Knowledge Management Lecture 3: Cycle

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Slidedeck describing knowledge management cycle models: Zack, Bukowitz and Williams, McElroy and Wiig.

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Knowledge Management Lecture 3: Cycle

  1. 1. 3. Knowledge Management CycleKnowledge Management Introduction Stefan Urbanek 2008 Lecture Slides stefan.urbanek@gmail.com http://stiivi.com Stiivi
  2. 2. Four Models* Get Asses Use acquire refine store distribute present Knowledge Build/Sustain Learn Contribute Divest Zack Bukowitz and Williams 1996 1996 Knowledge Processing Environment Knowledge Knowledge Production Integration Organizational Knowledge Build Hold Pool Apply double loop learning beliefs and claims perform tasks obtain remember coordinate survey analyze accumulate in assemble select reconstruct repositories reconstruct observe Business beliefs and claims synthesize embed in synthesize synthesize Processing codify repositories access evaluate Environment single loop learning model archive retrieve decide organize implement Distributed Organizational Knowledge Base McElroy Wiig 2003 1993*clickable, ❖☚ returns here ☛ book p. 26
  3. 3. Effective KMidentify, generate, acquire, diffuse and captureclear distinction must be made betweeninformation and true knowledge assets
  4. 4. Meyer and Zack 1996❖☚
  5. 5. Research and knowledge about the design of physical products can be extended into the intellectual realm to serve as the basis for a knowledge management cycle.❖☚ ☛ book p. 26
  6. 6. Platforms product platform knowledge repository information process platform knowledge refinery❖☚
  7. 7. Information Unit formally defined atom of information to be stored retrieved manipulated❖☚
  8. 8. Meyer and Zack acquire refine store distribute present sources users analyze, calls and interpret, surveys report edit and format interactive indexed and decompose, selection of linked via web and index, link knowledge knowledge groupware units units❖☚
  9. 9. Acquisition issues of raw materials scope, breadth, depth, credibility, accuracy, timelines, relevance, cost, control and exclusivity “garbage in, garbage out” data has to be in highest quality acquire refine store distribute present❖☚
  10. 10. Refinement primary source of added value physical refinement moving between mediums logical refinement restructuring, (re)labeling, indexing and integrating cleaning up / sanitizing content acquire refine store distribute present❖☚
  11. 11. Storage and Retrieval bridge from acquisition and refinement to product generation physical folders, printed information digital database knowledge management software acquire refine store distribute present❖☚
  12. 12. Distribution how information is delivered to end users fax, print, email, publication on a web page timing, frequency, form, language,... acquire refine store distribute present❖☚
  13. 13. Presentation context plays important role users have to have enough context to be able to make use of a content acquire refine store distribute present❖☚
  14. 14. Bukowitz and Williams 2000❖☚
  15. 15. Bukowitz and Williams Get Asses Use Knowledge Build/Sustain Learn Contribute Divest❖☚ ☛ book p. 32
  16. 16. Get seek out needed information for decision making, problem solving or innovation think of information overload user needs must be well understood know where knowledge resources exist Get Asses Use Knowledge Build/Sustain❖☚ Learn Contribute Divest
  17. 17. Use how to combine information in new and interesting ways to foster organizational innovation focus on individuals and then on groups Get Asses Use Knowledge Build/Sustain❖☚ Learn Contribute Divest
  18. 18. Learn learning from experiences means of creating competitive advantage creation of organizational memory best practices and lessons learned transition between application and generation Get Asses Use Knowledge Build/Sustain❖☚ Learn Contribute Divest
  19. 19. Contribute getting employees to post what they have learned making knowledge visible and available sharing Get Asses Use Knowledge Build/Sustain❖☚ Learn Contribute Divest
  20. 20. Assess evaluation of intellectual capital definition of mission-critical knowledge map of current intellectual capital against future knowledge needs requirements for new set of processes Get Asses Use Knowledge Build/Sustain❖☚ Learn Contribute Divest
