation Potential Source: City Fix
  49. 49. Adaptation Nairobi Work Programme (NWP) Cancun Adaptation Framework (CAF) Warsaw Mechanism for Loss and Damage National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) Section 4: Main Issues and Negotiation Streams 50
  50. 50. National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) Section 5 : International Initiatives to Support Climate Change Adaptation 51 NAPAs are country-driven processes to identify activities that respond to urgent and immediate needs of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) in order to reduce their vulnerability Steps include: • Information synthesis • Assessment of vulnerability and potential risk areas • Identification of key priority adaptation measures Further info: UNFCCC website. GEF website
  51. 51. National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) Objectives of the NAP process: (a) To reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, by building adaptive capacity and resilience (b) To facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation into relevant new and existing policies, programmes and activities, in particular development planning processes and strategies, within all relevant sectors and at different levels. Section 5 : International Initiatives to Support Climate Change Adaptation 52 Further info: UNFCCC website
  52. 52. Warsaw Mechanism on Loss and Damage Section 5 : International Initiatives to Support Climate Change Adaptation 53  Relatively new initiative established by COP 19 in 2013  Objective: promote implementation of approaches to address loss and damage associated with climate change in vulnerable developing countries  Challenge: lack of empirical evidence of scope and significance of loss and damage associated with climate change Further info: UNFCCC website
  53. 53. What is Climate Change Adaptation? “Adaptation to climate change refers to adjustments in human and natural systems in response to actual or expected climatic variation, with a view to moderating harm or exploiting beneficial opportunities.” (Source: Based on IPCC 2001) Source: UNDP & UNEP-PEI 2001 Section 1: Introduction to Climate Change Adaptation 54
  54. 54. Types of Adaptation Type Action Anticipatory adaptation Taking action in preparation of climate change Reactive adaptation Taking action when climate change effects are experienced Source: IPCC Section 1: Introduction to Climate Change Adaptation 55
  55. 55. Key Sectors Affected by Climate Change Key Sectors Disaster Risk Reduction Education Energy Fisheries Food And Agriculture Forestry Health Infra- structure Nature & Ecosystem Conser- vation Spatial Planning Tourism Transport Waste Water Section 1: Introduction to Climate Change Adaptation 56
  56. 56. Entry Points for Integrating Adaptation within Development Planning Source: Reproduced from UNDP & UNEP 2011 p 18 57 Planning Level Entry Points National government and cross-sector ministries • Poverty reduction strategy paper • National development plan • MDG-based national development strategy • National budget allocation process or review (e.g. medium- term • expenditure framework, public expenditure review) Sector ministries • Sector strategies, plans and policies (e.g. agricultural sector plan) • Preparation of sector budgets • Public expenditure reviews Subnational authorities • Decentralization policies • District plans • Preparation of subnational budgets Section 4: Linking Adaptation and Development Planning
  57. 57. Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction Strategies Source: Oxfam 2009 p 5 58 Section 4: Linking Adaptation and Development Planning
  58. 58. 1970s: Recognition on the rapid / uncontrolled of cirries 2000-Now: The urban Sustainability Era 1997-2002: The Habitat agenda International processes and frameworks - Timeline 1975: UN Habittat and Human Settlements Foundations (UNHHSF) UN-Habitat: the United Nations Commission on Human Settlements – an intergovernmental body – and the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements 2016: UN Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development, NUA: This is an action-oriented document which sets global standards of achieving SDG11, rethinking the way we build, manage, and live in cities. 2001: Declaration on Cities and Other Human Settlements in the New Millenium (Urban Poverty/Cities without Slums) 1976: first international UN conference to fully recognize the challenge of urbanization was held in Vancouver, Canada – Habitat 1 1996: Habitat II, Istanbul, Turkey The Habitat Agenda, 100 commitments and 600 recommendations. 2015 :SFDRR, SDGs SDG 11 – to make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. 59
  59. 59. Deleveloping a holistic and global approach toward urbanization Urban Themes • LEGISLATION • LAND • GOVERNANCE • PLANNING & DESIGN • ECONOMY • WATER & SANITATION • ENERGY • MOBILITY • SAFETY • HOUSING, SLUM UPGRADING • RECONSTRUCTION • RESILIENCE • CLIMATE CHANGE • GENDER • YOUTH  HUMAN RIGHTS Urban Initiatives • INITIATIVES AND PROGRAMMES • WORLD URBAN CAMPAIGN • NETWORKS • UN-HABITAT FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS Urban Knowledge • BEST PRACTICES • EVALUATION • GLOBAL URBAN OBSERVATORY (GUO) • OPEN UN-HABITAT • PUBLICATIONS • URBANLEX – THE URBAN LAW DATABASE • URBAN LECTURES • UN-HABITAT SCROLL OF HONOUR AWARD • RESULTS BASED MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK UN Habitat: for a better urban future 60
  60. 60.  Quito Declaration on Sustainable Cities and Human Settlements for All  5 Focus Areas: • National Urban Policy • Urban legislations, rules and regulations • Urban Planning and design • Urban economy and municipal finance • Local physical implementation  KEY ELEMENTS: • Governance Structures: • Social Inclusion • Spatial Development: and services, facilitates trade, and connects farmers and fishers across value chains and markets. • Urban Prosperity: • Environmentally Sustainable: The New Urban Agenda 61 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mQQxskvR9TE&feature =youtu.be
  61. 61. 62 The New Urban Agenda
  62. 62. IMPLEMENTING THE URBAN AGENDA MEANS: • Urban Rules and Regulations. The outcomes in terms of quality of an urban settlement is dependent on the set of rules and regulations and its implementation. Proper urbanization requires the rule of law. • Urban Planning and Design. Establishing the adequate provision of common goods, including streets and open spaces, together with an efficient pattern of buildable plots. • Municipal Finance. For a good management and maintenance of the city, local fiscal systems should redistribute parts of the urban value generated. • With the consideration of: • National Urban Policies. These establish a connection between the dynamics of urbanization and the overall process of national development. 63 The New Urban Agenda
  63. 63. 64 The New Urban Agenda
  64. 64. KUALA LUMPUR DECLARATION ON CITIES 2030- We encourage the acceleration of the implementation of the New Urban Agenda: Frameworks • implementation frameworks: monitoring mechanisms, stakeholders, aligning to (2030 Agenda and other international, regional, national, subnational and local development frameworks). • inclusive platforms and agendas for dialogue: regional, national and local Urban Forums and committees (policy review, assessment of impacts, exchange of experiences and cooperation, voluntary commitments). • integrated territorial development: sectors, policies, urban-rural continuum, actors, agendas) • innovative and robust mechanisms : technological innovations, research, capacity building, technical assistance and partnership development. Governance and partnerships • collaborative governance mechanisms • multi-stakeholder constituency-based coalitions Innovative solutions • creativity and innovation • monitoring and data collection mechanisms • enabling environment and develop capacities for scaling up of good practices • accessibility and universal design as core principles into national, subnational and local action plans 65 The New Urban Agenda
  65. 65. Focus Areas • Urban Legislation, Land, And Governance, • Urban Planning And Design, • Urban Economy, • Urban Basic Services, • Housing And Slum Upgrading, • Risk Reduction And Rehabilitation, And • Research And Capacity Development. Initiatives and Programmes • Africa Urban Agenda Programme • Cities And Climate Change Initiative • Cities And Climate Change Academy • City Prosperity Initiative • City Resilience Profiling Programme • Global Public Space Programme • Greener Cities Partnership (Un-habitat And Un Environment) • National Urban Policies • Participatory Slum Upgrading Programme (Psup) • Planned City Extensions • Safer Cities Programme • Urban Low Emission Development Strategies • Urban Planning And Design Lab • Urban Youth Fund World Urban Campaign The UN Habitat: for a better urban future 66