  21. 21. Build/Sustain allocation of resources to growth and maintenance of knowledge creation of new knowledge reinforcement of existing knowledge Get Asses Use Knowledge Build/Sustain❖☚ Learn Contribute Divest
  22. 22. Divest identification of obsolete knowledge knowledge that gives no value any further examination of resources required to maintain knowledge redeploying, outsourcing or terminating Get Asses Use Knowledge Build/Sustain❖☚ Learn Contribute Divest
  23. 23. McElroy 2003❖☚
  24. 24. Knowledge is held... subjectively objectively in minds of individuals and groups in explicit forms❖☚ ☛ book p. 35
  25. 25. Knowledge use in business-processing environment matched expectations reinforcement of existing knowledge leads to reuse double-loop learning failed to match expectations adjustments in business processing behavior single-loop learning❖☚
  26. 26. McElroy Cycle Knowledge Processing Environment Knowledge Knowledge Production Integration Organizational Knowledge double loop learning beliefs and claims Business beliefs and claims Processing Environment single loop learning Distributed Organizational Knowledge Base❖☚ ☛ book p. 36
  27. 27. Knowledge Production Process Individual and Group Learning Knowledge Claim Evaluation surviving? Formulate Problem Knowledge Claim Claim Formulation falsified? codified knowledge claim undecided? Information Acquisition❖☚
  28. 28. Knowledge Integration introduction of new knowledge claims to organization’s operating environment retirement of old knowledge claims❖☚
  29. 29. Validation Validation of knowledge is a step that clearly distinguishes knowledge management from document management. The KM cycle focuses on processes to identifyknowledge content that is of value to the organization and its employees.❖☚
  30. 30. Wiig 1993❖☚
  31. 31. Wiig Conditions organization must have ... business and customers products and services resources people, capital and facilities ability to act❖☚ ☛ book p. 38
  32. 32. Knowledge... … is the principal force that determines and drives the ability to act intelligently❖☚
  33. 33. Four Steps Build Hold Pool Apply perform tasks obtain remember coordinate survey analyze accumulate in assemble select reconstruct repositories reconstruct observe synthesize embed in synthesize synthesize codify repositories access evaluate model archive retrieve decide organize implement❖☚ ☛ book p. 39, 42
  34. 34. Building Knowledge obtain knowledge analyze reconstruct/synthesize codify organize❖☚
  35. 35. Obtaining Knowledge research and development projects innovations by individuals experimentation reasoning with existing knowledge hiring new people❖☚
  36. 36. Knowledge Analysis extracting – from obtained material (transcripts, identify themes) abstracting – from model or a theory identifying patterns – trend analysis explaining relations between knowledge fragments verifying – that meaning has not been corrupted through summarizing ☛ remember the “One Example” from lecture !2❖☚
  37. 37. Synthesis or Reconstruction generalization of analyzed material to obtain broader principles generating hypotheses establish conformance between new and existing knowledge update knowledge pool incorporate new knowledge❖☚
  38. 38. Codifying and Modeling accord with mental models knowledge should be codified in the way that it would be understandable by employees and will fit employees way of thinking, doing things and interpreting things how knowledge is assembled how knowledge is documented❖☚
  39. 39. Organization of Knowledge … for specific uses and according to an established organizational framework ? classes? hierarchy? FAQ list? …?❖☚
  40. 40. Holding remembering knowledge has been internalized or understood accumulating knowledge has been encoded and stored in a knowledge base embedding knowledge becomes part of procedure manual archiving creating a library, systematically retiring out-of-date or not relevant knowledge❖☚
  41. 41. Pooling coordination of knowledge formation of collaborative teams “who knows what” network assembly into background references 1+1 = ? 2 access and retrieval be able to consult with knowledgeable people or knowledge base❖☚
  42. 42. Application anyhow*❖☚ *to increase positive business results
  43. 43. Integrated Cycle❖☚
  44. 44. Integrated Cycle assess capture and sharing and creation dissemination update contextualize acquisition and application❖☚ ☛ book p. 43
  45. 45. “☛ Book” references: Kimiz Dalkir:Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice Elsevier 2005

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