  66. 66. The Sustainable development goals 67 SLC (2016) UNDP (2016)
  67. 67. 68 The Sustainable development goals
  68. 68. Disaster Risk Reduction and the Sustainable development goals SDG 1 (1.5.1-2-3): By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-relate extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters SDG 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilience and sustainable • Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction (SFDRR) (SDG 11.b) • Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and management, including community-base and ecosystem-based DRR (SDG 11.5) • Disaster risk finance and insurance (SDG 1.4-5) • Resilience Cities (SDG 11.b) • Inclusive and sustainable urbanization (SDG 11.3, 11.5) • Human security including conflicts - environment nexus (Par. 13, on the New Agenda) 69UNISDR, 2017
  69. 69. Outline 1. Overview, the science of and impacts of climate change 2. International framework for climate change 3. Cities and climate change 4. Conclusion 70
  70. 70. Title Cities and Climate Change INTRODUCTORY LEARNING MODULE
  71. 71. 80% of the world’s wealth is generated in cities. CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE 60% of world population will live in urban areas in 2030. 70% of the world’s urban population was living in developing countries in 2010. Urbanisation is a key phenomenon of this century
  72. 72. The relationship between climate change and cities is not one way MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS to greenhouse gas emissions AFFECTED by the effects of the climate change
  73. 73. CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE Section 3 Cities as contributors to climate change 3
  74. 74. Cities and climate change 75 Cities are major contributors to climate change
  75. 75. Cities and climate change 76
  76. 76. 77Bai et al 2018 Urgent and extreme Mitigation
  77. 77. CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE “The battle against climate change will be fought in the cities. Cities can be the problem or cities can be the solution. But we need to know what is going on in the cities.” Andrew Steer, President and CEO, World Resources Institute The crucial role of cities in addressing climate change
  78. 78. CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE Electricity generation Transport Commercial and residential buildings Industry CLICK ON THE ICONS TO LEARN ABOUT HOW THESE SECTORS CONTRIBUTE TO EMISSIONS IN CITIES. Sectors playing an important role for urban emissions
  79. 79. CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE Demographic composition Location Types of economic activities Urban form CLICK ON THE ICONS TO LEARN MORE ABOUT HOW THESE FACTORS INFLUENCE EMISSION LEVELS. Factors influencing emissions in cities
  80. 80. Cities and climate change 81
  81. 81. Cities and climate change 82
  82. 82. The possible consequences of action and inaction on climate change INACTION ACTION Benefits to other policies Negative effects on other policies VS.
  83. 83. CLICK ON THE MAP FOR EXAMPLES OF CLIMATE CHANGE ACTIONS IN CITIES AROUND THE WORLD. Transformative role of cities “Cities can be prime driving forces of development and innovation.” Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General, United Nations
  84. 84. Many cities, in particular in developing countries, have limited planning and implementation capacities. More and more people will be living in cities. Local commitments to climate change are important. Cities are increasingly showing leadership, and committing to take action on climate change. ! Cities and climate change – what to keep in mind
  85. 85. Cities and climate change 86
  86. 86. Cities and climate change 87
  87. 87. Cities and climate change 88
  88. 88. CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE Climate Change Displacement Infrastructure Health Food and water security Economic development Ecosystems Social climate change affect cities?
  89. 89. Cities and climate change 90
  90. 90. CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE Climate change vulnerability and adaptive capacity
  91. 91. CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE Coastal cities will be more affected
  92. 92. CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE Particularly vulnerable groups in cities
  93. 93. CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE Section 4 Integrating climate change into urban planning 4
  94. 94. CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE Fundamentally, good city planning practices are, by their nature, also climate smart planning practices. UN-Habitat, Planning for Climate Change 2014 “ Urban planning and climate change
  95. 95. CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE Ad hoc approaches Example: replacing public transport buses with more energy efficient buses Stand-alone (strategic) plans Example: local climate action plans Mainstreaming Example: mainstreaming climate change into water management plan Different approaches to planning for climate change
  96. 96. CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE Almost any urban policy, programme, strategy or plan can, and should, consider climate change. Importance of mainstreaming climate change
  97. 97. CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE Transport plan Public health plan … Town/city plan Energy plan Disaster risk reduction plan CLICK ON THE BOXES TO FIND OUT HOW CLIMATE CHANGE CAN BE INCORPORATED INTO THE DIFFERENT PLANS. Examples of plans
  98. 98. The planning process – an overview
  99. 99. Funding climate change adaptation and mitigation Funding opportunities for adaptation and mitigation Low regrets options Redirecting funds Municipal bonds Use of land value capture Reform of multilateral funding Support for project preparation Enhanced credit- worthiness Greater budgetary control
  100. 100. Examples of funding for urban adaptation and mitigation GEF Small Grants Programme ADB Climate Change Fund Climate Investment Funds Global Climate Change Alliance UNFCCC Adaptation Fund Cool Earth Partnership National sources, e.g. taxes… Market instruments, e.g. carbon finance, green/climate bonds…
  101. 101. CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE Section 5 Urban climate change adaptation and mitigation in practice 5
  102. 102. Urban adaptation and mitigation: energy Energy efficiency Renew- able energy sources Low carbon develop- ment CLICK ON EACH CATEGORY TO LEARN MORE.
  103. 103. Case study: partnership with the private sector in Sao Paulo, Brazil In partnership with a private company the City of São Paulo, Brazil has turned two foul-smelling and unsightly landfills into sources of energy and hard cash. São Paulo’s ten million inhabitants generate about 15,000 tonnes of garbage a day. Rotting garbage produces methane gas. The challenge was to recognize and harness that gas as an asset, while reducing GHG emissions.
  104. 104. Urban adaptation and mitigation: water Water desalination Rainwater storage Reusing wastewater Water conservation
  105. 105. Urban adaptation and mitigation: transport Adaptation options Mitigation options Photo credit: dawn.com
  106. 106. Urban adaptation and mitigation: green space Urban agriculture Green facades/ roofs Trees, parks… Carbon sequestration
  107. 107. Urban adaptation and mitigation: housing and buildings “Scaling up efforts of making the housing stock of developing countries more environmentally friendly can make a great difference in terms of climate change mitigation and adaptation as well as improve quality of life and human wellbeing.” Emma-Liisa Hannula
  108. 108. CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE Section 6 Major initiatives related to climate change and cities6
  109. 109. Climate change Providing data Sharing best practices Advocating for action Making commitments Supporting international processes How cities are taking action on climate change
  110. 110. CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE City commitments on climate change
  111. 111. World Summit Climate & Territories Declaration Compact of Mayors Nantes Declaration Durban Adaptation Charter Global Cities Covenant – the Mexico City Pact Etc … Commitments by cities and local governments on climate change
  112. 112. COP23
  113. 113. “Cities are the drivers of progress and innovation, and through the Compact of Mayors, they can help nations set new, aggressive climate targets over the next year.” Michael R. Bloomberg, UN Special Envoy for Cities and Climate Change The Compact of Mayors
  114. 114. C40 ICLEI UCLG Examples of city and regional networks
  115. 115. C40 Examples of action: Cool cities network Bus rapid transit network • 75 of the world’s largest cities • 550 million people • ¼ of global economy C40 - Cities Climate Leadership Group
  116. 116. Examples of action: ICLEI A network of over 1000 cities, towns and metropolises committed to sustainable urban future carbonn Climate Registry Transformative Actions Program ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability
  117. 117. UCLG • 1000 member cities and regions • 155 national member associations • Present in 140 countries UCLG - United Cities and Local Governments
  118. 118. Conclusion 1. Climate change is happening and the impacts are and need urgent, systemic and transformative actions 2. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): climate change adaptation, mitigation, finance, technology and capacity building. 3. Cities/urbanizations are the driver for but also place for actions for climate change 119

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